taken off and put in as cuttings. The
place must have the soil removed for a
foot square, fresh soil put in, and anew
healthy plant inserted.
HOLMSKIO'LDIA. (Named after T.
Holmskiold, a Danish botanist. Nat.
ord., Labiates or Lipwarts [Labiacea^].
Linn., 14:-Didynamia 2-Angiospermia.}
Stove evergreens, with scarlet flowers, from
the East Indies. Cuttings of young shoots just
getting firm at the base, in sandy soil, under
glass, and in heat ; sandy peat, and light fibry
loam. Summer temp., 60 to 90; winter, 50
H. Sangui'nea (bloody). 4. 17Q6. Shrub.
sca'ndens (climbing). May. 1824. Climber.
HOMALONE 'JIA. (From homalos, re-
gular, and nemo,, a filament ; in refer-
ence to the regularity of the numerous
stamens. Nat. ord., Arads [Araceee],
Linn., 21-Moncecia 7-Heptandria. Al-
lied to Eichardia.)
Greenhouse herbaceous perennial. Offsets
from the roots, and dividing the plant ; rich
open loam. Winter temp., 40 to 45.
H, corda'ta (heart- leaved). White. June.
HONEY-DEW. See Extravasated Sap.
HONEY-FLOWER. Mella'nth us.
HONEY- GARLIC . Nectarosco'rditm.
HONEY-LOCUST. Gledi'tschia trica'n-
HOOP-PETTICOAT. Narci'ssus bulboco'-
HOOP-ASH. Ce'ltis crassifo'lia.
HORKE'LIA. (Named after J. Horkel,
a German botanist. Nat. ord., Hose-
', worts [Eosacese]. Linn., 10-Decandria
\-Monoyynia, Allied to Potentilla.)
Hardy herbaceous perennial- Seeds and di-<
viding the plant in spring ; common garden
H. conge'sta (croviAed.flowered). 2. White.
August. California. 1826.
HORMI'NUH. (From Iwrmao, to ex-
cite ; its medicinal qualities. Nat. ord.,
Lip worts [Lamiaceee]. Linn., I-Didy-
namia l-Gymnospermia. Allied to Mo-
Hardy herbaceous perennial. Division of the
plant, and seeds in spring; requires a dry
situation, or a damp winter will injure it.
H. Pyrena'icum (Pyrenean). 1. Blue. June.
HORN. See Animal Matters.
HORSE-RADISH. Cochlea' riu Armo-
ra'cia. Delights in a deep, rich soil,
banks of a ditch, &c. Should the ground
require manure, it should be dug in at
the depth at which the sets are intended
to be planted. It is propagated by
sets, provided by cutting the main root
and offsets into lengths of two inches.
The tops, or crowns of the roots, form
the best ; those taken from the centre
never becoming so soon lit for use, or
of so fine a growth. Each set should
have at least two eyes ; for without one
they refuse to vegetate at all For a
supply of the crowns, any inferior piece
of ground, planted with sets six inches
apart and six deep, will furnish from
one to five tops each, and may be col-
lected for several successive years with
little more trouble than keeping them
clear of weeds ; but the times for plant-
ing are in October and February.
Insert the sets in rows eighteen
inches apart each way. The ground
trenched between two and three feet
deep, the cuttings being placed along the
bottom of the trench, and the soil turned
i'rom the next one over them. The
earth ought to lie lightly over the sets ;
[ 401 ]
therefore treacling on the bads should
be carefully avoided. The shoots make
their appearance in. May or June, or
earlier if the sets were planted in
Remove the leaves as they decay in
autumn; the ground being also hoed
and raked over at the same season,
which may be repeated in the following
In the succeeding autumn they
merely require to be hoed as before,
and may be taken up as wanted. By
having three beds devoted to this root,
one will always be lying fallow and im-
proving ; of which period advantage
should be taken to apply any requisite
Takiny up. To take them up a
trench is dug along the outside row
down to the bottom of the roots, which,
when the bed is:continued in one place,
may be cut off level to the original
stool, and the earth from the next row
then turned over them to the requisite
depth ; and so in rotation to the end
of the plantation. By this mode a bed
will continue in perfection for five or
six years ; after which a fresh plantation
is usually necessary, But the best
practice is to take the crop up entirely,
and to form a plantation annually ; for
it not only causes the roots to be finer,
but also affords the opportunity of
changing the site. If this mode is fol-
lowed care must be taken to, raise every
lateral root; for almost the smallest
will vegetate if left in the ground.
