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who was, however, absent. After that I was cared for in
the schoolhouse, which had been turned into a hospital.
Some German families, who had lived in this place for a
considerable time, looked after us here. These told us that
the whole attack had been planned, and that the clergy had
issued directions from the pulpits.

Read over, approved, signed.

Signed : Hugo Roleff.

Signed : Stack.

Signed : Rudolf Wesselmann.



90 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM

B. App. 4.

Namur, January 8th, 1915.

Report of the Inquiry into the alleged atrocities in
Andenne.

At the command of the Imperial Military Government
of Namur I went, on the 5th inst., to Andenne, in order to
obtain information from the Mayor Emile de Jaer regarding
the atrocities of war that were said to have occurred in
Andenne. He only knew that on August 20, at 7 o'clock
in the evening, a murderous fire was opened on our troops,
who wanted to cross the bridge leading to Seilles. At my
request he handed me over a list of those who had been
shot ; it contained 234 names. On examining this list it
turned out that only 196 persons had been shot without
any doubt whatsoever ; 28 were missing. I instructed
the Mayor to procure a number of trustworthy witnesses,
who in his opinion were in a position to give information
concerning the events.

Thereupon appeared :

1. Hermann Frerand, Place du Perron, merchant. He
could give no evidence, as he had been a prisoner from
August 21 to 23.

2. Alexander Wery, Rue Brun, merchant. He declared
that he had kept in hiding during the days of agitation.
He therefore knows nothing, but only heard reports.

3. Leon Lambert, Place des Tilleuls, merchant. He
knows nothing of the events, as he had been in hiding in
his cellar.

4. Florent Sebrun, factory director. Rue Wouters.
On the evening of August 20, at 7 o'clock, he was in the
garden of his brother-in-law, Dr. Melin, Grande Rue. A
large aeroplane appeared at a great height, and the German
troops immediately fired at it. Suddenly fire opened from
all sides of the town.

5. Madame Ermine Blanchart, Rue de I'Hotel de
Ville, will state personal grievances, but knows nothing of
the events.

6. Ernest Thys, Rue Brun, merchant, hid himself for
five days in his cellar.

7. Dr. Isidor Loroy, Rue de T Industrie, only knows
that the Mayor, Camus, who was a doctor in private life,
was shot in the Rue du Pont on August 20, after having
spent the night as a hostage, together with the priest, in



APPENDIX B.— ANDENNE 91

the town hall. He was released towards the morning.
Loroy only knows of the events by report.

8. Pane Tillmann, Rue Brun, chemist, had been wounded
since August 21, and can give no evidence.

9. Louis Cartiaux, Place du Chapitre, priest, was
arrested on August 19, at 9 o'clock in the evening, and
taken to the town hall. Here he met the Mayor, Camus,
who had already been taken as hostage. Cartiaux was,
however, released during the night. About the alleged
events he could only state that a detachment of troops had
already made an inquiry in September, and that three
suspected persons had been arrested, who were, however,
not inhabitants of Andenne. He did not know what had
happened to these three people. He refers the matter of
the boy who was supposed to have been shot because he
carried a cartridge on his person, to George Belin, school-
master. Rue Bertrand. The latter had told him that a
boy was going to be shot because he wore some lead as a
charm that had been given him by his brother.

10. Achilles Rambeaux, Rue Bertrand, assistant to a
notary, has nothing to report, as he had kept in hiding
in his cellar.

11. G. Belin, the schoolmaster referred to in No. 9, was
heard at Namur on the morning of January 6. He was
asked if he was prepared to swear to his alleged statement
concerning the shooting of a boy. He denied ever having
made such a statement in the most vigorous terms. Pres-
sure being brought to bear, he admits further that in
Andenne the opinion is held that a Belgian soldier of the
8th Line Infantry Regiment stayed behind, put on civilian
clothes, and actually fired on the German troops. This
soldier was universally known to the townsfolk by the
nickname of " Le Petit Roux," and was Flemish. Another
Flemish soldier, also in mufti, had been in his company.
Both had deserted from their detachments.

Furthermore all the above-named persons declared
unanimously that another doctor (not Mayor Camus),
aged 64 years, had not been shot. Those rumours were
also false which gave out that seven members of one family
had been killed by German bullets ; this matter concerned
two families and, moreover, two brothers of the name of
Savin.

