and then covered about two inches in
thickness with equal parts of leaf-mould
and sand ; they are then well watered,
so as to settle the mould about the
roots ; place them on a shelf near the
glass, in a moist stove or forcing-house,
the temperature of which may range
from 65 to 75, and take care that the
soil does not become dry. When they
are so far advanced that the plants
show their heads of flowers, remove
them into a warm greenhouse, still
placing them near the glass, until as
they advance in growth they are with-
drawn by degrees into a shaded part of
the house, from whence they are re-
moved to the drawing-room as required,
their places to be immediately filled
with others, which are similarly treated,
and thus an ample succession will be
kept up. Care and attention are re-
quisite in lifting and selecting the
plants for forcing ; they require a mi-
nute examination to distinguish those
that will flower from those that will
not, the only difference being that the
buds of the former are more round
and short than those of the latter.
Florist's Jo urn.
LIME. C Virus lime'tta.
LIME is valuable as a manure, for
some one or more of its salts enter
into the composition of every vegetable.
But it is not the lime of every district
that is suitable for the purpose. Some
specimens contain a very large propor-
tion of magnesia, which, absorbing car-
bonic acid very slowly, remains in a
caustic state, to the injury of the roots
of the plants, and the diminution of
benefit from the carbonic acid evolved
by the decomposing constituents of the
soil. Neither can the gardener apply
it to all his soils with advantage. Thus,
peat and bog earth are beneficial to
the plants grown upon them by their
containing Gallic and other acids which
lime removes. To garden soil of the
usual staple about fifty bushels of lime
per acre is a sufficient quantity. If the
soil be clayey the quantity may be
doubled. A very excellent manure is
formed by mixing one bushel of salt
with every two bushels of lime. Lime
cannot be applied to the soil too fresh
from the kiln ; for if allowed to absorb
carbonic acid from the air, it is rapidly
converted into chalk.
When crops are devastated by the slug,
dress them some evening so as to render
the surface of the soil quite white, with
caustic lime, during the promise of a
few days' dry weather. It is instant
destruction to every slug it falls upon ;
[ 553 ]
and those that it misses are destroyed
by their coming in contact with it when
moving in search of food.
Lime rubbish is the old mortar and
plaister obtained when brick -buildings
are pulled down. It is an excellent
manure, abounding with the salts of
potash and lime. It should be reduced
to powder before spreading and digging
LIME, or LINDEN-TREE. Ti'lia.
LIME-LOOPER MOTH. Gcomc'tra.
LIME WATER. To forty gallons of
clean water, half an hour before using,
put one peck of fresh-slaked lime. As
soon as it is clear it is fit for use.
A watering-pot containing four gallons
will water a bed of four feet by thirty
feet, or rows of cauliflowers, cabbages,
&c., of double the length.
LIMNA'NTHES. (From limne, a marsh,
and anthos, a flower. Nat ord., Indian
Cresses [Tropseolacese]. Linn., IQ-De-
Hardy trailing annuals from California.
Seeds, in April, in a moist and shady situation.
L. a'lba (white). . White. July. 1843.
Dougla'sii (Douglas's). 1. Yellow. July.
ro'sea (rosy). . Pink. July. 1833.
LIMNO'CHARIS. (From limne, a marsh,
and chairo, to delight in ; water plants.
Nat. ord., Butoniads [Butoniaceae] .
Linn., 13-Polyandria 1-Monogynia.}
Stove, perennial, yellow-flowered aquatics,
from Brazil. Divisions, runners, and seeds ;
tubs or cisterns, in a stove, or the shallow part
of an aquarium. Summer temp., 60 to 90;
winter, 55 to 60.
L. Humbo ! ldtii(Hv,mboldt'*). 1$. May. 1831.
Plumie'ri (Plumier's). l. July. 1822.
LIMO'NIA. (From limoun, the Arabic
name of the citron. Nat. ord., Citron-
worts [ Aurantiacese] . Linn., 10-Decan-
Evergreens with white flowers. Seeds in a
hotbed, and seedlings grafted the same season,
with the most desired varieties ; cuttings of any
shoots, young or ripened, in spring or summer,
in sandy soil, under glass, and in a few weeks
plunged in bottom-heat; peat, loam, dried cow-
dung, and a few pieces of charcoal. For crc-
nulata, winter temp., 35 to 45; summer, 60
to 80 ; the others will succeed against a wall,
in the south of England, protected in winter ;
and in other districts they require a greenhouse.
