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The oyster (arts were in our camps every day. ( Mir pickets sometimes sighted
vessels and magnified them into war ships or ironclads. We were frequently
ordered out on such occasions. General Magruder was a very vigilant officer,


and a good disciplinarian, but somewhat excitable. I presume that Yorktown
was one of the best fortified places in the Confederacy, with the exception of
Richmond. There were three distinct lines of fortification at the peninsula -
one at Lee's mills, south of Yorktown, and one at Yorktown, and one near
Williamsburg. It looked as though it would have been impossible for an
enemy to have passed up the peninsula. Nothing unusual transpired at York
town until General McClellan commenced landing his troops at Fortress Mon-
roe. It was said that General McClellan had one of the finest armies that the
North ever turned out. It was an army that he had spent a year in organizing
and training. During the landing of his troops our cavalry was ordered to the
south side of James River. After our forces had gotten back to Richmond,
we returned to Richmond.

On the landing of General McClellan at Fortress Monroe. General Joseph
E. Johnston came down from the valley to Yorktown with his army to rein-
force General Magruder. It was said, after General Johnston looked around
and inspected the country and General Magruder 's works, he told General Ma-
gruder that it would never do to try to make a fight at Yorktown, which, it
was said, caused General Magruder to shed tears, at the idea of having to give
up his fortifications without making a fight. It was probably for the best. If
we had made a fight at Yorktown, the Federal gunboats and tiausfers might
have passed our small guns on the James and York rivers, and landed their
troops in our rear and captured our whole army, and piobably have taken
Richmond, too. General Johnston saw this, and saved the army and Rich
mond by falling back.

A few days after we returned to Richmond, Colonel P. M. B. Jfoung was
ordered to take the cavalry of the Cobb's Legion to Fredericksburg, to look
after General Patrick, who occupied Fredericksburg. We remained there un-
til a short time before the fighting commenced around Richmond; we then fell
back to Richmond.

The evening before the fighting commenced, General Stuart carried most
of the cavalry up to Ashland, where die met General Jackson with his army
right from the valley. By the time it was light next morning General Jackson
and his men were marching towards Mechanicsville.

As soon as the Federals got wind of General Jackson's coming, they com
menced to fell trees right and left across the road ahead of him to retard hi-
march. Our cavalry kept abreast of General Jackson's left Sank. On the day
of the battle at Cold Harbor, General Cobb was ordered to hold the main road
leading from Cold Harbor to the white house. In the afternoon General Jack-
son sent Major Fitzhugh to General Cobb for a squadron of cavalry to support
a battery on General D. H. Hill's left flank. General Cobb ordered squadron
B (my squadron) to report to Major Fitzhugh. The Major led us on! now
over the battlefield.

We had to pass through and under heavy shelling from the enemy's guns;
our duty was to support a battery of the Washington Artillery, which was in
danger of being flanked by the Federal cavalry. We remained there until the
last gun was fired, and then, with General Stuart, followed after the retreating
enemy until we were stopped by darkness.

I met Major Fitzhugh some time after that, and lie remarked: "Do you


know that General Jackson paid your squadron a high compliment at the bat-
tle of Cold Harbor. He saw your squadron as you were passing through that
Storm of iron hail, and remarked that your squadron would do to trust."

The morning after the battle of Cold Harbor, General Stuart went to the
while house, the terminus of the York River Railroad, and depot of supplies
for General McClellan's army. The Federals had left the evening before, and
everything indicated a hasty retreat. In their flight they had attempted to de-
stroy everything by fire by the aid of hay. In many instances the hay burned
off and left the commissaries all intact, and in the greatest abundance and va-
riety; everything that you can mention to tempt the appetite; and the cavalry
hoys enjoyed the treat— eggs, butter, cheese, mackerel, etc.

But the greatest curiosity of all was the embalming of the dead. The
Federals who had been killed at Mechauicsville and Gaines Mill had been sent
back to the white house to be embalmed and sent back home to their friends.
Early in the war a party had procured a patent right for embalming and pre-
serving the dead. There was a large tent near the depot full of dead bodies;
in the tent were long, narrow tables, elevated at one end. Upon these tables
lay the dead bodies which were being treated much like dressing hogs; their
bowels had been taken out and their bodies washed off cleanly. Some had
been put in their coffins with name and address ready for shipping.

