for the most part merely to interpret Plato, he is
probably the boldest thinker, and his philosophy the
most complete and comprehensive system, of Roman
times. His doctrine is an uncompromising idealism :
the world all comes from one Original Force, which
first differentiates itself into Mind, i.e. into the duality
of Thought and Being. Nature is the result of Thoughts
contemplating themselves, and the facts of nature, again,
are her self-contemplations. There is a religious ele-
ment in this system which was developed, first by the
master's biographer and editor. Porphyry, and then by
lamblichus, into what ultimately became a reasoned
THE END OF PHILOSOPHY 401
system of paganism intended to stand against the
polemics of the Christians.
It is usual to leave these last out of the accounts of
Greek literature. Their intimate dependence, indeed,
on ancient Greek speculation and habits of thought
is obvious upon the most casual reading. But the
connection, if treated at all, needs to be traced in
detail ; and there is a certain sense in which the death
and failure of the Emperor Julian marks an epoch,
amounting almost to the final extinction of ancient
cuhure and untheological ideals. The career of that
extraordinary man was well matched with a character
which would appear theatrical but for its almost excessive
frankness and sincerity, and which seems to typify the
ancient heroic spirit struggling helplessly in the toils of
the decadence. He seeks to be a philosopher, and ends in
mysticism. He champions enlightenment, and becomes
almost more superstitious than the fanatics with whom
he wars. He fires his soldiers and dependents with
the love of justice and temperance and strict discipline,
and then debauches them by continual sacrifices to the
gods. He preaches toleration on the house-tops, and
men answer him by a new persecution. The prince of
saintly life, who spends his nights in prayer and medi-
tation, who lives like a pauper because he has given
up all his privy purse to the relief of distress in the
provinces, and who seems to find his only real con-
solation in blindly following always the very highest
and noblest course abstractly possible, regardless of
practical considerations, is curiously near to some of
those wild Christian anchorites to whom he so strongly
objected. There was something very great and true
402 LITERATURE OF ANCIENT GREECE
which Julian was striving towards and imperfectly
grasping all through his life, which he might, in a
sense, have attained permanently in happier ages. He
was a great and humane general, an able and unselfish
statesman. But there is fever in his ideals ; there is a
horror of conscious weakness in his great attempts.
It is the feeling that besets all the Greek mind in its
decadence. Roman decadence tends to exaggeration,
vainglory, excess of ornament ; Greek decadence is
humble and weary. " / pray that I ma.y fulfil your
hopes," writes Julian to Themistius, ''but 1 fear I shall
fail. The promise you make about me to yourself and
others is too large. Long ago I had fancies of emulating
Alexander and Marcus and other great and good men ;
and a shrinkifig used to come over me and a strange dread
of knowing that I was utterly lacking in the courage of
the one, and could never even approach the perfect virtue
of the other. That was what induced me to be a student.
I thought with relief of the 'Attic Essays,' and thought it
right to go on repeating them to you my friends, as a man
with a heavy burden lightens his trouble by singing. And
now your letter has increased the old fear, and shown the
struggle to be much, much harder, when you talk to me of
the post to which God has called me."
One form of literature, indeed, contemporary with
Julian, and equally condemned by him and by his chief
opponents, shows a curious combination of decay and
new life, the Romance. The two earliest traces of prose
romance extant are epitomes. There is perhaps no spon-
taneous fiction in the Love Stories of Parthenius, an
Alexandrian who taught Vergil, and collected these myths
for the use of Roman poets who liked to introduce
mythical names without reading the original authorities.
THE ROMANCE 403
But the work may have looked different before it was
epitomised. There is real invention in the work of
one Antonius Diogenes about The Incredible Wonders
beyond Thule. He lived before Lucian, who parodies
him. The book was full of adventures, and included
a visit to the moon ; but, to judge from the epitome, it
repeated itself badly, and the characters seem to have
been mere puppets. One particular effect, the hero or
heroine or both being taken for ghosts, seems especially
to have fascinated the author. There is some skill in the
elaborate and indirect massing of the imaginary sources
from which the story is derived. Romance was popular
in the third century, which has left us the complete
story of Habrocomes and Antheia by Xenophon of
Ephesus. The two best Greek novelists are with little
doubt LONGUS and HeliodQrus : the former for mere
literary and poetic quality ; the latter for plot and
grouping and effective power of narrative. Helio-
dorus writes like the opener of a new movement. He
is healthy, exuberant, full of zest and self-confidence.
