rotu'nda (round- rooted}. \. Red, white.
July. East Indies. 1764.
KAGEXK'CKIA. (Named after Count
KfujfHcck, a patron of botany. Nat.
ord., Roneicorfs [Eosacete]. Linn., l'-2-
Icosrtn dria '2-Pentagyn ia. )
Half-hardy evergreen trees, from Chili, with
white flowers. Cuttings of rather ripe shoots,
in sand, under a bell-glass ; probably also by
grafting on some rosaceous plant, as the Haw-
thorn ; loam, with a little sandy peat. Winter
temp., 35 to 45. Crateegoides has stood for
years against a conservative wall in the Chis-
wick Gardens, and produced fruit there in 1837.
The male flowers are in clusters ; the female
flowers are solitary.
A', cratagoi'des (Hawthorn-like). 6rt. 1831.
oblo'nga (oblong-teaeerf). 30. June. 1830.
KAT.AXKO'K. (From the Chinese
name of one of the species. Nat, ord.,
[Crassulacea 1 ]. Linn., S-
ia - Allied to
Stove succulent evergreens. Cuttings dried
at their base soon root in sandy loam, in a
little heat ; sandy loam. Summer temp., 60
to 8(, and abundance of water when growing
apd flowering. Winter temp., 45 to 55, and
A', nrutiflo'ra (acute-flowered). 2. White.
August. East Indies. 1806.
JKgypti'ucu (Egyptian). 2. Yellow. July.
ceratophff'lta (horn-leaved). 2. Yellow.
July. China. 1820.
n-ena'tti (scolloped). 2. Yellow. August.
Sierra Leone. 1 793.
lacinia'ta (cut-leaved). 2. Yellow. July.
East Indies. 1781.
rotnndifo'Iia (round -leaved). 2. White.
July. Cape of Good Hope. 1820.
spatnlii'bi (spatulate). 2. Yellow. July.
va'rians (variable). Yellow. July. East
and gradually inured to the open air ; sandy
peat soil is best, though they often thrive well
in sandy loam avid leaf mould ; good for forcing.
A*, ttitgiisfiffi'lin (narrow-leaved). 3. June.
- fo'liis variega'tis (variegated-
leaved). 2. June.
mi'nimu (least). 2. June.
nii'na (dwarf). 2. June.
ova'ta (egg-/tm<ed). 2. June.
pu'mila (dwarf). 2. June.
ro'sca (rosy). 3. June.
ri(' bra (red-flowered). 3. June.
cunea'ta (wedge-ftocerf). 2. White, red.
glau'cal milky-green). 2. Purple. April.
- rosmarintfo'Ka (Rosemary-leaved). 2.
Jiirsu'ta (hairy). lj. August. 1/80.
lutifo'liu (broad-leaved). 8. June. 1734.
KAI.OSA'NTHES. A synonyme of Ro-
che n, and now erroneously applied to
Crasiwla coccinca and its varieties. See
KAXOUIUJ A'INE. Ci'ssns (mto'rcticu*.
KAiiKu'iMA. (Derivation not ex-
plained. Nat. ord., Civmposilcs [Aste-
racere]. Linn., Ii)-Syn<jcnesia 2- Super -
Hardy herbaceous. Divisions of the plant, in
the spring; common garden soil.
A". Ca'spia (Caspian). Purple. August. Caspia.
KAIT i r'ssiA. (Named after/''. Kaiil-
/'H.S-.S, M.D. Nat. ord., Corftposites [As-
teruccn 1 ,]. Linn., iy-&>/iin<.'iu'xia 2-Sn-
KA'LUIA. (Named after Peter Knlm,
a Swedisli botanist. Nut. ord., Ilailh-
worfs [Ericacea']. Liun., l()-l)i'camlria
1-Monoyynia. Allied to A/alea.)
Hardy evergreens, all frorn North America,
and all red-flowered, except where specified.
Ky nuttings of young shoots, in sandy peat, in
a shady place, under hand-lights ; by layers }
made at the end of summer ; by seeds sown in I
shallow pans filled with sandy peat, and kept I
close in a frame until the seedlings are up, r
pricked ott when fingerable, kept close again, :
Hardy annuals. Seeds in the flower-border,
in April, or in a slight hotbed, in March, and
transplanted afterwards. The last method is
K.eesculifo'lin. (Chesnut - leaved). Brown,
yellow. June. Isle of Leytc.
amelloi'des (Ainellus-like;. 1. Blue. July.
