Georgia Confederate Veterans' Association of Fulton County.

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persona as a Board of Visitors, whose duty it was to meet every year at the
Institute and there, iu conjunction with a committee of six of the Trustees of
the Institute, to establish and declare such rules and regulations for the gov
eminent of the Institute as they might deem necessary and proper. The same
acl provided that the Board of Visitors should have power to admit any num-
ber of young men, not exceeding ten, as State Cadets, to be selected "upon un-
doubted evidence of fair moral character, in proportion of one from each Con-
gressional District of the State, and two from the State at large."

The Slate capital, where the General Assembly held biennial sessions, was
then al Milledgeville, which city was so named in honor of Governor Milledge.
In that Legislature there were some of the most distinguished citizens of Geor-
gia then and subsequently. In the House of Representatives was Hon. John
Milledge, from Richmond county, son of Governor Milledge. He was the
father of our present State Librarian, Colonel John Milledge. There was also
Bon. Francis S. Bartow, as Representative from Chatham county. He was
the same gallant Colonel Bartow who afterwards commanded the famous
Eighth Georgia Regiment in the war of 1861, and was killed in the battle of
Manassas, These two Representatives were advocates of the bill to establish
the Georgia Military Institute.

By that acl also the Trustees and the Faculty of the Institute were author-
ized to confer the degree of graduate of the Institute upon such cadets as were
found qualified to receive it, after full examination in all the branches of the
arts and sciences, and of literature, as were taught there.

The Institute was situated at Marietta, in Cobb county, about twenty
miles from Atlanta. It was first under the direction of Colonel A. V. Brumby
as Superintendent. It opened with only seven cadets, in July, but the number
was soon increased, and it became in a little while a very popular institution.
Tin government and discipline of the Institute were strictly military, and the
course of studies was thoroughly scientific and practical, being modeled as
nearlv as possible after the United States military academy at West Point."
The cadets there were young men from the first families of Georgia, and the
annual commencements, before the war, were usually attended by numerous
people of the very best element of social and intellectual standing and attain-
ments, and of wealth and worth in every way. It was the rendezvous of the
elite beaux and belles of the State, and many of the happy families of the gopd
people of our State now owe their happiness to the first fervent emotions from
pleasant meetings and greetings, and delightful associations at Marietta, and
the "G. M. [.," :,s was ''"' Common expression in speaking of the Institute.

Many of our very best citizens of this day and generation were cadets who
graduated at the "<i. M. I." One of the very first, or the very first, who en-
tered the Institute asa cadet, is now living in Atlanta. He is Captain Frank
Mills, on Marietta Street. The first commandant of cadets was Captain James
\V. Robertson, lie is now one of the Railroad Commissioners of Georgia, the

recent successor of Ma j< >r ( 'ampbell Wallace.

I am under obligation to Colonel Robertson for some of the facts [ relate
in this article. He informed me that the first cadet who graduated from the
Institute was cadet John Bradford, who was a splendid young man, of tine
military appearance and a tine scholar, graduating with first honor in the vcar


1854. He is living now at the village of Bradfordvflle, in Florida, and I an
informed is a farmer and a civil engineer, and is now the State engineer oi
Florida, highly respected and influential in his neighborhood, though be is
still a bachelor. We wonder why he has not been captured l>y sonic good and
handsome woman before now.

During the war lie served on General Donelson's staff, and after the battle
of Murfreesboro. was Assistant Inspector-General of East Tennessee and Smith
west Virginia. After General Donelson's death at Knoxville, he served on the
staffs of Generals Davis, Maury, and Buekner. He then was appointed to the
engineer department, and served in Lee's army from the battle of Gettysburg
to the day of the surrender.

In a letter I have from him, he says: "I believe I saw the last man fall—
on the other side — and I was close to your noble Governor when lie captured
and sent to our rear that last battery, on the morning of the 9th of April,

Some of the most gallant and distinguished officers and leaders in the Con-
federate armies were graduates of the Georgia Military Institute. When the
war came on they were prepared for service, and were selected to command be-
cause of their fine military training at the Institute. Since the war, those who
survived the clash of arms have been our most conspicuous and trusted leaders
and advisers, and our first men in business.