That a number of people had been brought out from
the cellars, threatened with death, and placed in front of
the machine-guns, in case of firing from the nearest barri-



92 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM

cades, could be proved from no side. It was universally
admitted, however, that rumours went round the town,
including those that gave out that inhabitants had been
killed with blows from an axe.

In Andenne itself 25 houses were destroyed, 12 in the
suburb Peau d'Eau, together therefore 37, while Andenne
contained 1900 houses. Not a single factory was destroyed
or burnt. Naturally, as is unavoidable in street-fighting,
many houses were damaged by gun-shots, but not so
severely as to cause the owners any considerable losses.
It is true that a large number of window-panes were
shattered when the cannon fired from the market-place.

According to the statement of the schoolmaster Belin,
the population of Andenne is rather a simple-minded one,
which accounts for the incredible rumours abroad in the
town.

Signed : Goetze, Lieutenant.



APPENDIX C— DINANT

App. C.
War Office.

Military Court of Inquiry into the Violation of the Laws of
War.

Belgian Civilian Warfare in Dinant from
August 2ist to August 24TH, 1914.

Summary Report.

Immediately after crossing the Belgian frontier the
XII. Army Corps had difficulties with the civilian popula-
tion of Belgium, which reached their climax in and around
Dinant. For the advance of the Army Corps Dinant had
especial importance, since here it was that the crossing of
the Meuse was to take place. The town with its suburbs,
Leffe and Les Rivages on the right bank of the Meuse, and
Neffe, St. Medard, and Bouvignes on the left bank, lies
along the river in a deep section of the valley. Both banks
rise up in terraces, steep and frequently rocky, to a height
of some 70 metres, the right bank somewhat higher than
the left. On the right bank about the centre of the town
stands the fortress, about 100 metres in height. Close by,
to the north, the high road from Sorinnes enters the town.
Two further approaches from the east are found in the deep-
cut flanking valleys which come to an end in Leffe and Les
Rivages.

On August 15th, 1 91 4, the operations of the German
cavalry, in which among others Jager Battalion No. 12 took
part, led to the temporary occupation of the right bank of
the Meuse. Owing to superior enemy forces, it was again
evacuated on the same day ; numerous dead and some
wounded were left behind.

On August 17th the enemy forces on the left bank of
the Meuse withdrew. From this time onward Dinant, Leffe,
and Les Rivages were free from the presence of any regular
enemy troops.



94 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM

On August 2ist the XII. (ist Royal Saxon) Army
Corps engaged in operations before Dinant. The 2nd
Battalion of Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment No. io8, together
with a company of pioneers, undertook on the evening of
this day a strong reconnaissance towards Dinant. As the
first houses on the road coming from Sorinnes were reached,
the sound of a signal shot was suddenly heard. The next
moment there came a rattle of musketry from all sides.
Shots were fired from all the houses, and the slopes were
lighted up with the flashes. The houses were firmly barri-
caded, so that rifle-butts, hatchets, and hand-grenades had to
be used to force an entrance. Trip-wires were drawn across
the road. Numerous wounds were inflicted on oar men by
the discharge of small shot. They were even pelted with
stones (Apps. 2-5).

The battalion penetrated as far as the bridge, ascer-
tained that this was occupied by enemy troops, and then
returned, being continually fired upon from the houses.
Under the necessity of haste it was impossible to clear the
place thoroughly of francs-tireurs. To some extent at-
tempts were made to master them by setting on fire the
houses from which the firing took place.

It was evident that this assault by the inhabitants on
the reconnoitring detachment took place according to plan,
that people known in Dinant were aware of the intended
operation, and that for this purpose well-prepared measures
had been adopted. Among other things indicating this
preparation was the fact that numerous houses and walls
had been provided with loopholes.

In view of these experiences we naturally assumed that
in any further operations the civilian population would also
take part in the fighting. Nevertheless, all anticipations in
this direction were far exceeded through the extent and
obstinacy of the people's participation in the fight.

On August the 23rd the left bank of the Meuse was to be
taken by the XII. Corps. After preliminary artillery fire
the infantry advanced in the direction of Dinant — the 32nd
Infantry Division to the north, the 23rd Infantry Division
to the south. On the left wing the (Guards) Grenadier
Regiment No. 100 forced its way into the town, on the right
of them Infantry Regiment No. 180, and in close conjunction
Rifle Regiment No. 108, whilst in the Leffe valley Infantry
Regiment No. 178 reached Leffe.