L. austra'lis (southern). 25. New Holland.
citrifo'lia (Orange-leaved). 4. China. 1800.
crenula'ta (scolloped-teaved). 4. East In-
L. parviflo'ra (small-flowered). 6. China.
sca'nduns (climbing). 6. China. 1800.
LIMOSE'LLA. Mudwort. (From limns,
mud ; where it grows. Nat. ord., Fig-
ivorts [Scrophulariacese], Linn., 14-
Didynamia 2-Anyiospermia. Allied to
Hardy annual. Seeds in a marsh, or near a
pond, or rivulet.
L. aqua'tica (water). \. Flesh. August. Bri-
LINA'NTHUS. (From linon, flax, and
anthos, a flower. Nat. ord., Phlox worts
[Polemoniacese]. Linn., b-Pentandria
Hardy annual. Seeds, in the open border,
L. dicho'tomus (forked- branched}. l. Pink*
LINA'RIA. Toadflax. (From linon,
flax ; referring to the resemblance of
the leaves. Nat. ord., Figworts [Scro-
phulariacese] . Linn., l-Didynamia 2-
Angiospermia. Allied to Antirrhinum.)
All by seed, at the end of March, and the
perennials also by division, and cuttings of the
young shoots, under a hand-light, in sandy
soil; light sandy loam suits them all. A few
like a cold pit in winter ; they are good rock-
HALF-HARDY HERBACEOUS, &C.
L. Alpi'na (Alpine). 1. Blue. July. Austria.
bipa'rtita (two-parted). . Purple. Au-
gust. Barbary. 1815.
circina'ta (curled-leaved}. . Yellow. June.
North Africa. 1833. Evergreen.
Dalma'tica (Dalmatian). 1$. Yellow. June.
Levant. 1731. Evergreen.
fru'ticam (sprouting) . 1. Yellow. June*
Cape of Good Hope. 1822, Evergreen.
origanifo'lia (Marjoram-leaved). 1. Blue*
August. South Europe. 1785.
reticula'ta (net-flowered). l. Purple. June*
scopa'ria (broom). 1. Yellow. June. Tene-
riife. 1816. Evergreen.
triornitho'phora (three - birds -bearing). 1 .
Purple. August. Portugal. 1710.
vilto'sa (shaggy). 1. Blue. July. Spain.
L. acuti'loba (acute-lobed). ?. Purple.
gust. Siberia. 1825.
cEquitri'loba (equal-threc-lobed). . Purple.
June. Sardinia. 1829.
Cymbala'ria (Cymbalaria). 4> Violet. May.
- - a'lba (white). ?. White. June.
Violet. June. Gardens.
L. pilo'su (hilly-leaved). $. Purple. August.
pube'scens (downy). . Pale. August.
saxa'tilis (rock). $. Yellow. August.
L. galioi'des (Galium-like). 2. Blue. July.
genistatfo'lia (Broom-leaved). 2. Yellow.
July. Austria. 1704.
heterophy'lla (variable-leaved). l. Yellow,
brown. July. North Africa. 1825.
hi'ans (gaping). 1. Yellow. July. South
linifo'lin (Flax-leaved). 1. Yellow. July.
macrou'ra (long-tailed). 1. Yellow. Au-
gust. Crimea. 1822.
margina'ta (margined). Yellowish. August.
Monspessula'na (Montpelier). 3. Blue.
a'lba (white). 3. White.
pro'ceru (tall). 4. Pale blue. July.
purpu'rea, (purple). 1. Purple. August.
South Europe. 1648.
silenifo'lia (Silene - leaved). 3. Yellow.
July. Armenia. 1819-
tri'stis (dark). 1. Brown. July. Spain.
Mtea (yellow). 1. Yellow. August.
veno'sa (veined). Yellow, brown. May.
vulga'ris pelo'ria (common Peloria). 1. Yel-
low. August. Britain.
L. Mgypti'aca (Egyptian). 1$. Yellow, purple.
July. Egypt. 1771.
alsinifo'tia (Alsine-leaved). . Blue. June.
am etWstina (amethystine). 1. Blue, yel-
low. July. Spain. 1/28.
arena' ria (sand), $. Yellow. July. South
arve'nxis (corn). 1. Purple. Blue. July.
bipuncta'ta (two-dotted). 1. Yellow. July.
Canade'nsis (Canadian). 1. Violet. July.
North America. 1812.
Cauca'sica (Caucasian). . Yellow. July.