Captain E. P. How r ell, of the Atlanta Constitution, was one of the ante
helium cadets. He was a prominent lawyer, located in Sandersville, Ga . when
the war came on. He entered the service at first call and went with the Wash
ington Rifles, and was in the First Georgia Regiment in Virginia. He was one
of the soldiers who were lost in the Cheat Mountains, in Virginia, five days
without food.

After serving the first twelve months, the First Georgia Regiment dis-
banded, and the several companies reorganized in other commands. Captain
Howell enlisted for the war in an artillery company, as First Lieutenant, under
Captain Martin, called Martin's battery. Later Lieutenant Howell became
Captain of the battery, and it was then called Howell's Artillery, and was un-
der as fine discipline as any company in the army, and was very efficient in
that arm of service. Under Captain Howell his company became one of t In-
most famous batteries in the Western army, and many, many times was the re-
verberating thunder of its great guns heard above the din of battle, at Vicks
burg, at Chickamauga, at Resaca, and in the siege of the "Gate City," and in
the battle of Jonesboro.

Since the war his acts and deeds in the service of his country have been
no less patriotic and distinguished in peace than were his brave deeds in war.
thus grandly representing and illustrating his precepts and his training at the
"G. M. I." He has been Solicitor-General, State Senator, and is now at the
head of the Atlanta Constitution. He was also president of the commissioners
who supervised the building of the new State Capitol.

General Pierce M. B. Young was also a cadet of the "G. M. I." lie
graduated there in 1857, two months before the regular graduation of hi- class,
having been permitted to do so by the faculty, in order to enter the United
States Military Academy at West Point, to which he had been appointed, to


enter on the 1st of Juno. He went on to the academy at West Point, entered
there as a cadet, and remained nearly four years, till Georgia seceded from the
Union, when he resigned as a cadet from the academy, and entered the Con-
federate army at its first service, as Second Lieutenant of artillery, and was
stationed at Pensacola, Fla. He was soon transferred to the Army of Northern
Virginia, at Richmond, and entered Cobb's Legion as First Lieutenant and
Adjutant; was made a Major in the Provisional Army, and was attached to
( lohb's Legion of cavalry in November, 1861; was made Lieutenant Colonel in
December. 1861; was promoted to Colonel of Cobb"s Legion in 1862; was ap-
pointed Brigadier-General of cavalry in November, 1864, and was appointed
Major-General of cavalry in December, 1864. He was wounded four times —
twice severely, and was twice shot off his horse in battle. He was the only
person who reached the grade of Major-General, of the class of 1861, of West
Point cadets, on the Confederate side of the war.

There was also only one on the Federal side, of the class of 1861, who
reached that rank as an officer — he was Major-General George A. Custer. The
tragic anil sad death of General Custer, a few years ago, at the hands of savage
Indians, is yet fresh in the memories of many who may read this article.

General Young has been a familiar and conspicuous person in our State
since the war. and is one of our foremost and most popular veterans and citi-
zen^. He has served two terms in Congress. In 1886 he was appointed by
President Cleveland a representative of the United States at St. Petersburg, in
Kussia. He went there and filled his station honorably, but preferring the
Salubrity of his own native State, rather than abide amongst strangers in such
a country as Russia, he resigned the place, came home, and resumed his place
as a quiet, dignified citizen, at his home near Cartersville, in Bartow county,
respected and loved by his neighbors, and honored throughout the State. A
line exemplar of the G. M. I. But the General still remains in "single blessed-
ne-s." Though so often wounded by the missiles of men in the fierce conflicts
of battle, we wonder how he it that Cupid's dart has not "pierced" his genial

Another who graduated at the G. M. I. was Colonel John Milledge, of this
city. He was born on the "Sand Hills," near Augusta. He entered the In-
stitute in L858, and graduated in the summer of 1857. In February, 1861, he
was commissioned first Lieutenant in the First Georgia Regulars, by Governor
Joseph E. Brown, and with thai regimenl went to Virginia, in July. In the
winter of 1862 he was promoted to the rank of Captain of infantry. In the
following Spring of 1862 he was elected as Captain of artillery, and the bat-
tery, of which he took command, was named the Milledge Artillery, of Nel-
Bon's battalion. The battery served in the battles around Richmond in the
Spring of 1863, and in the valley of Virginia, the second battle of Manassas,
Sharpsburg or Antietam as it was called, Shepardstown, Monocacy, Spottsyl-

