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Rale's death in 1724, led through the Hoosac Pass to
Deerfield and Northfield villages of the English; as did
the subsequent invasions of the French and St. Francis
warriors diuing King George's War, and the later French
and Indian War. A French writer recorded that within
a certain definite period of short duration, twenty-seven
detachments of St. Francis warriors headed by Jesuit chap-
lains, made incursions into the country settled by the
Dutch and English Protestants.

St. Croix, Dutch Hooesac, and Kreigger neighborhoods* j
located in the Hoosac Pass of the Taconacs between the
junctions of the Owl Kill and Cohoha or Wash-Tub Brook
with the Hoosac at Kreigger Rocks, suffered more from those
avenging forays of King Philip's fugitive warriors than did
Knickerbacker's Dutch colony on the lower Hoosac, or
Williams's English proprieties on the upper Hoosac.

The Hoosac Patent, granted in 1688, covered all the fertile
meadow-land two miles in width on both banks of the
Hoosac, between the Fallen-hill in Old Schaghticoke, and



The Patroons of French and Dutch Hoosac 1 15

the north Hne of Rensselaerwyck, near the junction of the
Little Hoosac with the Big Hoosac.

The founders of the Fort St. Croix in 1724 included:
Patroon Garret Cornelius Van Ness, Arendt Van Corlaer,
3d, Adam Vrooman, Pitt Van Hogleboom, George Nicolls, a
descendant of Col. Richard Nicolls of the British war-
fleet of 1664; Johannes De Ruyter, a descendant of Genera]
De Ruyter of the Battle of Solebay; Juria Kreigger, a de-
scendant of Col. William Kj-eigger of Governor Stuyvesant's
Fort Amsterdam militia in 1664; Jan Oothout, a grandson
of Hans Reinier Oothout of Capt. Jacobus Van Corlaer's
Fort Good Hope garrison on the Connecticut ; Jacob Onder-
kirk, a grandson of Oldert Onderkirk of Fort Half-Moon;
Daniel and Albertus Brodt (Bratt), Rykert Borie fBovie),
Jacob and Abram Fort, Johannes Van Denbiu-gh, Johannes
De Fonda, Jan Huyck, David and Stephen Van Rensselaer,
Robert Leake (Lake), William Nicholas, Andrew Norwood,
George Searles, Pieter Sur Dam, and many another "Rip
Van Winkle" of the "Bully Boys" of Helderberg, whose
gravestones have long since crumbled to dust and whose
names have been forgotten. The only records of the St.
Croix forefathers are found to-day on the Manitoti aseniah,
(Spirit-stones) marking the site of the Tioshoke Church-
yard, northwest of Fort St. Croix terrace.

According to tradition, there was a quaint Dutch village
about the site of the Tioshoke Church between 1724 and
1 746. The leases of Patroon Van Ness to his tenants reveal
that the crossroads of his manor connected with the "Great
Road," now known as Cambridge Turnpike, leading between
the junction of the Owl Kill to the St. Croix Mills, at the
junction of the Little White Creek with the Walloomsac.

On either side the riv^er lie
Long fields of barley and of rye.



Ii6



The Hoosac Valley



The first Tioshoke Church was undoubtedly founded by
Count Zinzendorf's Moravian missionaries from Germany
and Bohemia, between 1741 and 1754. After the close of




The St. Croix Burial-field located about the site of the Tioshoke Mission
Chapel of Colonial days. The tombstones in the foreground mark the grave
of Arendt Van Corlaer, jd, who died in 1797 at the age of 107 years.

The Hoosacs recognized the rude slabs of marble as Manitou-aseniah,
Spirit-stones, and carved their Wakon-bird stones from quartzite or marble, which
their priests used in their own burial ceremony.

Heroes " survive storms and the spears of their foes, and performe a few
heroic deeds, and then:

'Mounds will answer questions of them,
For many future years.'