Cape of Good Hope. 1819.
Kr,i, i' is the ash remaining after sea
Aveed is burnt, and has heeu vised with
great advantage as a manure to potatoes,
hroooli, and other species of cabbage
worts. It is composed of carbonate of
soda, and iodide and bromide of potas-
sium, carbon, sulphates of lime _and
magnesia, and other matters of trivial
importance. See Green Manure.
KKNN r/i >YA. ( N anic,d after Mr. Keu-
n<-<lt/,ui' the 1'mn of I -CM- and Kennedy,
imrseryinc-n. Xat. ord., L^mniiious
Plants [Fabaceoj]. Linn., ll-IHadtl-
Greenhouse evergreen twiners from New
Holland. Cuttings of short side shoots getting
firm, in April and May, in sand, over sandy
[ 525 ]
peat, under a bell-glass, kept close for a fort-
night, and then put into a little extra heat;
peat and sandy loam. Winter temp., 40 to
48, and most of them like a little shade in
summer. All the species, also, may be easily
propagated by seeds, which, after being soaked
in warm water for a few hours, may be sown in
sandy soil, and placed in a hotbed.
K.cocci'nea (scarlet). 10. Scarlet. June. 1803.
Comptonia'ria (Compton's). 13. Blue.
heferojjJty'lla (variable-leaved). 4. 1824,
inophy'lla (nerve-leaved). 4. Scarlet. June.
macrophy'lla (large-leaved). 15. Purple.
Marrya'ttai (Mrs. Marryatt's). 4. Scarlet.
monophy'lla (simple-leaved). 10. Purple.
-. longiracemo'sa (long - racemed) .
3. Pink. 1828.
ni' grit-ana (dark - corollaed). 3. Purple,
green. March. 1832.
ova'ta (egg-leaved). 6. Purple. June. 1818.
purviflo'ra (small-flowered). 4. 1824.
prostru'ta (prostrate). 4. Scarlet. April.
mi'nor (smaller). Red. June.
rubicu'nda (red). 10. Dark red. June.
seri'cea (silky). 4. Scarlet. May. 1824.
Sterli'ngii (Stirling's). 3. Scarlet. May.
KENTROPHY'LIYUM. (From kentron, a
spine, and phyllon, a leaf; literally,
spine-leaved. Nat. ord., Composites
[Asteracese]. Linn., IQ-Synyenesia :5-
Hardy annuals, except arborescens, which is
a half-hardy evergreen shrub. Seed, in April,
but better still in a hotbed in March, and trans-
planted in May. Cuttings of the young snoots
of arborescenti, under a hand-light, in spring;
common garden soil.
H. iirbore'scens (shrubby). 6. Yellow. Au-
gust. Spain. 1/31.
Cre'tica (Cretan). 2. White. June. Candia.
luwi'ta (woolly). 2. Yellow. July. South
Tau'rica (Taurian). 2. Yellow. June. Cau-
KENTUCKY COFFEE TREE. Gymno'-
KE'RRIA. (Named after M. Kurr,
once superintendent of the botanic
garden, Ceylon. Nat. ord., Roseirorts
[Rosacete]. Linn., l'2-Icosanciria 3-
Trii/ynia. Allied to Spiraea.)
Hardy deciduous shrub, with yellow flowers,
from Japan, formerly called Cm-chorus Jn-
jionii'iis. Cuttings of the young shoots, under
a hand-light ; layers, and division of the plant ;
K. Jupo'nica (Japanese). 3. Blooms through
flu' re pie 1 no (double-flowered). 6.
KIDNEY BEAN. Pluise'olus vulga'ris.
Varieties. There are three kinds
the Runners, or twining varieties ; the
Dwarfs ; and the Skinless, or Mange-
tout. ' These last, and the runners,, cure
those most commonly cultivated, being
eaten pod and seed together, whilst
of others only the seeds are eaten.
Runners* Large Running White,
White Long Pod, Dutch Case Knife,
Long White, or La rye White Sugar. A
good bearer, and one of the best for
Sabre. Seeds white. This is perhaps
the best of all, being a good bearer,
and its pods of great length and size.