HORSE-RADISH TREE. MorVnga.
HORSE-SHOE VETCH. Hippocre'pis.
HOSA'CKIA. (Named after Dr. Ilo-
sack, an American botanist. Nat. ord.,
Leguminous Plants [Fabacere], Linn.,
17-Diadelphia -Decandria. Allied to
Hardy plants, with yellow flowers except
where otherwise mentioned. Suitable for front
of borders and rockworks ; seeds and division
of the plants in spring ; cuttings of perennials
in summer, under a hand-light.
H. subpinna'ta (rather-leafleted) . June. Chili.
Wrangelia'na (Wi angel' 's). June. California.
H. bi'color (two - coloured). . Yellow and
white. August. North America. 1826.
cmssifo'lia (thick-leaved). June. California.
decu'mbens (lying-down). . August. North
parviflo'ra (small - flowered), i- August.
North America. 1827.
Purshia'na (Pursh's). . July. North
stoloni'fera (creeping - rooted). 3. Red.
June. North America. 1830.
HosE-ix-HosE is a form of double
flowers when one corolla is inserted
within the other, as is frequently the
case with the primrose.
HO/STA. (Named after N. T. Host,
a German botanist. Nat. ord., Ver-
benes [Verbenacese]. Linn., 2-Diandria
1-Monoyynia. Allied to Lantana.)
Stove evergreen shrubs, with blue flowers,
from Mexico. Cuttings in sand, under a glass,
in bottom-heat, in spring; peat and loam.
Summer temp., 60 to 80 ; winter, 48 to 55.
H. cceru'lea (sky-blue). 6. July. 1733.
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 6. July. 1824.
longifo'lia (long-leaved). 6. July. 1826.
HOTBED is a bed of earth, or other
material, usually covered by a glazed
frame, and heated artificially, and em-
ployed either for forcing certain vege-
tables, for raising seedlings, or for
striking cuttings. It is heated either
by dung, or leaves, or tan in a state of
fermentation, or by hot water.
Hotbed of Stable Duny : Preparation
of Dung. We will commence with the
dung fresh at the stable door ; the
first thing is to throw it into a close
body to " sweat." Those amateurs who
have plenty, and to spare, will do well
to shake it over loosely, and reject a
portion of the mere droppings ; for
these take the most purifying, and,
moreover, engender an over-powerful,
and sometimes unmanageable heat,
which in unpractised hands is capable
of much mischief. The main bulk of
the material thus thrown together will,
in a week or so, become exceedingly
hot, and must then be turned com-
pletely inside out ; and, in so doing,
every lock or patch which adheres to-
gether must be divided. Water will
now be requisite, and must be regularly
applied as the work proceeds, rendering
every portion equally moist. After the
mass has lain for about four days.
[ 492 ]
longer, it is well to administer a liberal
amount of water on the top ; this will
wash out at the bottom of the heap
much of its gross impurities. In a j
few more days it must be again turned j
inside out, using water if dry in any |
portion, and after laying nearly a week i
it should be almost fit for use, but it is |
well to give it even another turn. If;
any tree leave-;, strawy materials, &c., |
or any simple vegetable matter is to be j
added to the mass, it may be added at
the last turning but one. The heap
ought now to be " sweet," and such
may be readily ascertained even by un-
practised persons, for a handful drawn
from the very interior, arid applied to
the nostrils, will not only be devoid of
impure smell, but actually possess a
somewhat agreeable scent, similar to
the smell of mushrooms.