His novel is good reading even in our own age, which
has reached such exceptional skill in the technique of
novel-writing. You feel that he may well be, what as a
matter of fact he was, the forerunner of a long array of
notable writers, and one of the founders of an exception-
ally prolific and durable form of literature. It is said
that Heliodorus was a Christian and bishop of Salonica,
and that the synod of his province called upon him either
to burn his book or to resign his bishopric, whereupon
the good man did the latter. The story rests on weak
evidence, but it would be like the Heliodorus that we
know. Longus is very different â€” an unsanguine man
and a pagan. Not that his morals are low : it needs an
404 LITERATURE OF ANCIENT GREECE
unintelligent reader or a morbid translator to find harm
in his History of Daphnis and Chloe. But a feeling of
discouragement pervades all his work, a wish to shut
out the world, to shrink from ambitions and problems,
to live for innocent and unstrenuous things. He re-
minds one of a tired Theocritus writing in prose. Some
of the later novelists, like Achilles Tatius and Chariton,
wrote romances which, judged by vulgar standards,
will rank above that of Longus, They are stronger,
better constructed, more exciting ; some of them are
immoral. But there is no such poet as Longus among
He is the last man, unless the present writer's know-
ledge is at fault, who lives for mere Beauty with the
old whole-hearted devotion, as Plotinus lived for specu-
lative Truth, as Julian for the "great city of gods and
men." Of these three ideals, to which, beyond all others,
Greece had opened the eyes of mankind, that of Political
Freedom and Justice had long been relegated from prac-
tical life to the realm of thought, and those who had
power paid no heed to it. The search for Truth was
finally made hopeless when the world, mistrusting
Reason, weary of argument and wonder, flung itself
passionately under the spell of a system of authoritative
Revelation, which acknowledged no truth outside itself,
and stamped free inquiry as sin. And who was to
preach the old Beauty, earnest and frank and innocent,
to generations which had long ceased to see it or to
care for it ? The intellect of Greece died ultimately of
that long discouragement which works upon nations like
slow poison. She ceased to do her mission because her
mission had ceased to bear fruit. And the last great
pagans, men like Plotinus, Longus, and Julian, pro-
' GOTTERDAMMERUNG * 405
nounce their own doom and plead for their own pardon,
when they refuse to strike new notes or to try the ring
of their own voices, content to rouse mere echoes of
that old call to Truth, to Beauty, to Political Freedom
and Justice, with which Greece had awakened the world
long ago, when the morning was before her, and her
wings were strong.
I. â€” Before the Seventh Century all the Dates
ARE merely legendary, AND THE POETS MAINLY
II. â€” Before Marathon.
Each author is placed according to his traditional floruit or ax/u.^, which is fixed either
at the man's fortieth year, or, when the date of birth is unknown, at some year in
which he distinguished himself. The geographical name appended denotes the
writer's place of activity ; where the birth-place is different, it is added in brackets.
680? 'Tyrtseus,' Elegiacus .
? ' Terpander,' Lyricus .
Callinus, Elegiacus .
650 Alcman, Choricus . .
Pisander, Epicus . .
630 Mimnermus, Elegiacus
Semonides, lambicus .
620 Arion, Choricus . .
600 Alcseus, Lyricus . .
Sappho, Lyrica . .
Solon, Poeta Politicus
Stesichorus, Choricus .
590 Thales, Philosophus .
570 Anaximander, Philosophus
560 Bion, Historicus . . .
Xanthus, Historicus .
550 Anaximenes, Philosophus
540 Anacreon, Lyricus , .
Ibycus, Choricus . . .
Demodocus, Gnomicus .
Lesbos . .
Lesbos . .
Lesbos . .
Miletus . .
Teos . . .
Victor in Carnea, 676.
But see p. 69.
But both perhaps fifty
Observed eclipse of
sun in 585.
Went to Abdera, 545.
Hipponax, lambicus .
Xenophanes, Poeta Philo
Thespis, Tragicus . .