Chalepe'nsis (Aleppo). 1. White. June.
cirrho'sa (tendrilled). \. Pale blue. July.
crcta'cca (chalky). 1. July. Siberia. 1827-
dealba'ta (whited). ^. Yellow. August.
delphinioi'de* (Larkspur -like). l. Blue.
August. Russia. 1838.
diffu'sa (spreading), $. July. Spam. 1820.
- e/oi'rfiw(Elatiiic-like.i. i- Yellow. Au-
gust. South Europe. 1821.
flu'wi (yellow). . Yellow. July. North
L. tftondM/i'/eratsmall-glanded). Purple. May.
ki'rta (hairy-leaved). 1. Purple. August.
lani'gera (woolly). ^. Yellow. July. Por-
Lose'lii (Losel's). 1. Blue. July. Tauria.
multicuu'lis (many- stalked). l. White.
June. Levant. 1728.
Pclisseria'na (Pelisser's). 1. Violet. Au-
gust. South Europe. 1640.
purpura'scens (purplish). l. Purple. June.
South Europe. 1829- Biennial.
Pyrena'ica (Pyrenean). 1. Yellow. June.
rubrifo'lia (.red-leaved). 1. Blue. June.
South France. 1826.
si'mplex (simple). 1. Purple. July. South
spa'rtea (Broom-like). 1. Yellow. August.
thymlfo'lia (Thyme-leaved). 4. Blue. June.
South Europe. 1818.
n/%'#a (three-leaved). 1. Yellow, purple.
August. Sicily. 1596.
versi' color (various-coloured). 1. Purple,
yellow. August. France. 1777-
mrga'ta (twiggy). . Blue. June. North
visco'sa (clammy). 1. Brown. July. Spain,
LINCO'NIA. (A commemorative name.
N at. ord. , Brttn iads [Bruniacecc] . Linn . ^
b-Pcntandria 2-Digynia. Allied to
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, with white
flowers, from Cape of Good Hope. For culture
L. alopecuroi'dea. (Fox-tall-like). 2. May.
cuspida'ta (pointed4caved). 2. May. 1825.
tliymifo'lia (Thyme-leaved). 2. May. 1825.
LINDLE'YA. (Named after Professor
Llndley. Nat. ord., Rose-worts [Rosa-
cem]. Linn., l'2-Icosndri(t ^ Pent a
!/i/iiift. Allied to Quillaja.
Stove evergreen shrub. By seeds ; ripe cut-
tings under a glass, in bottom heat ; and graft-
ing on the Hawthorn. The same generic
name is applied to very different plants, among
the Theads and Samyds.
L, mespiloi'des (medlar-like). 12. White. July.
LIXDS^.'A. (Named after M. Lind-
say, an English botanist. Nat. ord.,
Ferns [Polypodiacew]. Linn., 24-
Cryptorjam la 1 -Filiccs. )
Ferns with brown spores. For culture sec
L. ttdianioi'tlfx (Maidcn-hair-like). July. Isle
of Luzon. 1840.
conci'nna (neat). July. Isle of Luzon. 1842.
L. cultra'tn (knife-shaped). July. Isle of
decompo'sita (decomposed). July. Malacca.
c' lagans (elegant). July. East Indies. 1840.
falca'tn (sickle-shaped). J. May. Trinidad.
Guiane'nsis (Guianan). May. Guiana. 1845.
oblongifo'lia (oblong -leaved). July. East
rcnifo'rmis (kidney-shaped-Jeaued). July.
ri'gidu (stiff). 1. July. Malacca, 183Q.
stri'cta (upright). July. Malacca. 1839.
te'nera (tender). Malacca.
trtipezaefo'rmis (diamond-shaped) 1. May.
South America. 181Q.
L. linea'ris (narrow - leaved) $. May, New
me'dia (intermediate). 1. May. New
microphy'lla (small-leaved). ^. May. New
LING, or Ling- heather. Callu'na
LININGS, or, as they might be more
properly called, coulinys, are applications
of fermenting clung to renew the heat
in hotbeds made of dung. See Hotbed,
LINN/E'A. (Named after Linmrus.
Nat. ord., Caprifoils [Caprifoliacesc].
Linn., l-i-Didynamia %-Anyiospernua.
Allied to Abelia.)
Hardy trailer. Plants are easily obtained
i'rom it's trailing-rooted stems. It should,
whether in the front of a border, or in a good
sized pot, be grown solely in peat, or heath
soil, kept shady and moist.
L, borea'lis (northern). $. Flesh. June.