Beds. All things will now be in
readiness for building the bed, and one
necessary point is to select a spot per-
fectly dry beneath, or rendered so. It
must, moreover, be thoroughly ex-
posed to a whole day's sun ; but the
more it is sheltered sideways the
better, as starving winds, by operating
too suddenly in lowering the tempera-
ture, cause a great waste of material as
well as labour. The ground plan of
the bed, or ground surface, should be
nearly level; a good builder, however,
will be able to rear a substantial bed
on an incline, and such is not a bad
plan, so forming the slope as to have
the front or south side several inches
below the back; the front being with
the ground level, the back, raised above
it. By such means there will be as
great a depth of dung at front as back,
which is not the case when the base is
level ; for then, unluckily, through the
incline necessary for the surface of the
glass, the dung at back is generally
much deeper than the front, at which
latter point most heat is wanted. Good
gardeners not unfrequently use a por-
tion of weaker material at the back,
such as littery stuff, containing little
power as to heat. It is well, also, to
fill most of the interior of the bed,
after building it half a yard in height,
with any half-decayed materials, such
as half- worn linings, fresh leaves, &c. ;
this will, in general, secure it from the
danger of burning, whilst it will also
add to the permanency of the bed.
For winter forcing a bed should be
at least four feet high at the back if
five feet, all the better ; and as soon as
built let some littery manure be placed
round the sides in order to prevent the
wind searching it. As soon as the
heat is well up, or in about four days
from the building of it, the whole bed
should have a thorough watering. It
is now well to close it until the heat is
well up again, when a second and
lighter watering may be applied ; and
now it will be ready for the hills of soil
In making the hills of soil for the
plants, in forcing melons or cucum-
bers, make a hollow in the centre of
each light, half the depth of the bed.
In the bottom of this place nearly a
barrowful of brickbats, on this some
half-rotten dung, and finally a flat
square of turf, on which the hillock is
placed. It is almost impossible for the
roots of the plants to " scorch " with
As the heat declines, linings, or as
they might be more properly called,
coatings, are made use of, which con-
sist of hot fermenting dung laid from
eighteen to twenty -four inches, in pro-
portion to the coldness of the season,
&c., all round the bed to the whole of
its height, and if founded in a trench,
one equally deep must be dug for the
coating, it being of importance to renew
the heat as much as possible through-
out its whole mass ; if, after a while,
the temperature again declines, the old
coating must be taken away, and a si-
milar one of hot dung applied in its
place. As the spring advances, the
warmth of the sun will compensate for
the decline of that of the bed ; but as
the nights are generally yet cold, either
a moderate coating, about nine or ten
inches thick is required, or the mow-
ings of grass, or even litter, may bo
laid round the sides with advantage.
Various structures have been sug-
gested, whereby the heat only of fer-
menting dung is employed, and its
steam is prevented from penetrating
within the frame. One of the best of
these structures, is the following, pro-
posed by Mr. West
D D, chamber in which the dung
is placed, three and a half feet deep,
surrounded by nine-inch brickwork.
One half of this is rilled longitudinally
with dung at the commencement, which,
if kept close shut up, will last twelve or
eighteen days, according to the quality
of the dung. As the heat declines, the
other side is filled, and the temperature
is further sustained by additions to the
top of both as the mass settles. "When
this united heat becomes insufficient,
the side first filled being cleared, the
old manure must be mixed with some
fresh, and replaced, this being repeated
alternately to either heap as often as
necessary. A A, are the doors, two
of which are on each side for the ad-
mission of the dung. They are two and
a half feet square, fitted into grooves
at the bottom, and fastened by means
of a pin and staple at the top. BB, are
small areas sunk in front, surrounded
by a curb of wood; a G G, are bars
passing longitudinally as a guide and
support in packing the dung ; c, repre-
sents a bar of cast-iron, two inches wide
and three-quarters of an inch thick,
placed on the edge of which there is a
row, a foot asunder, across the cham-
ber to support a layer of small Avood
branches and leaves, H, for the pur-
pose of sustaining the soil, K, in the
upper chamber ; E E, represents the
orifices, of which there are a series all
round the pit, communicating with the
flue v i' F, which surrounds the beds ;
the exterior wall of this flue is built
with bricks laid flat, the inner one of
bricks set on edge. The flue is two
inches wide, and, for the sake of
strength, bricks are passed occasionally
3 ] HOT
from side to side as ties. The top of
the flue, and the internal part of the
wall, which rises at the back and front
to the level the earth is meant to stand,
are covered with tiles, over the joints of
which slips of slate, bedded in mortar,
are laid to prevent the escape of the
steam of the dung ; i, represents one
of two plugs, which stop holes left to
regulate the heat and steam as may be
necessary. The outer wall supports
the lights. For the convenience of
fixing the dung, it is best to fill the
half of the chamber at the commence-
ment, before the branches, mould, &c. ,
are put in.