Tliis sort grows very high.
Prudhommc, or Prodommet. Seeds
greyish, oval, and small. There is a
yellow variety of this.
Prague, or Red Pea. Seeds round,
of a violet colour. A moderate bearer,
Prague Hicohr. Similar to the last,
seed a little larger. A good bearer,
but very late.
Sophie. Like the Prague, but Seeds
whiter and larger. A moderate bearer,
Small White French Runner. White
seeds, oblong, and very thin. It is a
good bearer, but is too tender to ripen
J its seeds in this country, except under
a wall in a very warm situation.
Lima. Seeds very large, thick, and
of a dirty white ; pods large, short,
slightly rough, and wrinkled. Prolific,
and the seeds are very mealy; but in
this climate a crop can only be obtained
by forwarding the plants in a hotbed,
and planting them out singly in May.
It is eaten both in a green state and
sht'llt'd. It grows high.
reiietian Sugar. Resembling Lima,
the principal difference consisting in
the seeds being flatter, larger, and
speckled with red. An abundant bearer,
but must be used young.
Pule Turkey, or Scarlet Runner. Of
this there are two varieties distinct
from the common Haricot, one with
I scarlet, the other with wlntfc flowers 5
[ 526 ]
the latter is preferable for culinary
purposes on account of its greater
mealiness and thinner skin. There is
also a third variety with two-coloured
flowers, hut it is not superior to either
of the above. A good bearer, but not-
Dwarf. Dwarf White Dutch, Dutch
Long Pod, or Early Dwarf Dutch. Pods
long, narrow, and excellent when green ;
seeds white, small, a little compressed.
Not very early in this country.
Early White, or Brewer's White.
Seeds white, narrow, rather long, and
cylindrical. It is very dwarf, early, good
for forcing, equally suited for eating
green, and when the seeds are ripe.
Dwarf White Sans-parchemin forms
thick bushy plants. Good whilst green ;
stringless till three parts grown, and
excellent when ripe.
Dwarf American White. Pod short
of a strong and branching habit, some-
times climbing a little, but generally
dwarf, and not requiring support ; very
prolific ; its short, swollen pod a little
hooked, strongly coloured with reddish
brown, particularly at the two extremi-
ties ; this is not in the least stringy.
Of the Haricot Suisse there are
many varieties, of which the principal
are the white, the grey, and the red.
Dwarf Black Spotted. Grown parti-
cularly in the Maine. The Mohawk
from the United States.
Dwarf Red Speckled, Fulner's Spotted
Dwarf, and Long Spotted French. These
have peculiar characters, according to
the length and form of their seeds.
They are all excellent in a green state,
for which they are chielly used.
Dwarf Negro. Used in a green state ;
this rivals the Swiss varieties. This is
one of the best for general use, and an
Haricot Noir de Belyiqtie. Is perfectly
dwarf, and is the earliest which we are
yet acquainted with. Its pods, although
rather pale, are very good in a young
Crimson Runner. Highly esteemed
for stewing when ripe ; seeds red, flat,
Flat Yellow Canada. The most
dwarf, and one of the earliest skinless,
and therefore either good when young
or when full grown ; seeds nearly
round, pale yellow, very good when
dried. A good bearer.
Polish Beans. A prolific sort, excel-
lent either fresh-shelled or dried ; seeds
rather large, roundish, and sulphur-
coloured. There is a sub -variety of it
with clear bronze-coloured seeds, which
also appears to be good. A good bearer
and early. Gard. Chron.
Soil and Situation.. A very light,
mellow, well-drained loam. For the
early and late crops, a sheltered border
must always be allotted, or in a single
row about a foot from a south fence,
otherwise the situation cannot be too
Sowing commences with the year.
They may be sown towards the end of
January in pots, and placed upon the
flue of the hothouse, or in rows in the
mould of a hotbed, for production in
March, to be repeated once every three
weeks in similar situations during
February and March, for supplying the
table during April; a small sowing
may be made if fine open weather,
under a frame without heat, for re-
moval into a sheltered border early in
May. The chief requisites for success
in the hothouse is to have them near
the glass ; to keep them well watered ;
the air moist, and ventilated as much
as the season permits.