The fighting on August 23rd, accompanied by com-
paratively slight loss, resulted in the dislodgement of the



APPENDIX C— DINANT 95

enemy forces from the heights of the left bank of the Meuse.
On the other hand, the losses which the hostile civil popula-
tion of Dinant and its outskirts had inflicted on the XII.
Corps on August 23rd, and the effort which was necessary
to break down the completely organised resistance of the
civil population on August 23rd and the following days
were very considerable. Once more, as on August 21st,
people in Dinant and the neighbourhood had apparently
secured information that a movement of the corps was
imminent, and they were accordingly prepared. The
ist Battalion of the Guards Regiment, approaching from
Herbuchenne, were assailed by a vigorous fire from the
houses and alleys. Bit by bit, every house had to be fought
for singly with the use of hand-grenades in order to dis-
lodge from their hiding-places the inhabitants who had
stowed themselves away from cellar to attic and who were
making use of every possible kind of weapon. Those who
v/ere caught with weapons in their hands were immediately
shot, while suspected persons were led off as hostages to the
town gaol.

Despite these measures the Grenadier Guards were still
further fired on by the population, and thereby suffered
considerable losses, especially in officers. Here, among
others, fell Lieutenant Treusch von Buttlar, and Captain
Legler was severely wounded.

In the meantime, a great part of the place had been con-
sumed by fire, caused partly by the use of hand-grenades,
partly by the French and German artillery fire. All this,
however, was not sufficient to convince the population of the
uselessness and danger of participating in the fighting.

Until the evening, even on the march to the crossing-
place at Les Rivages, the regiment was fired on from the
houses (Apps. i, 5, 7, 10, 11).

The Regiments No. 108 and No. 182 had similar experi-
ences when they, to the north of the Guards Regiment,
reached Dinant. From the moment they reached the most
easterly houses they came under fire. The farm of Malais
was stormed by the ist Battalion of the Rifles (Fusilier)
Regiment No. 108, and the whole of the francs-tireurs who
made a stand there were destroyed. Fighting hotly for
every house, our men pressed forward in the direction of the
market, all the time expecting to be fired at by invisible
foes from cellars, caves, and hill-sides. It was here that,
among others. Major Lommatzsch of Infantry Regiment
No. 182 was fatally wounded by the bullets of two civilians



96 THE GERMAN ARxMY IN BELGIUM

from the windows of a house. They even fired down from
the cathedral (Apps. 12, 14, 18). Already in the course of
the forenoon the Commanding Officer of the 46th Brigade
recognised that it was impossible, without artillery bombard-
ment, to gain the mastery over the fanatical population.

The troops were, however, too much involved in house-
to-house fighting to be immediately withdrawn. It was
only after 3 o'clock in the afternoon that it was possible
to withdraw the troops to the heights north of Dinant, so
that the artillery, in particular, sections of Field Artillery
Regiment No. 12 and a battery of heavy artillery, could
now bring Dinant, from Leffe, more effectually under their
fire (Apps. 12, 19, 21).

In the early morning Infantry Regiment No. 178 had
set out from Thynes on their march towards Leffe, making
use of the Leffe valley road. Already before reaching Leffe
the advance company was fired on from detached holdings
as well as from the steep hill slopes (partially wooded),
which stretched along on the right and the left of the road.
This harassing fire was directed with particular activity
from the paper-mill situated on the left of the road and the
adjacent houses. For this reason, the slopes were searched
for francs-tireurs, later on with the co-operation of the
nth Jagers, and the barricaded houses forcibly opened and
cleared of inhabitants. All those caught with weapons in
their hands were shot. More and more vigorously the
advancing regiment was attacked by the inhabitants con-
cealed in the houses. There was firing from all the houses,
although in many of them no one was found. The marks-
men crept into their hiding-places in order to leave them
later on and renew their firing on the German troops. This
made it necessary to set on fire a number of houses in order
to drive out the marksmen from their places of concealment.
A number of inhabitants were marched off as hostages to the
monastery (Apps. 22-32).

The 9th Company of the 178th Regiment occupied the
garden of a villa along the Meuse and a factory which
fronted the enemy on the left bank of the Meuse (Apps. 25,

30> 79)-

Here again they were fired on ; the villa and the factory
were therefore cleared of their occupants. The proprietor
and a large number of the workpeople were fetched out of
the cellar of the factory and shot, whilst the women and
children found there were lodged in the monastery.