LTNO'SYRIS. (Derivation not given.
Nat. ord., Composites [Asteracea?].
Li mi., ] ( .)-8ynycnesia Z-AnQiospermia.
Allied to Chrysocoma. )
Hardy herbaceous perennial. Division of
the plant in spring ; common soil.
L. dirarica'ta (spreading). Yellow. July.
LI'NT-M. Flax. (From //wow, flax.
Nat. ord., Flaxworts [Linacero]. Linn.,
b-Pcntandrla 5-Pcnlnyyn la. )
Annuals and biennials by seed in the open
border in April ; perennials by seed, but prin-
cipally by divisions in Spring, and cuttings of
young shoots, under a hand-light ; hardy
khntbS by cuttings in sandy soil, under a hand-
light in sumnier ; greenhouse shrubs, cuttings
in sand, under a bell-glass ; for the latter, peat
and loam. Winter temp., 38 to 45. Many,
however, such as arbornum, salxoloides, tauri-
cum, &c., will thrive in the border, in the
climate of London, with but little protection.
L. Mthio'picum (JEthiopean). Yellow, June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1771-
Africa' num( African). 1. Yellow. June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1771.
arbo'reum (tree). 2. Yellow. May. Candia.
Cumi'ngi (Cuming's). 3- White. July.
quadrifo'lium (four-leaved). 2. Yellow.
May. Cape of Good Hope. 1787-
suffrutico'sum (sub-shrubby). 1. Pink. Au-
gust. Spain. 1759.
tri'gynum (three-styled). 2. Yellow. June.
East Indies. 1799.
HARDY ANNUALS AND BIENNIALS.
L. au'reum (golden). . Yellow. June. Hun-
Berendie'ri (Berendier's). 2. Yellow, orange.
September. Bijar. 1835. Half-hardy.
bi'color (two-coloured). 1$. Yellow, blue.
June. Morocco. 1820.
ri'gidum (stiff-leaved). 1. Pale yellow.
July. Missouri. 1807.
stri'ctum (erect). 1. Yellow. June. South
Europe. 1759. Biennial.
usitati'ssimum (most -.common. Common
Flax). l. Blue. June. Britain.
L. aafco/oi'des(Salsola-like). 1. Pink. June.
South Europe. 1810.
Tau'ricum (Taurian). lj. Yellow. June.
L, agrc'sfe (field). 2. Lilac. Portugal. 1836.
Alpi'num (Alpine). . Blue. July. Aus-
a'lbum (white). White. July.
Alta'icum (Altaic). 1. Blue. July. Altai.
A'nglicum (English). 2. Blue. June.
a'lbum (white - flowered). 2.
White. June. Gardens.
angustifo' Hum (narrow-leaved). 1. Purple,
ascyrifo'lium (Ascyrum-leaved). 1. White.
June. Portugal. 1800.
Austri'acum (Austrian). 1. Blue. June.
campanula 1 turn (bell-flowered). . Yellow.
July. Europe. 1795.
capita' turn (round-headed). 1. Yellow.
June. Austria. 1816.
Dahu'ricvm (Dahurian). 1. Yellow. June.
decti'mbens (lying-down). l. Red. June.
North Africa. 1817.
diffu'sum (spreading). 4 Blue. June. 1823.
fla'vum (yellow), f. Yellow. July. Aus-
grandifio'rum (large-flowered). 1. Blue.
June. South Europe. 1820.
hirsu'tum (hairy). 14. Blue. July. Aus-
hypericifo'lium (St. John's-wort-leaved). l.
Purple. June. Caucasus, rsi>7.
[ 556 ]
L. Lewi'sii (Lewis's). 3. Blue. June. North
margina'tum (w/ttfe-margined). l. Blue.
mari'tfmtun (sea), 2. Yellow. July. South
Mexica'num (Mexican). June. Mexico.
mono' gynum (united- styled). 2. White.
July. New Zealand. 1832.
monta'num (mountain). 1. Blue. June.
Narbone'nse (Narbonne). 2. Blue. May.
South France. 1759. Half-hardy.
nervo'sum (nerved). l|. Blue. June.
nodiflo'rum (knotted-flowered). . White.
May. Italy. 1759.
palle'scens (palish). 1. Lilac. January.
^-refle'xum (bent-back-/eawed). l. Blue.
July. South Europe. 1777.
Sibi'ricum (Siberian). 2. Blue, June.
squamulo'sum (scaly). l. Blue. July.
tenuifo'lium (slender-leaved). 14. Pink.