v.inia Court House, and a! Cold Harbor, where Captain Milledge was wounded
in his righl arm by a shell. After recovering, he returned to his command.
Ilia batter] taking an active part in the valley campaign between Generals
Earlj and Sheridan. After the war. Captain Milledge moved from Augusta to
Atlanta, and entered into active practice of his profession— the law. In July,
1*77. !"• was elected Auditor and Recorder of the city of Atlanta, and was re-


elected in 1879. Oo the 6th of April, 1888, he was appointed State Librarian
to fill an unexpired term, and in December, 1888, he was appointed for four
years from the 24th of September, 1889, and hi- appointment was confirmed
by the last Senate. He makes an excellent State Librarian. Be organized the
Governor's Horse Guard on the 31s1 day of .March. 1883, and was elected, and
continued, as Captain of that company until .June. 1889. On last January he
was elected Lieutenant Colonel of the First Battalion of Georgia Cavalry.

Another cadet of the G. M. I., who was a gallant cavalry officer in the
war, was Captain John W. Robison, who was then of Columbus. In 1878
he was appointed by Governor J. M. Smith as Solicitor-General of the Middle
Circuit, being then a resident of Washington county. He made a splendid
prosecuting officer for the State. He is now practicing law in Macon.

Another G. M. I. cadet who became prominent and distinguished as a Con-
federate officer, was General George P. Harrison. I think he was from Savan-
nah. He entered the army soon after the opening of hostilities, and became
Colonel of the Thirty-second Georgia, and rose rapidly in rank, and was a
Brigadier-General when he was only twenty-two years of age. He is now a
prominent lawyer, residing in Opelika, Ala.

Hon. Samuel Spencer, of Columbus, was a G. M. I cadet in 1862-3. He
went from the Institute in 1863 into the Confederate army. Since the war lie
has been a prominent railroad manager, being the President, I believe, or Vice-
President, of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad.

Hon. H. D. D. Twiggs, of Augusta, was a cadet and graduated at the
G. M. I. He was in the Confederate army. He is a lawyer of distinguished
ability now. Since the war he has held important public positions. He was
Judge of the Superior Court of the Middle Circuit in 1872, residing then in
Sandersville, Ga. At the expiration of his term he moved to Augusta, and
has been a Representative for Richmond county, in the Legislature. In 1884
he was one of the Presidential electors for Georgia when Mr. Cleveland was

Hon. R. U. Hardeman, the popular State Treasurer, was a cadel before
the war. He was born and reared in Macon, Ga., and is the brother of Hon.
Thomas Hardeman, of Macon. He did not graduate at the (J. M. I., hut left
it after being there a year, and entered Emory College, at Oxford, Ga., and
graduated from there in 185S. in class with Dr. A. G. Hayg 1. Dr. I. S. Hop-
kins, Hon. W. T. Revill, and other distinguished Georgians. At the outbreak
of the war Mr. Hardeman volunteered and entered the Confederate army as a
member of the celebrated Floyd Rifles, of Macon. He served in the army
through the war, and was at the surrender at Appomattox. He was a mer-
chant for several years after the war. In 1876 he accepted a position in the
office of the Comptroller-General, and became expert in the financial affairs of
the State. In 1884 he was elected State Treasurer on the Democratic ticket.
and re-elected in 1886. and again in 1888. He is an excellent Treasurer of the
State, and a very popular gentleman. Everybody knows and likes honest
"Bob" Hardeman.

Hon. Robert C. Irwin was a cadet in the good old limes before the war.
He entered the army in the beginning of the war, a very young man, as First


Lieutenant in Company I, of Seventh Georgia Regiment. His father was
Judge David Irwin, who was the first compiler of the Georgia Code, and was
for many years the President of the Board of Trustees of the G. M. I. R. C.
Irwin is a lawyer, and at present is in charge of the Bureau of Insurance, in
the Comptroller-General's office.

Major J. P. Jones, who was for many years the chief clerk of Colonel N.
C. Barnett, in the office of Secretary of State, was a cadet graduate just before
tii • war. He entered the service early, and became Major of the Third Geor-
gia Regiment, and in battle lost an arm, for which cause he had to retire from
service for a time. Had it not been for this misfortune, he would have been in
c i mi, and of a brigade. lie was Captain of the Atlanta Artillery here a few
years ago. lie was a courteous and popular gentleman. He died here about
a year ago.