530 Pythagoras, Philosophus
520 Theognis, Elegiacus .
Simonides, Chorions .
Lasus, Choricus . .
5 10 Onomacritus, Poeta Orphicus .
Zopyrus, Poeta Orphicus
EugaeoH, Historicus .
500 Pratinas, Tragicus. .
Choirilus, Tragicus .
494 Phrynichus, Tragicus.
Athens . .
Athens . ,
Court of Hippias.
First tragic victory,
IILâ€” The Attic Period.
Battle of Marathon.
Pindar, Pyth. 7.
Panyasis, Epicus, Halicarnassus.
Pindar, Pyth. 3.
HiPPYS, Historicus, Rhegium (fabulous?).
Epicharmus, Comicus, vSyracuse (Cos).
yEscHYLUS, Tragicus, Athens ; b. 525, d. 456.
Pindar, Oiym. 10 and II.
Pindar, Choricus, Thebes ; b. 522, d. 448.
Pindar, Isthm. 7.
Formation of Delian Confederacy.
Parmenides, Poeta Philosophicus, Elea.
Pindar, Olym. I and 12 ; ^schylus, PerscE,
Bacchylides, Choricus, Sicily.
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE 411
468 Pindar, Olym. 6. The first victory of Sophocles.
466 Pindar, Pyth. 4 and 5.
CoRAX, Rhetor, Sicily.
464 Pindar, Olym. 7 and 13.
460 Chionides, Comicus, Athens.
Magnes ,, ,,
ecphantides ,, ,,
Anaxagoras, Philosophus, Athens (Clazomenae).
Bryson, Sophistes, Heraclea.
458 /Eschylus, Oresteia.
456 Pindar, Olym. 9.
Sophocles, Tragicus, Athens ; b. 496, d. 406.
455 Euripides, Peliades.
452 Pindar, Olym. 4 and 5.
451 Ion, Tragicus, Chios.
450 Gorgias, Sophistes, Leontini.
Stesimbrotus, Sophistes, Thasos.
Crates, Comicus, Athens.
Zeno, Philosophus, Elea.
Anaxagoras leaves Athens.
448 Cratinus, Comicus, Athens.
445 Hermippus, Comicus, Athens.
Empedocles, Poeta Philosophicus, Agrigentum.
444 Herodotus, Historicus, Halicamassus ; b. 484, d. 425 (?).
443 Herodotus goes to Thurii.
442 Protagoras, Sophistes, Abdera ; b. 482(?), d. 411.
440 Sophocles, Antigone (or 442 ?).
Antiphon, Orator, Athens.
Archelaus, Philosophus, Athens.
Euripides, Tragicus, Athens ; b. 480, d. 406.
Melissus, Philosophus, Samos.
Soph RON, Mimographus, Syracuse.
438 Parthenon dedicated.
Euripides, Alcestis (with Cresses, Alcmceon, Telephus).
435 Leukippus, Philosophus, Miletus.
432 Corinthians defeat Corcyreans, supported by Athenians, in a sea-
Pheidias and Aspasia prosecuted for impiety. Also Anaxagoras.
431 Peloponnesian War.
Euripides, Medea (with Dictys, Philocleies),
430 Herodotus publishes last part of his history.
Hippias, Sophistes, Elis.
Hellanicus, Historicus, Lesbos.
Pherecrates, Comicus, Athens.
412 CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE
Thucydides, Historicus, Athens.
Hippocrates, Medicus, Cos.
429 Phrynichus, Comicus, Athens.
Socrates, Philosophus, Athens ; b. 469, d. 399.
428 Euripides, Hippolytus.
427 Gorgias comes to Athens as chief envoy of Leontini.
426 Aristophanes, Babylonians.
425 Diogenes, Philosophus, Apollonia in Crete.
Capture of Sphacteria.
424 DiAGORAS, Philosophus, Melos.
423 Antiochus, Historicus, Syracuse.
Thucydides leaves Athens.
Aristophanes, Clouds (ist edit.).
422 Aristophanes, Wasps.
421 Peace of Nikias.
420 Damastes, Historicus, Sigeum.
Thrasymachus, Rhetor, Chalcedon.