Hot Water Beds. If hot water be
the source of heat, the following sketch
of the bed and frame employed by Mr.
Mitchell, at Worsley, is about the best
that can be employed. The objects
kept in view when it was constructed,
were 1st. A circulation of air without
loss of heat. 2nd. A supply of moist-
ure at command, proportionable to the
temperature. 3rd. A desirable amount
of bottom-heat. 4th. A supply of ex-
ternal air (when necessary) without
producing a cold draught.
The method by which the first of
these is accomplished, will be under-
stood by referring to the section, in
which a is the flow-pipes, bb b the re-
turn-pipes in the chamber A. It is
evident that, as the air in the chamber
becomes heated, it will escape upwards
by the opening c, and the cold air from
the passage B will rush in to supply its
place; but the ascending current of
heated air coming in contact with the
glass, is cooled, descends, and entering
the passage B, passes into the chamber
A, where it is again heated ; and thus a
constant circulation is produced. In
order to obtain the second object, to
some extent are combined the tank
and pipe systems. The flow-pipe a is
put half its diameter into the channel
c, which, when tilled with water (or so
far as is necessary), gives off a vapour,
exactly proportionable to the heat of
the pipe and pit.
The third requisition is produced by
the surrounding atmosphere and heat-
ing materials. The fourth is accom-
plished simply by lowering the upper
sash ; the cold air thus entering at the
top only, falls directly into the passage
B, and passes through the hot chamber
before coming in contact with the
plants. When the heat in the chamber
is i)5, in the open space over the bed
it is 71; in the bottom of the passage
only 60 ; and in the mould in the bed
it is 80. The amount of vapour is
regulated with the greatest facility, even
from the smallest quantity to the great-
est density. Gard. Chron.
HOTHOUSE. See Stove.
HOTTENTOT BREAD. Diosco'rca.
HOTTENTOT CHEEKY. Cassi'ne mau-
HOTTENTOT FIG, Mesembrya'ntke-
HOTTO'NIA. Water Violet. (Named
after P. Hotton, a Dutch botanist.
Nat. ord., Primcworts [Primulaceffi].
Linn., -Pentandria I-Monogynia.)
A hardy aquatic or marsh plant. Divisions
in spring ; ponds or ditches.
H. palu'stris (marsh). 1. Flesh. August.
HOT WAIX is a hollow wall, the in-
terior air being so heated by flues or
hot water as to keep the bricks of
which its faces are composed so warm
as to promote the ripening of the wood
and fruit trained against them. See
HOT WATER as a source of heat for
gardening purposes is preferable to any
other for large strucuires. In these it
is less expensive, and in all it is more
manageable and less troublesome than
any other. See Grcaikousi , Hotbed ', and
HOUJ.LK'TI.Y. (Named after M.
Honllct, a French gardener. Nat. ord.,
Orchids [Orchidacea?]. Linn.,
nandria \-Monandria. Allied to Stan-
Stove orchids. Division of the plant ; peat,
broken pots, charcoal, and rotten wood ; plants
elevated above the pot, or in a -shallow basket.
Summer temp., 60 to 90 ; winter, 50 to 60.
H. Brocklehurstia'na (Mr. Brocklehurst's). 2.
Brown, yellow. June. Brazil. 1841.
vitta'ta (striped). 1. Brown, yellow. June.
HOUND'S TONGUE. Cynoglo'ssum.
HOUSTO'NIA. (Named in honour of
Dr. TV. Houston, an English botanist.