Thus the Federals had left their dead in their hasty retreat in order to save
their own bacon. After the cavalry had supplied themselves with commissa-
ries. General Stuart turned back to overtake General Lee, who was pressing-
after General McClellan in his retreat towards Malvern Hill, the place he had
selected to give General Lee battle. He had displayed great judgment in
making his selection; his position was impregnable; his rear was protected by
bifl gunboats, his left flank by Turkey Creek, with its swamps and marshes;
with his artillery massed on the heights of Malvern Hill, with an open country
in his front. General Lee had but one alternative — and that was his front.

Tin' Federals gol the best of the fight, but they were ignorant of it at the
time, ami they left the battlefield completely demoralized. The country over
which they retreated was covered for miles with guns, and a great many guns
were Bmashed to pieces against the trees. Ii took two or three days to gather
the guns up and haul them in. Had General Lee been cognizant that night of
their demoralization he could have destroyed the whole of General McClellan's

After the smoke of the battle had cleared away, an unusual incident was
witnessed OD the battlefield. One who wore the blue and one who wore the
gray were Bleeping close together in cold death. Their spirits had left the
bloodj Held and gone Ion land of rest anil peace.

A few day- after the battle. General Lee fell back to Richmond, the Cobb
Legion cavalry remained at .Malvern Hill to watch General McClellan's move-
ments and to do picket duly; and remained there until Genera] .McClellan took
his departure for Washington city. The Cobb Legion got fully initiated dur-
ing the seven days' fighting around Richmond, after which they participated

in many fights and charges.

At Brand; Station, June !». 1868, Colonel P. M. B. Young charged and


repulsed a Federal regiment of cavalry that was just in the act of capturing
General Stuart's headquarters. 1 could mention many similar incidents, hut I
will now speak of the duty of cavalry, and what the cavalry are to an army.
The cavalry are the ears and eyes of the army.

While the infantry are back in the interior, between campaigns in the en
joyments and amusements of a camp life, the cavalry are at the front watching
the movements of the enemy, guarding the roads, bridges and fords, and in the
darkness of night, in the cold sleet and rain, when the eyes perceive not, he is
listening with his ears to catch the sound of the footsteps of an approaching
enemy; to carry the news back with lightning speed to the infantry to prevent
a surprise.

It is also the duty of the cavalry to protect the tlanks and the rear of
the army, and to pursue a defeated enemy to make the victory more complete,
but when it comes to hard sledge hammer righting the infantry are the boys to
do the work.

But I hope there never will be any more such work for them to do, anil if
we ever fight again it will only be a foreign foe, and then we will all march
and tight together under the same old flag. The results of the war, like the
removal of the Indians, will all work out for good in the end. The North and
the South in the future will be a more homogeneous people. Our government
is stronger to-day than ever before; the blood spilled by the North and by the
South during the war, like cement, unified the States, and they are more firmly
united to-day than ever before. /.. \. a,

The recollections of Capt. C. R. Hanleiter, have also been furnished to
me, in a sketch written by him at Skidaway Island, upon the service of


Skidaway Island, near Savannah, March II, 1890.

Before leaving Atlanta in November last, I promised to prepare a brief history
of my company — The Joe Thompson Artillery, so named in honor of the late Dr.
Joseph Thompson of your city — but was without data from which to supply a list of
its members, having lost all my papers and records, including two or three volumes
of my diary, kept from the day we went into camp at Kirkpatrick, early in Septem-
ber, 1861, until my return to Georgia in May, 1864. Just before leaving Atlanta I
learned that a Mrs. Robbins, residing somewhere near the junction of Whitehall and
Peters street, had a company roll, but I had no opportunity to procure a copy, and
the promise of a relative of her late husband, who was a member of my company,
to obtain it for me, has not been complied with In the absence of official data,
suffice it to say that the company was formed through the personal efforts of Lewis
J. Parr and myself, after the departure for the seat of war of several regiments
formed in Upper Georgia, and at a time when the martial spirit was rapidly dying
out; principally, I believe, on account of the difficulty in procuring arms and other
necessary equipments.