Democritus, Philosophus, Abdera.
Glaucus, Historicus, Rhegium.
419 Prodicus, Sophistes, Ceos.
417 Old Oligarch on Constitution of Athens.
Antiphon, Or. 5, On the Ahirder of Herodes.
416 Agathon, Tragicus, Athens ; b. 447, d. 400.
415 Mutilation of the Hermse. Expedition to Sicily.
Eupolis, Comicus, Athens.
Hegemon, Comicus, Athens (Thasos).
Alkidamas, Rhetor, Elea.
Critias, Politicus, Athens.
414 Aristophanes, Comicus, Athens; b. 450, d. 385 ; Birds.
413 Athenian fleet destroyed at Syracuse.
412 Lysias comes to Athens.
Euripides, Helene, Andromeda.
411 Aristophanes, Lysistrata, Thesmophoriazusce.
Government of the Four Hundred.
410 Andocides, For Folystratus.
A09 Sophocles, Philoctetes.
408 Euripides, Orestes,
Aristophanes, Pluttis (ist edit.).
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE 413
406 TiMOTHEUS, Dithyrambicus, Athens (Miletus).
405 Plato, Comicus, Athens.
Aristophanes, Frogs. Euripides, Bcuchce (?).
404 Tyranny of the Thirty.
Ameipsias, Comicus, Athens.
Antimachus, Epicus, Colophon.
Choirilits, Epicus, Samos.
403 Democracy restored.
Lysias, Or. 12, Agamst Eratosthenes ; Or. 34, For the Constitution.
402 Lysias, Or. 21, Defence on a Charge of Taking Bribes.
401 Expedition of Cyrus the younger.
Lysias, Or, 25, Dejence on a Charge of Seeking to Abolish the
Sophocles, CEdipus at Colonus.
Thucydides's History published.
Sophainetus, Historicus, Stymphalus.
400 ^scHiNES, Philosophus, Sphettus in Attica.
Ctesias, Historicus, Cnidus.
Strattis, Comicus, Athens.
399 Andocides, On the Mysteries.
Death of Socrates.
EuCLEiDES, Philosophus, Megara,
395 ISOCRATES, Orator, Athens ; b. 436, d. 338.
Philistus, Historicus, Syracuse.
Philoxenus, Dithyrambicus, Athens (Cythera) ; b. 435, d. 380.
Polycrates, Sophistes, Athens.
Xenarchus, Mimographus, Sicily.
394 Xenophon, Historicus, Attica; b. 434, d. 354.
Isocrates, Or. 20, Against Lochites; Or. 19, ^gineticus; Or. 17, Tra-
393 Long Walls of Athens restored by Conon.
392 Aristophanes, EcclesiazuscE.
391 Isocrates, Or. 13, Against the Sophists.
390 Isseus, Or. 5, On the Estate of Dicccogenes.
PHi^DO, Philosophus, Athens.
388 Lysias, Or. 33, Olynipicuus.
387 Plato, Philosophus, Athens ; b. 427, d. 347.
380 EuBULUS, Comicus, Attica.
378 Athens head of a new Naval Confederacy.
374 Isocrates, Or. 2, Against Nicocles.
373 Isocrates, Or. 14, Plataicus.
371 Battle of Leuctra.
414 CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE
370 Is^us, Orator, Athens.
Anaxandrides, Comiciis, Athens (Camirus).
^iNEAS, Tacticus, Stymphalus.
369 Isxus, Or. 9, On the Estate of Astyphilus.
367 Aristotle comes to Athens.
366 Antisthenes, Philosophus, Athens.
Akisiippus, Philosophus, Cyrene.
Isocrates, Or. 6, Archidamus.
365 Antiphanes, Comicus, Athens (a foreigner) ; b. 404, d. 330.
364 Isseus, Or. 6, On the Estate of Philoctei)ion.
363 Demosthenes, Or. 27 and 28, Against Aphobus.
362 Battle of Mantinea. Death of Epaminondas.
Demosthenes, Or. 30 and 31, Agabist Onetor I and II.
360 Lycurgus, Orator, Athens; b. 396 (?), d 323.
Hyperides, Against Antocles.