George F. Todd, from West Point, Ga., was a graduate about 1859, with
first honor, and as the Adjutant of the battalion. He entered the Confederate
army as First Lieutenant, became Captain Company D, of the Fourth Georgia
1! sgiment, and was killed in the battle of Malvern Hill, Ya. He was a brother
of Dr. J. S. Todd, now of Atlanta.

Captain Francis Fontaine was a cadet from Columbus, in 1861. He left
Hie Institute to enter the Confederate army, and was a good soldier and officer.
He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1877. He is now a
prominent citizen and capitalist of Atlanta. He is the author of a tine novel,
"El rwah," and has generously proposed to donate one half the net proceeds of
tin- -air ,,r his hook to our Confederate Veterans' Association of Fulton county.

Mr. Maicellus <). Markham was a cadet in 1861-2. He is now a prominent
citizen of Atlanta, son of Colonel Win. Markham. He has interests in Florida,
in line orange groves, and spends a good deal of his time in that State.

Captain - Pendleton was a cadel from Valdosta, Ga. He graduated and
went into the army as a Captain, and was a gallant soldier. In a battle his
company was led by him to the very forefront till nearly all were killed and
wounded, and his company demolished so that he had none to follow him when
the battle was over. How strange it seems, that in that terrible carnage, Cap-
tain Pendleton was in, i scathed in the least, though he went in front of his
""'"■ He is now a minister and bishop in the Swedenborgian faith and church
iu Philadelphia, Pa. lie is a brother of lion. C. R. Pendleton, the editor of
the Valdosta Times,

Captain — Atkinson, of Glynn county, was a cadel before the war. and
w ''"' '"'" ""' Confederate army as a Captain, and was killed in battle in Vir-
ginia. His brother, Win. Atkins,,,,, was at the Institute in 1864, and went
into the Confederate arm-, with our battalion, and served with us till the close
"' thewar. He is living now near Brunswick. These two cadets are brothers
"' Hon. Spencer R. Atkinson, the present Judge of the Brunswick Circuit.
. others raighl be mentioned as prominent men. who weveante bellum cadets
theG. M. I., but it is my purpose in this article to treat more particularly
of the cadets who went into the service from the Institute as "a battalion of

cadets "

The Georgia cadets, who were at theG. M. 1., in 1864, I dare say; hud a


longer and harder service in the army than any other similar organization of

youths in the Confederacy. They were the sons of many of the best families
in Georgia, and some few other Stales. The esprit de corps was very fine in
our little battalion in 1864. General F. W. Capers was then the Superintend-
ent of the G. M. I. He was a splendid officer, and was devoted to hi- "boys,"

as he familiarly and effectionatety called them.

General Capers had been in military service before thai time, in command
of a brigade at Savannah in 1861-2. He took charge of the Institute, and Boon

established excellent discipline. The battalion numbered about two hundred
youths, from fifteen to eighteen years of age, vigorous and spirited sons of
chivalrous fathers. The "boys" were pursuing their studies, and drilling
every day, and made a fine appearance on parade. There were two companies,
"A" and "B." Captain J. S. Austin was commandant of cadets.

In the Spring of 1864, when the camp nun between Generals Sherman and
Bragg opened at Chattanooga, or above Dalton, the cadets were in high glee
at the Institute, as it began to be rumored thai they might soon be called into
service, to meet the invasion. The boys were eager for the fight.

In the cheery days of that fine Spring time, as memory goes back, we see
at the Institute such scenes as can never come to us agaiu in life.

"Still o'er those scenes my memory wakes,
And fondly broods with miser care,
Time the impression but deeper makes,
As streams their channels deeper wear."

We see the "boys" as they fall in ranks for roll-call at reveille. We see
them as they go to guard mounting each morning. We see them as they march
in classes to recitations each day. We see them as they march to the old mess-
hall, and "Jake" and old black "Steve" as waiters upon the tables. We Bee
them as they drill over the large sloping lawn. We see them en •dress parade"
every evening. We see old "Cornelius" the sable drummer, and old tat
"Charlie" the fifer, as they make "music in the air," and rally the •boys." We
see them when the "tattoo" comes, when all lights must be oul and all to bed.
We see them as they go to old "Crawford," the sutler and barber for the In-
stitute, buying mattresses, beadsteads, etc. and having haircut shorl and chins
shaved. "Crawford" was a slave, and belonged to Colonel Brumby. He was
a low country negro, and was very polite, and did a tine business with the
boys. He was allowed to shave and have his earnings in that way. and accu-
mulated considerable means, and when emancipation came, it found him
already a well-to-do darkey. He came to Atlanta to live, invested in real es-
tate, ran a line of drays, and at one time was a noted negro amongst busines
men in the city. He will be remembered here as Crawford Monroe. He died
here two or three years ago.