Our first expectation was that our only alternative would he to become enrolled
under Governor Brown, and accept as arms///w, which were then being manufac-
tured by Mr. J. C. Peck of Atlanta. At any rate, we were ordered to Camp Kirk-


patrick, near Decatur, for instruction and drill. Several other companies rendez-
voused there about the same time. I remember only the following, viz.: Captain
Flowers' from DeKalb ; Captain Matthews' from Oglethorpe ; Captain Bomar's from
Lumpkin ; Captain Eberharts' from Elbert ; Captain Battey's from Jefferson ; and
Captain McLeod's from Effingham. After considerable canvassing, it was decided
to form a Legion (with ten companies of infantry, two of cavalry, and two of light
artillery), to be known as the "Wright Legion," in honor of Augustus R. Wright of
Rome, who was subsequently elected Colonel, L. J. Parr Major.and Augustus Shaw,
a Lieutenant of my company, Adjutant. Captain Bomar and myself chose to be
mustered in as light artillery, and later I was signed a battery of breach-loading
rifles, designed by my warm personal friend the late William Rushton, Master
Machinist of the Georgia Railroad, and cast by the Messrs. Noble Brothers of Rome.
Mr. Rushton also had made for me, out of an old locomotive axle, a most beautiful
and effective breach-loading rifle, carrying about a 24-ounce ball, Enfield rifle shaped.
[This latter was my private property, and I had it nicely mounted on a two-wheel
carriage, with ammunition box attached ; but it subsequently attracted the attention
of officers of Commodore Tattnall's fleet, who contrived to have it "impressed" for
use on one of their picket barges. My battery of breach-loading guns were, in
1862, condemned by Gen. Lee, after personal inspection, because they were not
known to the service. In retiring them he took occasion to compliment the
company on their drill and use of the guns, saying that he regretted to
deprive us of guns so unique, and in which we took so much pride, but as they
would be useless in other hands than ours he could not allow them to be retained in
the service. We were afterwards, through the influence of Gen. L. J. Gartrell, then
a member of the Confederate Congress, furnished with a battery of 12 pound Napo-
leons and Howitzers of the same calibre. This battery was turned in, by order of
Gen. A. Ranse Wright, at Green Pond, S. C, there being an excess of artillery in
his command, and we resumed rifles, in the use of which we were also quite efficient.]

Whilst awaiting our equipments and arms, and receiving and entertaining visi-
tors, at our luxurious camp near Decatur, and enjoying ourselves only as newly-
fledged soldiers can with the "bla/.e of infantry and roar of cannon" a long way eft",
we very unexpectedly, late one fine October afternoon, received orders to cook up
three days' rations, and be prepared to take a train that would be ready early next
morning for Richmond! Ye Gods, what a damper to the exuberance of our spiiits!
We had confidently expected to occupy our then delightful quarters at least until we
should have received our arms and learned something of their use, and almost to a
man we preferred to defend Georgia upon Georgia soil. Our camp was crowded
with the wives, sweethearts, and friends of the officers and men, and all had been as
joyous as if at a May-day picnic. But soon after the promulgation of the order,
which was understood to be imperative, the men began to "hustle," the women and
girls hastily departed in anguish of heart and tears. However, by nine o'clock that
night everything necessary for the "onward movement" was cooked, packed, and
ready. About an hour later, greatly to our joy, another order was received, changing
our destination to our own loved Savannah. By nine o'clock the following morning
the train, consisting of box and cattle cars, backed down from Atlanta, and we em-
barked. Wen- detained at Atlanta until about 2 p. m , and reached Savannah on
Sunday morning soon alter day-break, after the coldest and most fatiguing ride we


ever experienced. The Legion was marched out to a point about four and a half
miles on the Skidaway Shell Road and camped — doing duty as the emergency
seemed to demand on Skidaway Island, the Isle of Hoj-;e, and various other locali-
ties around and in the city, for several months. Finally, Captain Bomar's company
and my own were detached from the Legion, and the infantry companies, ten in
number, were ordered to Richmond, as apart of Gen. A. R. Lawton's new brigade.
I forget the number given the new regiment. My command was immediately ordered
to Beautien, at the junction of the Vernon with Burnside rivers, about twelve miles
southwest from Savannah, where we relieved a regiment (Col. Evans', I believe),
and did duty as heavy and light artillery and infantry until the night of the evacua-
tion of Savannah, I being in command of the Post and both batteries during the
entire period. After leaving Savannah, we did duty for a brief period at Salka
hatchee river and at James Island, having charge of Battery Ryan, right at the
latter place.