Thoreau, The Heroes' Cairn.

the French and Indian War the dominie's parsonage and Dr.
Hugh Richey's dwelling stood near the site of the Tioshoke
Church-yard, now containing the tombstone marking the
grave of Arendt Van Corlaer, 3d,' who died in 1797, at the

' The name Corlaer is spelled Curler on his gravestone. He was of French
Walloon origin.



The Patroons of French and Dutch Hoosac 117

age of 107. In the hamlet was Patroon Van Ness's Mansion ;
and about the site of his St. Croix Mills stood a number of
dwellings for tenants and slaves, a schoolhouse, ashery,
store, blacksmithy, wagonshop, and tannery, before General
Rigaud's invasion, during King George's War in 1746.

Simultaneous with the founding of Fort St. Croix Colony
in 1724, tenantry from Fort Half-Moon and Fort Schaghti-
coke colonies pushed up the three branches of the Wanepi-
moseck Creek, leading toward Rensselaer's Plateau from
Hart's Falls, Valley Falls, and Eagle Bridge. Philip Van
Ness, a cousin of Garret Cornelius Van Ness, founded the
Tioshoke Colony on the north bank of the Hoosac, below the
junction of the Owl Kill, about 1724, and later built a saw-
mill and grist-mill. He was joined by Wouter Van Vechten,
Lewis Van Woerdt, Johannes Quakenbosch, Nicholas Groes-
beck, and Pieter and Ludovicus Viele, sons of Yocob Viele
of the Knickerbacker Colony. Johannes Van Buskirk,
Augustus Van Cortlandt, and Augustus Van Home later
located on the south bank of the Hoosac, opposite Philip
Van Ness's Tioshoke hamlet, and founded Buskirk Bridge
hamlet. Van Cortlandt and Van Home, as heirs of patroon
Jacobus Van Cortlandt of New York City, inherited the Great
Lots of Hoosac Patent, including the Falls Quequick forests.

About two years after Fort St. Croix was built, the fur-
trader, Jan Gothout, cleared a lot on the east bank of Falls
Quequick and built the first log house within the present
limits of Hoosac Falls; the site was subsequently occupied
by the Henry Barnhart and Samuel Bowen saw-mill, in
1754. Pitt Van Hogleboom, son of the fur- trader, Bart Van
Hogleboom, from the junction of Bart's Kill — Batten Kill, —
also cleared a lot two miles above Falls Quequick and built
a log house, which was subsequently owned by Nicholas
Brown. Jacob Onderkirk, son of Cornelius Onderkirk of
Fort Half-Moon, cleared a large farm a few years later on the



ii8 The Hoosac Valley

west bank of Hoosac, two miles above Falls Quequick; and
other homesteaders forced their way up the Nepimore, or
Nipmuth Creek, to "Shingle Hollow," where they made pine
shingles, tar, and turpentine.

Eight or ten greedy burghers, also, of Rensselaerwyck,
headed by Juria Kreigger, pushed up the Hoosac Pass about
1724 and "squatted" on the Cohoha cornfields, near the
junction of Wash-Tub Brook with the Hoosac, about Kreig-
ger's Rocks and at Weeping Rocks, nearly four miles east
of Twenty-Mile Line of New York, on the New Hampshire
Grants. No contemporary records exist of those settlements,
although after Pownal was chartered to the English in 1760,
the Dutch land claimants of several farms included the
names of Juria Kreigger, Petrus Voseburgh (Vose), Bastian
Van Deel (Diel), Franz Burns and his brother, Pitt Hogle
(Van Hogleboom), Henry Young, Schorel Marters Watson,
Mr. Devot, Long Andries, John Spencer; and later the Van
Arnam, Van Norman, Anderson, Fischer, and Westing-
house families.