Practically for the whole of the day the 178th Regiment



APPENDIX C— DINANT 97

carried on a hot fight with the population of Leffe, and
suffered severe losses (Apps. 25, 26).

Infantry Regiment No. 103, which reached Leffe towards
evening, was also fired on by francs-tireurs from the slopes
of the Leffe ravine as well as from the houses, and defended
itself in the same way by disarming and shooting the men
found with arms, and by burning down single houses which
could not otherwise be cleared (Apps. 33, 36).

In the evening it became quiet in Lefie. The assumption,
however, that nothing more was to be feared from the
inhabitants proved to be erroneous. After nightfall the
left-wing outpost of the 2nd Battalion of Infantry Regiment
No. 178, posted as a guard against attack along the Meuse,
was assailed by a large body of the inhabitants to the south
of the barracks of the 13th Belgian Infantry Regiment.
A detachment of reinforcements cleared this locality and
the adjoining district, being continually fired upon from the
houses by francs-tireurs. A large number of persons caught
with weapons in their hands were shot (Apps. 22, 24, 29) .

In the night, towards 12 o'clock, the Detachment of
Zeschau came from Houx by the northern entrance to Leffe.
Scarcely had they reached the first houses when the fore-
most company received a brisk rifle fire. The houses, the
doors of which were barred and the windows barricaded
with furniture and beds, were stormed and set on fire as a
security against francs-tireurs, who were not otherwise to
be caught. The men found in them who were carrying
arms were shot (App. 38).

From the factory above mentioned also the detachment,
especially the Machine-Gun Company of Infantry Regiment
No. 177, was briskly and continuously fired on. The
shooting of the francs-tireurs only died out when the factory
was set on fire (Apps. 38, 64, 65).

Whilst these events were taking place in the north of
Dinant, in the south, also at Les Rivages and Anseremme,
sanguinary fighting with the civil population had taken
place. Late in the afternoon, Grenadier Regiment No. loi
with the 3rd Field Pioneer Company reached Les Rivages
by the road which ends there, in order to cross the Meuse.
The pioneers, with pontoon waggons for bridge-building,
had already entered the section of Dinant occupied by the
Guards Regiment.

On account of the fire which they received from the
houses, and of which they could not get the mastery, despite
all attempts in conjunction with the infantry to clear the

7



98 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM

houses, they had been obliged to withdraw to the
heights.

The village of Les Rivages at first appeared as if deserted.
On the opposite bank the houses in Neffe, struck by our
artillery fire, burst into flames (Apps. 20, 39, 44) .

The crossing began at once. First the 2nd, then the
nth Company of Grenadier Regiment No. loi, gained the
left bank and advanced to the attack in. extended order
against the enemy infantry on the western heights of the
river-bank. The nth Company received about five con-
secutive discharges of small shot from a house in the narrow
alley through which they had passed in Neffe. The barred
house was broken open, and the francs-tireurs, a man and
two women, were_shpt. ^* - - -_

"TCrectly after this the company, led by the company
commander, reached the railway embankment. At this
spot a waterway led through the embankment ; before the
culvert lay a civilian with a sort of carbine, shot dead ; in
the dark culvert people were seen. From the top of the
embankment the officer advancing with another company
shouted down that he had been shot at from the culvert.
The company commander called out loudly, " Sortez,
on ne vous fera rien " (" Come out; nothing will be done
to you "). No answer came from the culvert, neither did
the people leave it who were concealed there. Thereupon
a number of volleys were fired into the culvert. The
Grenadiers continued their advance over the railway em-
bankment and up the heights. The detachment left behind
for clearing and guarding the culvert brought out about
thirty-five to forty civilians, men, half-grown lads, women,
and children, and with them about eight to ten rifles, not
sporting-guns, but apparently military rifles. A portion of
the civilians had been killed or wounded by the fire of the
Grenadiers (App. 40). In the meantime everything had
still remained quiet in Les Rivages. The first person who
showed himself was a lame man. He described himself
as the Mayor, and protested that the inhabitants of Les
Rivages were peaceable in contrast to those of Neffe. He
was therefore sent over to Neffe for the purpose of warning
the population in that place to keep the peace, as in that case
nothing would happen to them. The commanding officer
of Grenadier Regiment No. loi forcibly collected a large
number of persons from the nearest houses in order to hold
them as hostages against the hostile action of the populace.
It was made clear to them that their lives were guarantee



APPENDIX C— DINANT 99

for the safety of the troops. The causes for this measure
were the notorious hostihty of the population of Dinant,
and the report just made by an officer that, close by, to
the south of Les Rivages, towards Anseremme, shots had
been fired from the houses. The men were placed against
a garden wall to the left of the place of crossing, the women
and children who came with them out of the houses, some-
what farther down the river.