359 Isocrates, Letter VI., To the Children of Jason.
357 Social War begins.
355 End of Second Athenian Empire.
Isocrates, Or. 8, On the Peace; Or. 7, Areopagiticus.
354 Eubulus in power at Athens.
Demosthenes, Or. 14, On the N'avy Boards ; Or. 20, Against Leptines.
Alexis, Comicus, Athens (Thurii) ; b. 394, d. 288.
353 Isocrates, Or. 15, On the Antidosis.
352 Demosthenes, Or. 16, On behalf of the Megalopolitans.
Theodectes, Tragicus, Athens (Phaselis).
Theopompus, Historicus, Chios.
351 Demosthenes, Or. 4, Against Philip I.
349 Demosthenes, Or. I and 2, Olynthiacs I. and II.
347 Death of Plato. Speusippus at the Academy.
346 Peace of Philocrates.
345 yEscHiNES, Orator, Athens ; b. 389, d. 314.
yEschines, Against Tiniarchns.
344 Demosthenes, Orator, Athens ; b. 383, d. 322.
Ephorus, Historicus, Kyme.
Aristotle, Philosophus, Stagirus.
343 Demosthenes, Or. 19. ^schines. Or. 2 [Falsa Legatio).
342 Hegesippus (?), About Halonnesus.
341 Demosthenes, Or. 8, On the Chersonese; Or. 9, Against Philip III.
340 War with Philip.
Anaximenes, Rhetor, Athens.
Demades, Orator, Athens.
Hyperides, Orator, Athens ; d. 322.
339 Isocrates, Or. 12, Panathenaiciis.
Xenocrates at the Academy.
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE 415
338 Battle of Chaeronea.
336 Philip assassinated. Alexander the Great succeeds.
334 Aristotle teaches at the Lyceum in Athens.
Alexander sets out for Persia.
330 Demosthenes, Or. i8, On the Crown.
^schines, Or. 3, Against Ctesiphon.
Lycurgus, Aga nst Leocrates.
324 Deinarchus, Orator, Athens (Corinth) ; b. 361 ; Or. i, Against Demos-
thenes ; Or. 2, Against Anstogeiton.
323 Epicurus comes to Athens.
Death of Alexander. Lamian War.
322 Hyperides, Epitaphms.
Death of Demosthenes. Hynerides, and Aristotle.
321 Alexander's Empire divided among his Generals.
Achilles Tatius, 404
Acusilausof Argos, 121
/Eneas Tacticus, 322
^schines, 173, 355 f.
^schylus, 9, 207, 208, 215-231, 289
Agathon, 204 note, 301
Alcajus, 91, 95
Alcman, 99 f.
Alexis, 288, 378
Alkidamas, 6, 163, 334
Ameipsias, 283, 284, 287
Anacreon, 94 f.
Anaximander, 153 f.
Andocides, 336 f.
Antidorus of Kyme, 123
Anlimachus of Colophon, 16, 71 f-
Antipater of Sidon, 394
Antiochus of Syracuse, 122
Antiphon, 163, 169, 335 f.
Antisthenes, 173, 304,334
Antonius Diogenes, 403
Anyte, 72, 394
Anytus, 135, 176 f., 329
Apollodorus, grammarian, 46
Apollodorus, Socratic, 173
Apollonius of Rhodes, 71, 381 f.
Apollonius of Tyana, 396
Aratus of Soli, 73, 386
Archilochus, 73, 80, 87 f.
Archij'es, 148, 188 f., 390
' Arctinus,' 5, 44
Arion, 99, loi
Aristarchus, 10, 15, 22, 388
Aristeas, 67, 73
Aristippus, 173, 312
Aristophanes, 89, 140, 212, 280-293
Aristophanes of Byzantium, 15, 388,
Aristotle, 10, 174, 256, 304, 312,
Atthidographi, 128, 130, 390
Babrius, 89, 393
Bacchylides, 108 f.
Bakis, 3, 66
Bion, pastoral poet, 385
Bion of Proconnesus, 122
Callimachiis, 71, 380 f., 388
Choirilus, epic poets, 70 f.
tragic poet, 205
' Chorizonles^ 10
Chorus, 95 f., 204 f.
Comedy, 210 f., 275-293, 377-379
Corinna, 109 f.