Nat. ord., Cinchonads [Cinchonacece].
Linn., -i-Tetrandria 1-Monogynia.')
Hardy herbaceous perennials from North
America, Division in spring ; sandy loam and
peat ; beautiful for small beds and rockworks.
This genus should be added to Bouvardia.
H. ulbiflo'ra (white-flowered). White. June.
ceeru'lea (blue). . Blue. June. 1/85.
cilia' ta (hair-fringed). Whitish. July.
longifo'lia (loner-leaved). $. Scarlet.
purpu'rea (purple). 1. Purple. July. 1800.
serpyllifo'lia(\VM-thyms- leaved). $. White.
tene'lla (tender). Purple. May. 1812.
HOUTTUV'NIA. (Named after Dr.
Houttiiyn,. of Amsterdam. Nat. ord.,
Siiuninids [Saururacero], Linh., 3-
Herbaceous greenhouse marsh plant from
Japan, with yellowish green flowers. Seeds, or
dividing the plant in spring ; peat and loam,
kept moist, and the plant a little shaded.
Winter temp., 40 to 50. H. corda'ta is really
H.fte'tida (fetid). . July. 1800.
HO'VEA. (Named after A. P. Hove,
a Polish botanist. Nat. ord., Leyu-
ininoiis Phtiiis. Linn., \Q-MotK id elphla
6-Decandrla. Allied to Lalage.)
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs from New Hol-
land, with purple flowers except where other-
wise mentioned. Seeds, which should be sown
in a hotbed, and moistened in warm water
before sowing; cuttings of young side-shoots
in April or May, in sand, under a bell-glass,
and kept in a close frame ; sandy peat, with a
very little fibry loam, and pieces of charcoal,
and freestone, or small pieces of pounded
bricks. Winter temp., 40 to 48, with plenty
of air ; in summer they should be a little shaded
from bright sunshine.
H. Ce'lsii (Cels's). 4. Blue. June. 1818.
cri'spa (curled). 2. February. 183/.
elli'ptica (oval-leaved). 3. April. 1817.
ilicifo'lia (Holly-leaved). 3. April. 1844.
lunceola'ta (spear-head-/eawrf). 3. May.
lutifo'liu (broad-leaved). 3. June. 1820.
H. linea'ris (narrow-/eaed) . 3. July. 1796.
longifo'lia (long-leaved). 3. July. 1805.
Mangle 'sii (Captain Mangles's). 1. January.
mucrona'ta (sharp-pointed). 4. May. 1824.
panno'sa (ragged). 3. May. 1824.
pu'ngens (pungent). Blue. 1837.
. ma'jor (larger). Blue. May. 1841.
purpu'rea (purple). 3. June. 1820.
racemulo'su (spikeletted). 2. May. 1842.
rosmarinifo'lia (Rosemary-leaved). 3. Blue.
aple'ndens (shining). 2, Blue. March.
trispe'rma (three-seeded). Vermilion. May,
villosa (shaggy). 3. Lilac. April. 1829.
HOYE'NIA. (Named after D. Hoven,
a Dutch senator. Nat. ord., Hhamnads,
[Khamnacere], Linn., 5-Pentandria
l-Monogynia. Allied to Alaternus.)
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, with white
flowers. Cuttings of ripe young shoots, in
sand, under a glass ; sandy loam and a little
peat. Winter temp., 40 to 45. H. didcis has
stood against a wall in the Horticultural and
Kew Gardens, with a little protection.
H. du'lcis (sweet). 8. July. Japan. 1812.
ineequa'lis (unequal). 10. Nepaul. 1820.
HOY'A. Honey Plant. (Named after
Mr. Hoy, once gardener at Sion-house.
Nat. ord.. Asclepiads [Asclepiadacese].
Linn., b-Pentandria S-Diyynia.)
Stove evergreen twiners. Cuttings inserted
in almost any open soil, and plunged in a moist
heat, root quickly; even the leaves will root,
and soon produce a plant) peat and loam, with
a considerable portion of little pieces of pounded
bricks and lime rubbish. They flourish best in
the temperature of the stove, and full exposure
to the sun ; but in winter they should be kept
rather dry, and in the temperature of a warm
greenhouse 45, 50, or even lower.