June. Europe. 1759.
visco'sum (clammy). 2. Purple. July.
Virginia! num (Virginian). 1. Yellow. July.
North America. 1807.
LION'S EAR. Lcono'tis.
LION'S FOOT. Leontopo' dlum.
LION'S TAIL. Lcono'tis leonu'rus.
LIPA'RIA. (From liparos, unctuous ;
referring to the shining leaves Nat.
ord., Leguminous Plants [Fabacefe].
Linn., 17 -Diadelphia ^-Dccandria, Al-
lied to Priestleya.)
Greenhouse evergreens, with orange flowers,
from Cape of Good Hope. Cuttings of young
shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, but care
taken to prevent damping; fibry loam, and
turfy peat, with sand, and a little charcoal;
watering and draining carefully attended to.
Winter temp., 40 to 48.
L. pa'rva (small). 2. March. 1843.
sphcK'rica (globe-flowered). 4. July. 1/94.
LI'PARIS. (From liparos, unctuous ;
referring to the leaves. Nat. ord., Or-
chid* [Orchidacese]. Linn., 20-Gynan-
Stove orchids. Fibry peat, sphagnum, char-
coal, and broken pots, in shallow, open baskets.
Summer temp., 60 to 90 ; winter, 55 to 60.
There are some hardy terrestrial species not
L.a'nceps (two-edged). Yellowish green.!
di'scolor (two - coloured). Green, brown. \
May. Demerara. 1836.
e'lcgans (elegant). East Indies.
ferrugi'nea (rusty-lipped). Green. January.
flave'scens (yellowish), Yellow. Bourbon.
L.folio'sa (leafy). . Green. September.
prio'chilm (saw - lipped). Orange. July.
purpura'scens (purplish). Purple. Bourbon.
Walke'ria: (Mrs. Walker's). 4. Purple.
LIPO'STOMA. (From leipo, to fall off,
and stoma, mouth ; referring to the lid
of the capsule. Nat. ord., Cinclionads
[Cinchonacese]. Linn., h-Pentandria
\-Monoyynia. Allied to Pentas.)
Stove evergreen trailer. Cuttings of half-
ripened shoots, in sand, under a glass, hi heat ;
turfy loam and fibry peat. Summer temp., 60
to 80; winter, 50 to 55.
L. campanuliflo'ra (bell-flowered), . Blue.
July. Brazil. 1825.
LIQUIDA'MBAR. (From liquidus,
liquid, and ambar, amber ; referring to
the gum called liquid storax produced
by some species. Nat. ord., Liquid-
ambars [Altingiacese]. Linn., 21 -Mo-
Hardy deciduous trees. Cuttings, but layers
chiefly ; also by imported seeds, which should
not be taken out of the catkins until they are
to be sown ; if exposed to sun or fire-heat, the
catkins crack, and the seeds easily shake out.
They often require a year to send up their seed-
lings ; moist loamy soil.
L, imbe'rbe (beardless. Oriental}. 6. March.
styraci'fluu (Storax-flowing. Sweet Gum).
60. March. North America. 1683.
LIQUID MANURE is the most advan-
tageous form in which fertilizers can
be applied by the gardener to his crops.
It is the most economical, most prompt,
and most efficient mode. The manure
is presented to the roots in one of the
only forms in which the roots can
imbibe food, and the manure is spread
regularly through the texture of the
soil. If, instead of digging-in stable-
manure, each crop was watered occa-
sionally with liquid manure, the pro-
duce would be finer and more abundant.
"I have often employed with decided
effect, in my own garden, for vines,
peach, and standard apple trees, liquid
manure, prepared either by mixing one
part by weight of cow-dung with four
parts of water, or the collected drainage
of the stable and cowhouse. It has
been found advantageous to plants cul-
tivated in stoves to apply even a liquid
manure, composed of six quarts of soot
to a hogshead of water ; and although
[ 55T ]
this is a very unchemical mixture, yet
it lias been found by Mr. Kobertson to
be peculiarly grateful and nourishing
to pines, causing them to assume an
unusually deep healthy green ; and, for
stoved mulberry, vine, peach, and other
plants, the late Mr. Knight, of Down-
ton, employed a liquid manure, com-
posed of one part of the dung of do-
mestic poultry and four to ten parts of
water, with the most excellent result."
Johnson on Fertilizers.