During May, and thence until the
first week in August, sowings may be
made once every three weeks. In
September, forcing recommences at
first merely under frames without bot-
tom heat ; October, and thence to the
close of the year, in hotbeds, <fcc. as in
January. Sowing, when a removal is
intended, should always be made in
pots, the plants being less retarded
as the roots are less injured, than
when the seed is inserted in patches or
rows in the earth of the bed. It is a
good practice, likewise, to repeat each
sowing in the frames without heat
after the lapse of a week, as the first
will often fail, when a second, although
after so short a lapse of time will per-
fectly succeed. In every instance the
seed is buried one and a half or two
inches deep. The rows of the main
crops to be two feet apart, the seed
being inserted either in drills or by the
dibble, four inches apart, the plants,
however, to be thinned to twice that
distance. If a vacancy occurs, it may
always be filled by plants which have
been carefully removed by the trowel
from where they stood too thick. The
seed inserted during the hottest period
of summer, should be either soaked in
water for five or six hours, laid in damp
mould for a day or two, or the drills be
well watered previously to sowing.
The pods of both lands are always
to be gathered while young, by thus
doing, and care being had not to injure
the stems in detaching them, the plants
are rendered prolific and long lived.
Forcing. The hotbed must be of
moderate size, and covered with earth
nine inches thick. When the heat has
become regular, the seed may be in-
serted in drills a foot apart, and the
plants allowed to stand six inches
asunder in the rows. Air must be ad-
mitted as freely as to the melon. The
same precautions are likewise neces-
sary as to keeping up the temperature,
taking the chill off the water, c., as
for that plant. When the seed begins
to sprout, the mould should be kept
regularly moistened ; and when grown
up, water may be given moderately,
three times a week. The temperature
should never be less than 60, nor
higher than 75.
Those sown under frames in March
for transplanting into a border, when
two or three inches in height, must in
a like manner be hardened gradually
for the exposure, by the plentiful ad-
mission of air, and the total removal of
the glasses during fine days. If any
are raised in pots in the hothouse, they
must, in a like manner, be prepared for
the removal, by setting them outside
in fine days, and there watering them
with cold water.
If the season is too ungenial to re-
move them even to a warm border,
the plants are often inserted in patches,
to have the protection of frames or
hand-lights at night, or as the weather
Runners. As these are more tender,
and the seed is more apt to decay,
than those of the dwarfs, no open
ground crop must be inserted before
early in May, to be continued at inter-
vals of four weeks through June and
July, which will insure a supply from
the middle of this last month until
They are so prolific and such per-
manent bearers, that three open ground
sowings of a size proportionate to the
consumption, will, in almost every in-
stance, be sufficient.
They are inserted in drills, either
singly, three feet apart, or in pairs ten
or twelve inches asunder, and each pair
four feet distant from its neighbour.
The seed is buried two inches deep,
and four apart in the rows, the plants
being thinned to twice that distance.
If grown in single rows, a row of
poles must be set on the south side of
each, being fixed firmly in the ground,
they may be kept together by having a
light pole tied horizontally along their
tops, or a post being fixed at each end
of a row, united by a cross bar at their
tops : a string may be passed from this
to each of the plants. If the rows are
in pairs, a row of poles must be placed
on each side, so fixed in the ground
that their summits cross, and are tied
If the runners are nipt off as fast as
they appear, the plants become bushy,
and are nearly as prolific as if allowed
To obtain Seed. Forty or fifty plants
of the dwarf kinds, or thirty of the
runners, will be sufficient for a mode-
rate sized family. They must be raised
purposely in May, or a like number
from the crop in that month left un-
gathered from ; for the first pods always
produce the finest seeds, and ripen
perfectly. In autumn, as soon as the
plants decay they must be pulled up,
thoroughly dried, and stored in the
KIELME'YERA. (Named after a Ger-
man patron of botany. Nat. ord.,
Theads [Ternstroemiacese]. Linn., 13-
Stove evergreen tree. Cuttings of young
shoots, getting firm, in sand, under a bell-
glass, and in heat ; fibry sandy loam. Summer
temp., 60 to 75 ; winter, 45 to 55.