While at Battery Ryan I was appointed Provost Marshal of the city of Charles-
ton, and given four additional companies, with headquarters at the Citadel. This
duty terminated with the evacuation of Charleston, when we proceeded, under Gen.
Hardee, to Cheraw, Fayetteville, etc., being at the evacuation of each. Thence to
Averysboro, and Toombsboro, where Gen. Johnston capitulated to Sherman — Gen.
Lee having surrendered to Grant a few days before.

It is entirely proper to say that, by permission of Gen. Hardee, I left my com-
mand lor Georgia, in company with the late Col. E. C. Anderson, at their bivouac
soon after leaving Fayetteville — Lieut. Shaw succeeding to the command of the
company. During all our service — of over three years, and always "at the front, '»
exposed to the constant assaults of the Federal navy, and often confronted by Sher.
man's myriads while passing through South and North Carolina, we were never in
a battle until that at Averysboro. There, as I have been informed, we lost one or
two valuable men, and perhaps others at Toombsboro. It must not be inferred,
however, because bloodlesss our duties were either light or free from danger. No
company of men ever did more work and more to the satisfaction of their superiors,
as was repeatedly testified by all under whom they served, viz : Generals H. R.
Jackson, Beauregard, Lee, Taliaferro, Colston, Mercer, Hardee, J. E. Johnston, and
Col. E. C. Anderson whilst temporarily in command of the brigade. It is also
proper to say that Lieut. Shaw saw many months of active service in Virginia whilst

detached from his command and acting as Adjutant to the regiment. Lieut.

William R. Hanleiter also saw much hard service as a subaltern in the First Georgia
Regulars before he was elected and transferred to my command.

I had the honor to counsel with and aid Gen. Pelot in his expedition against the
Federal gunboat "Water-Witch," which he captured at the sacrifice of his own and
other gallant lives. The dead, wounded, and prisoners, as also the vessel, were
brought to my Post, and my family being with me at the time, gave all the aid in
their power in the care of the wounded on each side. I paroled Commander l'ren-
dergast and his officers, fed them at my table, and gave them free intercourse with
their men, who were guarded and provided for by my men until turned over to a
guard sent especially for them from Savannah. My Surgeon, Dr. Houston, was
active and untiring in his ministrations, as well upon the Federals as the Confeder-


ates. I re 'ret the loss of my diary especially, as it contained a full account of this
gallant capture, and the thrilling incidents immediately preceding and following the
heroic exploit.

Two days prior to the evacuation of Savannah my family removed to the city,
and were fortunate in securing a furnished house on Broughton street belonging to a
wealthy family who were about to refugee. The morning of Sherman's entry into
the city my wife, who had just got established in her new abode, was summoned to
surrender the premises, for occupancy by the Captains and subalterns of their chief's
body-guard. She remonstrated, saying she was comparatively a stranger in the city;
that the family consisred of females wholly, her husband and son being in the Confed-
erate army, and it was impossible, she thought, in the then excited condition of the
city, to procure another house even should she be so lortunate as to secure the ser-
vices of draymen to remove her effects. The Captain (no drawling down-easter,
but a bluff, manly Ohioan, named Clark) remarked that he would, with her permis.
sion, look through the house, and after so doing said the house was sufficiently large
for the purposes he desired and the accommodation also of herself and family; if she
would relinquish certain rooms for his office and bedrooms for himself and two
lieutenants, and permit his cook to prepare their meals in the kitchen, he would not
disposses her. Upon his pledge that herself and family would be protected against
intrusion and insult, she readily consented to the arrangement. Soon after establish-
ing his headquarters, he suggested that it would save himself and officers — as they
were all batchelors — much unnecessary worry, and perhaps redound to her advant-
age, if she would consent to board them. This she expressed her willingness to do,
but explained the difficulty of procuring the necessary supplies. He thought that
could be easily arranged, and departed. In a very short time after a wagon load o
choice groceries and provisions were delivered to her for their common use, and for
which they made no charge, but paid their board in greenbacks regularly and prompt-
ly thereafter, and rendered them every facility and kindness possible, even to assist-
ing them on board the flag of truce boat, and exchanging with them greenbacks for
Confederate notes, when they were banished from the city by Sherman's order ! In
this connection it may be mentioned that the day after Sherman entered the city
Captain Clark and his troops were ordered to skirt the coast and ascertain the cause
of a heavy and continuous cannonading then going on below the city. The cannon-
ading was by a fleet of gun and mortar boats endeavoring to reduce or capture the
battery at Heautien, which I had rendered hors de combat and abandoned about 36
hours before ! So much in earnest were the naval officers that Captain Clark had
difficulty in convincing them of their waste of ammunition. On the return of the
party, and the joke becoming known, my girls had many a hearty laugh with their
Ohio friends over the brilliant achievement.