Guano Liquid Manure. Ten gallons
of water will readily dissolve, or keep
suspended in a state of minute division,
about 50 Ibs. weight of guano. When
applied to plants, not more than five
ounces should be added to that quan-
tity of water. If it be made stronger,
it injures or kills the plants to which it
Sheep' s-dung, if employed for making
liquid manure, should be a peck to
When cow-dung is used, boiling water
should be first poured upon it, as it is
apt to be full of destructive larva?.
Sulphate of ammonia, and any other
salt of ammonia, must not be used
more than a quarter of an ounce to
The rule applicable to all these
liquid manures is Give it tveak and
LIRIODE'NDRON. Tulip Tree. (From
lirion, a lily, and dendron, a tree ; Nat.
OTtL t Magnoliad8 [Magnoliacese]. Linn.,
\'-\-Polyandria 6-Polygynia. )
Hardy deciduous tree, with yellow and red
flowers, from North America. Generally by
seeds, which, if sown in the autumn, usually
come up the succeeding spring, but if sown in
spring, generally remain a year in the ground ;
varieties by layers, grafting, and budding ; deep,
rich loamy soil.
L. tulipi'fera (tulip-bearing). 60. June. 1663,
obtusifo'lia (blunt-leaved). 60.
LISIA'NTHUS. See Lisya'nthus.
LISSA'NTHE. (From lissos, smooth,
and anthos a flower. Nat. ord., Epacrids
[Epacridacese]. Linn., 5-Penlandria
\-Monotjynia. Allied to Leucopogon.)
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, with white
flowers, except verticillata, and all from New
Holland. Cuttings of the points of shoots, in
April and May, in sand, under a bell-glass;
chiefly sandy fibry peat. Temp., 40 to 45,
when'resting and flowering ; a higher tempera-
ture and a closer atmosphere, when making
their wood, after flowering and pruning.
cilia'ta (hair-fringed). 3. June. 1825.
daphnoi'des (Daphne-like). 3. June. 1818.
sa'pida (savoury). 4. June. 1824.
Stella' ta (starry). April. 1836.
strigo'sa (bristly). 3. June. 1824.
subula'ta (awl-shaped). 2. May. 1823.
verticilla'ta (whorled). Purple. April.
LISSOCHI'LUS. (From lissos, smooth,
and cheilos, a lip. Nat. ord., Orchids
[Orchidaceae]. Linn., 0,0-Gynandria
1-Monandria. Allied to Cyrtopera.)
Stove orchids. Division, in spring, when
fresh growth commences, and potting takes
place ; fibry peat, a little fibry loam, dried leaf
mould, and plenty of drainage. Summer temp.,
60 to 90 ; winter, 55 to 60.
L. lu'teus (yellow). l. Yellow. May, Cape
of Good Hope. 1822.
parviflo'rus (small-flowered). 1. Pale red.
December. Algoa Bay. 1822.
ro'seus (rosy). Rose. February. Sierra
specio'sus (showy). 2. Yellow. June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1818.
streptope' talus (twisted-petaled). Yellow.
December. Cape of Good Hope. 1826.
LISTS, for fastening trees against
walls, are usually merely shreds of
woollen cloth cut into lengths, varying
from two to four inches. Strips of very
thin sheet-lead are preferable, as not
harbouring insects. Wires and twine
have been recommended to tie the
branches to the walls, but the process
is tedious, and cuts are inflicted, in-
ducing gum and canker. Shreds of a
black, blue, or red colour look best,
harmonizing with that of the leaves.
If old lists are re-employed, they should
be previously boiled, to destroy the
larvse of insects.
LISYA'NTHUS. (From lysis, the ter-
mination of a disease, and anthos, a
flower; referring to its intense bitter-
ness. Nat. ord., Genlianworts [Gen-
tianacese]. Linn., 5-Pentandria 1-Mo-
Seeds, in spring, in a hotbed, and cuttings of
shrubby kinds in sandy soil, under a bell-glass ;
sandy loam and peat. Summer temp., 00 to
80; winter, 50 to 55. Russellianus, if not
propagated by cuttings, may be considered a
biennial ; young plants raised in heat one year,
and safely kept over the winter in a cool stove,
or a warm greenhouse, and potted in spring,
will bloom beautifully in summer.
[ 558 ]
L. acuta'ngulus (acute-angled). 6. Yellow.
July. Peru. 1820. Biennial.
ala'tus (winged). 1$. White. July. Mexico.
grandiflo'rus (large-flowered), a. Yellow.
June. Trinidad. 1818. Biennial.
Ku'nthii (Kunth's}. Green. May. South