K. exce'lsa (tall). 60, White. July, Brazil,
[ -VJ* ] KNO
KIROANE'LTA. (Deriveil from the
Malabar name. Xat. ord.,
[Kuphorbiacerc]. Linn., '-M
Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings of ripe
shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, in a strong,
moist bottom-heat ; fibry loam and sandy peat.
Summer temp., 60 to 85 ; winter, 55 to b'0.
K. e'legans (elegant). 6. July. Mauritius.
Situation. A gentle declination to-
wards the south, with a point to the j
east, is the most favourable aspect ; to !
the north-east the least so : in short,
any point to the south is to be preferred
to one verging towards the north. A
high wall should inclose it to the north
and east, gradually lowering to the south
and west. If, however, a plantation or
building on the east side, at some dis-
tance, shelter it from the piercing winds
which blow from that quarter ; and yet
are at such a distance as not to inter-
cept the rays of the rising sun, it is
much to be preferred to heightening the
Avail. It is a still greater desideratum
to have a similar shelter, or that of a
hill on the south-west and north-west
points. The garden is best situated at
a moderate elevation ; the summit of a
hill or the bottom of a valley is equally
to be avoided. It is a fact not very
difficult of explanation, that low lying
ones are the most liable to suffer from
blights and severe frosts; those much
above the level of the sea are obviously
most exposed to inclement winds.
iy'izr. To determine tho appropriate
sixe of a kitchen garden is impossible.
It ought to be proportionate to the si/e
of the family, their partiality for vege-
tables and the fertility of the soil.
It may serve as some criterion to
state, that themanagement of a kitchen
garden occupying the space of an acre,
atfords ample employment for a gar-
dener, who will also require an assistant
at the, busiest periods of the year. In
general, a family of four persons, ex-
clusive of servants, requires a full rood
of open kitchen garden.
KLEINHO'VIA. (Named after Mr.
Klt:inlt<>J)\ u I.Mitch botanist. Nat. ord.,
Ili/tlncrinils [ Uyttneriaceie.";. Linn.,
W-Mvnq'dclpiuQ '" r '-' '"'" illi ~ 1 '
Stove evergreen tree. Cuttings of ripe young
shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, in heat ;
peat and loam. Summer temp., uU to 90;
winter, 50 to tiO.
A', ho'spita (stranger). 20. Pink. Constant.
KNI'GHTIA. (Named after J. A.
KtiiijhJ, late President of the London
Horticultural Society. Xat. ord., Pro-
leads [Proteacea?}. IA.m\.,-Tftran<lria
l-3foiioyi/>tia. Allied to Grevillea. )
Greenhouse evergreen tree. Cuttings of ripe
shoots, with all the leaves on, except a few at
the base of the cutting, in sandy soil, under a
bell-glass, and removed in a few weeks into a
mild buttoni-heat ; peat, with a little sandy
loam, and a few broken potsherds. Winter
temp., 35 to 45. In summer the pots should
K. exce'lsit (lofty). 10. Flesh. New Zealand.
KNIGHT'S STAR. Hlppe' cat-rum.
KNOL-KOHL, or KOHL-HUBI (Brassica
caulo-rapa), the Turnip-stemmed Cab-
bage. It is sometimes called, also, the
Cape Cabbage. The stem is thick, rises
about eight inches out of the ground, is
swollen into a globular form, very like
a large Swedish turnip growing above,
ground, and is crowned with leaves,
slightly scolloped on the edges, undu-
lated, and milky green, like those of
the turnip we have mentioned. There
are several varieties of it, but the green-
stemmed and the purple-stemmed (es-
pecially the latter) are to be preferred.
It is sweeter, more nutritious, and
more solid than either the Cabbage or
White turnip ; will produce a greater
weight per acre thau the turnip, and
prefers a heavier soil than that root;
is hardier and keeps better than any
other bulb; and imparts very little of
that flavour, either to milk or butter,
known as turnlpy. So .much relished
is it both by cows and sheep, that they
will leave either turnips or cabbages to
partake of it. Hares and rabbits are
so fond of it, that where they abound
Knol-kohlcan scarcely be grown. It is
excellent when boiled lor table. Sow
in tho first week of March, and plant
out in .lime in rows four feet apart, if
the soil is fertile, but only three fret if
the soil is less productive, and three
feet from plant to plant in the rows.