The bridge-building and crossing were in progress.
When the bridge had been built out about 40 metres alike
from the houses of Les Rivages and from the rocky slopes
close to the south of the " Rocher Bayard," francs-tireurs
began to direct a hot lire upon the Grenadiers, who were
waiting in close order for crossing, and on the working
pioneers. The greatest consternation and confusion ensued.
In consequence of this the male hostages assembled by the
garden wall were shot. _ "*

The shooting of the hostages, evidently visible to the
unseen francs-tireurs, resulted in the cessation of the firing
and a continuation of the bridge-building (Apps. 46, 48).

Partly during the night of August 24th and partly on the
next day the troops of the Corps were able to cross the
Meuse at Les Rivages and Neffe. On August 25th the rear
portions of the Corps also crossed the Meuse.

In no way, however, had the severe measures taken on
August 23rd put any final stop to the excesses of the francs-
tireurs. On the two following days also, columns passing
through and single persons were shot at from the slopes and
from the houses, although no longer to the same extent as
on August 23rd. This necessarily led again to retaliatory
measures, to the shooting of individual inhabitants caught
in the act, and to the artillery bombardment of buildings
which were occupied by francs-tireurs. The former
measures were taken on August 24th in Neffe and St.
Medard, and the latter on August 24th and 25th in all parts
of the town (Apps. 49, 50). If one reviews the whole of
the resistance offered to the German troops by the popula-
tion of Dinant and its suburbs, the first thing that strikes
one is its systematic organisation (Apps. 12, 25, 30).

Already before the 23rd of August it was known to the
inhabitants of the neighbourhood of Dinant that in this
place there existed an organisation for treacherous attack
on the German troops (Apps. 12, 51).

It was known that the surprise attacks upon the German
troops by the local inhabitants, which took place at Sorinnes



100 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM

and other places lying to the east of the Meuse, were partly
to be traced to emissaries from Dinant.

This organised effort was distinguished by its careful
preparation and by the extent of its activities.

The houses were placed in a state of defence by the
barricading of the doors and windows, by the construction
of loopholes, and by the accumulation of a large supply of
firearms and ammunition in the houses. The existence of
large stocks of ammunition was proved in one way by the
repeated explosions in the burning houses. In the night
operations of August 21st trip-wires were drawn across the
street (Apps. 3, 9, 10, 11, 18, 26, 28, 29, 31, 38, 49, 50, 52,
53, 70, 81).

From the fact that the firearms were not only in part
sporting-guns and revolvers, but were partly machine-guns
and Belgian military rifles (Apps. 2, 25), one may conclude
that the movement had the support of the Belgian Govern-
ment. The whole of Dinant with its suburbs on the right
and left bank of the Meuse was prepared in the same way.
Everywhere, in Leffe, in Les Rivages, in Neffe, one found
the barricading of the houses, the loopholes, and the presence
of weapons. At the same time it is expressly pointed out
in the reports of the fighting that the belligerent Belgian
civilians did not wear any kind of military badge (Apps.
4-7, 12, 15, 22, 24, 25, 31). The whole population was
imbued with the same purpose — to hold up the German
advance. If, by taking part in the dangers into which it
knowingly ventured, some portion of it perished, it has
only itself to blame. ' ■

This resistance offered to our troops was extremely
obstinate. It was carried on with every kind of weapon,
with military rifles and sporting-guns, with bullets and
shot, with revolvers, with knives, with stones (Apps. 5, 10,
II, 25-28, 31, 35, 38, 43, 54, 55, 57, 58, 63, 67. 81). All
grades, even the clergy (App. 18), took part in it, men and
women, old men and children (Apps. 5, 6, 10, 12, 14, 18, 28,
29, 35, 41, 44, 54, 56, 59, 63). From the cellars of burning
houses firing was still kept up. At the very moment when
he was being shot by martial law, a franc-tireur discharges'
a revolver, which he had kept concealed, at the firing-parljr


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