To the comrade who has been appointed Historian of our Association, I have
taken the liberty of addressing this hastily written and imperfect sketch. If not
too late, it may afford some material for a brief paragraph in your History.

I have purposely omitted to mention the names of several of my earlier asso"
1 iates, or my commissioned staff, not deeming them, I regret to say, worthy to be
enrolled as patriotic Confederate soldiers.

Very respectfully, your comrade and friend,

C. R. Hanleiter, Caftain Joe Thompson Artillery.


I have deemed it appropriate to supplement these sketches with one of my
own composition, and including a sketch given by Major P. W Capers con
cerning the Georgia Cadets, who went into service from the Georgia Military

Institute, at Marietta, and embracing also a report of General Henry C Wayne
who was the Adjutant-General of Georgia, during the war, under Governor
J. E. Brown:


In the November issue of the Century magazine [observed an article on

"Southern Cadets in Action," from Professor McCorvey, of Alabama lie
gives an account of the Cadets of Alabama, in service for a short time; and al
ludes to a previous article by Mr. J. S. Wise, of Virginia, concerning the Vir-
ginia Cadets in action, saying that he (Mr. Wise) believed that Virginia had the
"exceptional honor of having sent its corps of cadets, as a body, into battle,"
and referring to the Virginia Military Institute as "the Wesl Poinl of the Con

I ask permission for space to correct the belief of Mr. Wise as to the
"exceptional honor" of his State for sending its corps of cadets into battle, or
of laying claim to its Institute being exclusively or exceptionally the "Wesl
Point of the Confederacy," though I do not wish to derogate one iota from the
distinguished and well deserved honors won by the Virginia and Alabama
Cadets for valor on the field. I have no doubt that both corps of cadets of
Virginia and Alabama acted valiantly on the fields. Without detracting the
least from them, it is my purpose to invite and direct proper attention to
another corps of cadets which was sent by another State into battle, and which
may perhaps well deserve the honor of a place in the history of the Touted
eracy, claiming a position in the chaplet of glory pertinent to the heroes of the
"Lost Cause." I refer to the Georgia Cadets of the "G. M. I."

The Georgia Military Institute was an academy for military training and
education. Although it was called a State Institute, the act of incorporation
reads like, and appears to have been, a charter for a private institution. The
act was "to incorporate the Georgia Military Institute, and for other purposes
therein named." Approved December 8, 1851.

The first section of the act provided "that David Irwin. Andrew.!. Han-
sell, Wm. P. Young, John II. Glover, Martin G. Slaughter. David Dobbs,
John Jones, Charles J. McDonald, Wm. Harris, Mordecai .Myers, and James
Brannon, together with their associates, and such persons as may hereafter he
come associated with them as stockholders in the premises, and their successors
and assigns, be and they are hereby constituted a body politic and corporate,
by the name and style of the Georgia .Military Institute, and by that name and
style may hold real and personal property to any amount necessary for the pur-
poses of the same; shall have and use a common seal, and shall he capable of
sueing and being sued, pleading and being impleaded, and shall have powei
by and through its Board of Trustees to make such laws, rules and regula-
tions for their government as may be deemed necessary and expedient: Pro
vided, the same be not contrary to the Constitution and Laws ,,f this State. ,,r
of the United States."

In the next month — January, 1H5'J — the General Assembly passed an act
providing for an appointment annually by the Governor of six tit and proper

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