The plants must have the chief part
of thfir stems left 'uncovered by '!,<
[ 501) ]
soil. Two pounds of seed produce !
enough plants for an acre. It is an
excellent crop for cleaning the soil, as
the width between the plants and rows
enables the hoe to be efficiently used,
and during a lengthened period. When
blanks occur, these may be filled up
from the seed-bed with fresh plants.
The produce is from eighteen to twenty
tons, and upwards, per acre ; the bulbs
maybe kept sound and nutritious until
very late in the spring, even much later
than the Swedish turnip.
KNO'XIA. (Named after R. Knox, a
traveller, long resident in Ceylon. Nat.
ord., Cinchonads [CinchonaceffiJ. Linn.,
4- Tetnmdria 1-Monoyynia.}
Stove evergreens. Cuttings of young shoots,
in sand, under a glass, in April or May ; peat
and loam. Summer temp., 00 to 85; winter,
50 to 60.
K. exse'rta (outside-stfamenerf). White. June.
ItE'vis (smooth). Pink. July. Bengal. 1818.
Sutnaff&tisis (Sumatran). White. July.
East Indies. 1818.
te'res (cylindrical-stemmed), White. July,
East Indies. 1820.
Zeyla'nictt (Ceylon). . White. July. Cey-
KOELREUTE'RIA. (Named after Koel-
rciiter, a celebrated German botanist,
the father of hybridizing plants. Nat.
ord., Soapworts [Sapindacese], Linn.,
X-O<:tandriu 1 -Monoyynia.)
Hardy deciduous tree. Cuttings of the root ;
cuttings of the young shoots, under a hand-
light ; seeds in spring ; layers in the end of
summer ; common soil, in a sheltered situation ;
beautiful in its leaves, flowers, fruit, and the
mode of growing, as it gets old.
A', panicula'ta (panicled). 10. Yellow. July.
KOHL-KADI or BUBI. See Knol-lsohl.
KO'NIUA. See Gly'cc.
KO'PSIA. (Named after Professor
Kops. Nat. ord., Dogbanes [Apocy-
naceii.'J. Linn., b-Pcntandria I- Mono-
yynia. Allied to Cerbera.)
Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings of the young
shoots, getting a little firm at their base, in
sand, over sandy soil, and in bottom-heat ;
peat and sandy loam. Summer temp., 60 to
85 ; winter, 50 to 60.
K. frutico'sa (shrubby). Red. May. Pegu.
KRAME'BIA. (Named after the two
Kramers, German botanists. Nat. ord.,
Milkn:orlis [I'olygalaceaa]. Linn., 14-
This is the intensely astringent called Rhat-
any-roots in South America. Stove evergreen
shrub. Cuttings in sand, under a glass, in
heat ; sandy loam and fibry peat. Summer
temp., 60 to 90 ; winter, 48 to 60.
K. pauciflo'ra (few-flowered). 4. Red. Mexico.
KREYSI'GIA. (Named after Kreysty,
a German botanist. Nat. ord., Melantlm
[Melanthacese]. Linn., G-Hcxandria
1-Monoijynia. Allied to Uvularia.)
Greenhouse herbaceous perennial. Division
of the plant, in spring ; light sandy loam ; re-
quires the protection of a cold-pit, or a cool
greenhouse in winter.
K.tnultiflo'ra (many -flowered). 1. Rose,
June. New South Wales. 1823.
KU'HNIA. (Named after Adam Knhn,
an American botanist. Nat. ord., Com-
posites [ Asterace.ee] . Linn., Ift-Synyc-
ncxia 1-jEqualis. Allied to Liatris.)
Herbaceous perennials. Divisions in spring ;
sandy loam ; pretty little plants, the tenderest
require a cold pit, or a greenhouse, in winter.
A'. Crito'nia (Critonia). 1$. White. July.
North America. 1816.
eupatorioi'dcs (Eupatorium - like). l.
White. July. North America. 1812.
A', linearifo'liu (narrow-leaved). Brazil. 1829.
rosmari'nifo'lia (Rosemary-leaved). White.
July. Cuba. 1828.
IVI/NTHIA. (Named after C. S. A'nnt/t,