Cratinus, 275, 277
Creophylus, 1 21
Damastes of Sigeum, 123
Demades, 359 f.
Democritus. 159, 310, 312
Dens ex machina, 266 f.
Dieuchidas of Megara, 1 1
Diodorus Siculus, 395
Dion Cassius, 395
Dion Chrysostomus, 396
Uionysius, cyclographits, 9, 45
of Haiicarnassus, 313, 325, 95
of Miletus, 122
Dionysus-worship, 65 f. , 210
Dithyrtunb, 98 f.
Diyllus, Peripatetic, 135
Duris, 71, 390
Ephorus, 149, 389
hpic ' cycles,^ 45
Epicharmus, 275 f., 295
Epimenides, 66 f., 121
Euclides, Socratic, 173, 303
Euclides, mathematician, 387
Eudenius, Peripatetic, 376
Eugamon of Cyrene, 5
Eumelus, 68, 72 f , 121
Eupolis, 212, 278 f.
Euripides, 209, 210, 225, 229, 250-274
Gorgias, 160, 163, 334
Hkcat^us, 125 f,
Hellanicus, 128 f.
Heraclides of Pontus, 312
Heraclitus, 155 f.
Hermesianax, 72, 380
Hero, mechanician, 387
Herodes Atticus, 396
Herodian, 15, 395
Herodorus, 127 f.
Herodotus, 9, 125, 132-152, 196
Hesiod, 3, 6, 53-62
Hiatus, 33 r, note
Hipponax, 73, 88
'Historie,' 123 f.
Hyperides, 357 f.
Inscriptions, 117 f., 147, 192, 195, 208
Ion, 165, 233
Isoeus, 341, 353
Isocrates, 304, 327, 341-352
Lesches, 5, 44
' Linus,' 4
Lycurgus. 359 f.
Lysias, 175, 337-341
Marcus Aurelius, 4CX3
Meleager, 393 f.
Melesagoras, 12 1
Menander, 213, 293, 378
Mimnermus, 72, 81
'Old Oligarch,' The, 167-169
Onomacritus, il, 13 note, 67
' Orators,' 325-352
Orpheus, 4, 62-68
Panyasis, 70, 133
Papyri, 16, 100, loS, 388
Parmenides, 75, 136 f.
Paul the Silentiary, 394
Philemon, 213, 378
Philip of Opus, 310
Philochorus, 121, 390
' Philosophia,' 123, 153, 343
Phokylides, 72, 85
Phrynichus, 214, 279
Pindar, 8, 13, 104, 109- 116, 178
Pisander of Camirus, 69
Plato, 17, 66, 71, 161, 173, 294-313
Plato, comictis, 279
Plutarch, 151, 235, 293, 395 f.
Polybius, 187. 389, 391 f.
Polykrates, 175, 320
Pratinas, 205, 206
Protagoras, 150, 160, 163 f.
Ptolemy, geographus, 398
Pythagoras, 73 f., 154
QuiNTUS of Smyrna, 395
Rhianus, 16, 386
Sappho, 92 f. 95
Semonides of Amorgos, 8, 58, 72, 85 f.
Sexlus Empiricus, 398
Simonides of Keos, 8, 106-108
Skolia, 77, 90
Sky lax, 387
Socrates, 170-177. 294. 3-8, 314. 320
Solon, 12 f., 72, 81 f.
Sophocles, 209, 229, 232-249
Sophron, 275, 295
Speusippus, 312, 373
Stephen of Byzantium, 192, 193
Stesichorus, 54, 101-105
Stesimbrotus, 165 f.
'â– Story,'' 119
Terpander, 77 f.
' Themistogenes,' 319
Theocritus, 383 f.
Theodorus, grammarian, 46
Theognis, 72, 83 f.
'I heophrastus, 375 f.
Theopompus, 389 f.
Thrasymachus, 162, 169, 326
Thucydides, 10, 178-202
Tisamenus of Teos, 295
Tisias, rhetor, 164
Tisias, see Stesichorus
Wise Men, Seven, 72, 84 f.
Xenophanes, 9, 21, 74, 154
Xenophon, 175, 314-324
Xenophon of Ephesus, 403
Zeno, 157, 304