H. atropurpu'rea (dark -purple). Brownish
purple. September. Java. 1848.
anstra'lis (southern). White. New Holland.
be'lla (beautiful). l. White, purple.
Taung Kola. 1847.
campanula! to. (bell-fiouiered') . Green, yellow.
May. Java. 1845.
carno'sa (fleshy-teamed). 10. Pinkish, white.
July. Asia. 1802.
-fo'liis - variega'tis ( variegated -
leaved). 10. Pink. July,
Cinnamonifo' Ha (cinnamon-leaved). 10. Pale
green. July. Java. 1847.
curia' cea (leathery). 2. White, yellow;
August. Manilla. 1838.
crassifo'tia (thick-leaved). 10. China. 1817.
fruticu'sa (shrubby). 1848.
fu'sca (dark-brown). Brownish. Sylhet.
imperia'lis (imperial). 20. Scarlet. June.
pa'llida (pale). 6. White. July. East
ovalifo'lia (oval-leaved). Pinkish yellow.
' July. East Indies. 1840.
j H. parasi'tica (parasitical). Yellow. East In-
Po'tsii (Pots's). 10. Yellow. East Indies.
trine'rvis (three-nerved). 10. Yellow. July.
The tAvo last are probably varieties
of H. carno'sa.
HTJDSO'NIA. (Named after W. Hud-
son, F. R. S., author of the Flora An-
glica. Nat. ord., Bock Roses [Cistacese].
Linn., ll-Dodecandria \-Monogynia.
Allied to Heh'anthemum.)
Half-hardy evergreens from North America,
with yellow flowers. Generally by layers in
spring and autumn, and cuttings, in sand,
during summer, under a hand-light ; sandy
peat, and a moist situation. They require a
little protection in winter, and may be placed
in a pit. Unlike any other group of the order
the foliage more resembles a Heath than a
H. ericoi'des (Heath-like). 1. June. 1805.
JVtta'ti (Nuttall's). 1. July.
tumento'sa (downy). 1. May. 1826.
HUE'RNIA. (Named after J. Hxcr-
nius, a collector of Cape plants. Nat.
ord., Asclepiads [ Asclepiadaceee] . Linn.,
5-Pentandria 2-Diyynia. Allied to
Greenhouse evergreen succulents, from the
Cape of Good Hope. Cuttings in spring, well
dried before inserting, or dividing the plant
after flowering ; sandy loam, and a little peat,
leaf-mould, and lime rubbish ; plenty of water
when growing and flowering, but dry, or nearly
so, during the winter. Summer temp., 60 to
85 ; winter, 45 to 50.
H. barba'ta (bearded). 4. White striped. Au-
clavi'gera (club-bearing). . Yellow striped.
fri'spa (curled). $.
hu 1 milis (humble). ^. Yellow striped. Sep-
lentigino'sa (freckled). A. Yellow striped.
ocella'ta (eyed). }. Yellow striped. Sep-
reticula'ta (netted). . Pink striped. Au-
venu'sta (graceful). . Yellow striped.
HUGE'LIA. (Named after Baron
Huyel, of Vienna. Nat. ord., Phlox-
worts [Polemoniaceee]. Linn.j b-Pen-
tandria \-Monoyynia. Allied to Gilia.)
Hardy annuals from California. Seeds sown
in open border, in March ; common garden soil.
H. densifio'ra (crowded-flowered). . Blue.
elonga'ta (lengthened). J. Blue. June. 1833.
lana'ta (woolly), f. Light blue. July.
[ UMJ ]
H, tu'tea (yellow). . Yellow. June. 1833. |
virga'ta (twiggy). . Blue, June. 1833.1
HUMA'TA. (Probably from humatus,
interred ; the stems being deep in the j
earth. Nat. ord., Polypods [Polypo-
diacese]. Linn., 2-L-Cryptoyamia 1-
Stove ferns, with brownish yellow spores.
Division ; peat and loam. See Ferns.