The Institute was situated on the summit of one of the font hills of the
now renowned Kennesaw .Mountain, and in plain view of the mountain Aj
the contending armies foughl and marched on our Georgia soil, the mountain
and the Institute came within the way of their operations. Thej could go to
the mountain, but the mountain would no1 go to them nor -clout of their



way, and though thousands of brave men fell in death around it and on it, it
is there yet.

The cadets at the Institute became more and more sanguine and restless,
as the armies came nearer. Study of books was practically given up, in view
of the more thrilling prospect of service in the war. Military enthusiasm was
at its height in the battalion of boys, and conversation was aglow with eager
yearning for the fray. The armies were moving from Dalton and on to
Resaca. At length, one night, when the boys were all in their slumbers in the
dormitories, perhaps dreaming of battles, the "long roll" was sounded on the
drum, by Cornelius, the old colored drummer. In almost the twinkling of an
eye the brave boys sprang from their beds, donned their uniforms and accoutre-
ments, seized their muskets, and assembled in front of the building for roll-call
as they so well knew how to do. As the Orderly Sergeant of each company
called over his roll rapidly, every cadet present responded promptly, "Here,"
and was ready for duty. It was a scene of interest to behold, in that pleasant
May morning, a little earlier than the usual reveille. In these our years of ma-
turity, since we have become men, indeed, with children of our own now older
than we were then, it is interesting to remember that scene of boy soldiers
forming in ranks, just before the dawn of day, with candle lights dimly shin-
ing in a few of the rooms on the campus, a few sentinels still treading their
"beats" between the dormitories, anxiously waiting for the command to "fall
in" with their companies. As we contemplate it in these "piping times of
peace," could we be willing to see our own boys, of such tender age, "mus-
tered into service," to endure the hardships of war and the dangers of battle?
But then those boys were dauntless, and they felt as though they were men.
The companies being formed, the boys being "wide awake and full of fun,"
when the command was given, "in place, rest," they began to crack jokes in a
merry way.

"Attention," was next commanded, and in a moment all were upright and
ready. Orders were given to march to the depot, in Marietta, and take a train
to "go to the front," which was then about Resaca. When they reached the
"seat of war," they were placed in the lines, and the battle of Resaca was
where the boys first saw a right, which is the same as mentioned by Lieutenant
.] aints Oates, of the Ninth Illinois Mounted Infantry. Writing of the march
through Georgia, he says:

"It was during the advance of that day, May 9, 1864, that we came in
contact with the Georgia Cadets from the Military Institute at Marietta, who
had come out from the woods at Resaca, and formed their line behind a rail
fence. After a volley from the cadets, which killed several of our men, our
regimenl charged them."

Thus it is shown and acknowledged by one of our opponents that the ca-
dets were Intrepid and effective in their very first engagement.

The battalion was commanded by Major Capers, the Superintendent. Com-
pany A was commanded by Captain J. S. Austin; Company B was commanded
by Captain Victor K. Manget, who was the Junior Professor of French at the
Institute. These officers were skilled tacticians, and had the confidence of the
cadets. In the charge upon them at Resaca, the cadets acted with remarkable
coolness and discretion, as though they were veterans, and were complimented


and praised by their officers. Though it is acknowledged that they killed sev-
eral of the Federals, not one of the cadets was hurt in that charge. They
were compelled, however, to abandon their position at that spot, and were with-
drawn from the lines and sent back to the Institute. They were elated with
their first experience in war, and it was almost the sole topic for many days,
and the friends of the corps, at Marietta, were equally jubilant with "the

But that little brush of a battle could not long remain for discussion, as
other important movements were succeeding each other every day. The armies
were coming nearer to the Institute. For some days the cadets did provost
duty about Marietta and Kennesaw Mountain. After about a week in this sort
of duty, orders came for them to leave the Institute. As they prepared for the
leaving, it was uncertain amongst the cadets where they were to go. Trunks

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