A partial division of the Great Lots of the eastern end of
Hoosac Patent took place, May 15, 1732. The heirs of
Maria Van Rensselaer, Hendrick Van Ness, Garret Tunis-
son-Van Vechten, and Jacobus Van Cortlandt drew their
lots. Catherine Van Vechten, a granddaughter of Garret
Tunisson-Van Vechten and Col. Johannes Knickerbacker,
1st, of Old Schaghticoke, drew several shares. In 1735,
she married Barnardus Bratt, or Brodt, who purchased the
rights of several other Van Vechten heirs; his great wealth
and assumption of manorial rights distinguished him locally
as the "Patroon of Hoosac." He built his manorial man-
sion, huge Dutch-roofed barns, mills, and tannery in 1736
about the present site of Petersburgh Junction Station. ^ The
corn-mill stood on the Patroon's Brook, which flows through a

* Located in Hoosac, N. Y.



The Patroons of French and Dutch Hoosac 119

ravine north of the site of the present Gardner Mansion and
which joins the Hoosac a mile below Petersburgh Junction.
The broken mill-stone still lies bleaching on the bank of
the brook. After the advent of the w^ealthy "Patroon of
Hoosac," waving fields of grain and barracks of straw
loomed up on either bank of the devious Hoosac,

That clothe the wold and meet the sky;
And through the fields the road runs by.

The historic hamlet of "Dutch Hooesac," burned by Gen-
eral Rigaud dining King George's War in August, 1746, lay
partly on Bratt's Big Hoosac manor and partly on Van
Rensselaer's Little Hoosac manor. The Dutch meeting-
house, schoolhouse, blacksmith-shop, and store, stood about
the junction of the Hoosac and Little Hoosac roads on the
site of Petersburgh Four Comers. A brisk trade in hides,
tallow, furs, beer, rum, floiu", provisions, and clothing was
carried on between the tenantry of the Dutch patroons of
Hoosac, Rensselaerwyck, St. Croix, and Fort Massachusetts.

Among the first homesteaders of Rensselaerwyck and
Hoosac manors may be named: Johannes De Ruyter, Hen-
drick Letcher, Petrus and Hans Bachus, Johannes George
Brimmer, and Jacob Best. In the De Fonda neighbor-
hood east of Bratt's Mansion at the base of De Fonda Hill
resided the Van Derricks, Johannes De Fonda, Knott,
Robert and Jan Huyck families. The latter descended from
Dominie Jan Huyck, who first located at New Amsterdam
in 1626. Descendants of Jan Huyck are found in Herkimer,
N. Y., and the De Fondas founded Fonda in the Mohawk
Valley.

The English missionaries, Jonathan Sergeant, Timothy
Woodbridge, and Samuel Hopkins in 1732 located at Skate-
cook, near the junction of Green River w4th the Housatonac,
on the site of Sheflfield, Mass. Ephraim Williams, Sr.,



I-?0 'J-hr IKhVs.u- WilKy

josiah joiios. josoph WooJlM-iJi^v. aiul ICphraiiu Uvown
KuMirii alnnil Km;; AopuMi's MiMmniont Mountain villai;i\
and inaMporaU\l \Uc lown. SuvklM-iJ).;o. in i ;^^o. l^phraini
\\ illiains. Sr.. was also roinniissioncil to la\ out one m- nunv
townships on tlio ni>prr lloosa.> Jufin.i; Ma\ . i ;^;o, when he
disoovoiTvl tlu^ Oulch buri;IuM-s of Urnssolaorwx ck looati\l
lUMi- KailK\snako pM-ook on tho borJor of Willianistown.
Mass. The ShrritT of Rrnssckionv\ ok aiul tlio Soliai;htici>ko
saoluMUs aJvanoovl \o ihc lu\ulwatiM-s oi [ho lloosao and
routod tlio luii^lish survox ors.

l.iont.-r.ov. luHMi^o C'kuko oi Albany on Jiuio 5. 1 7 ;o.
advertised all "the vaoant land oast oi lloiv^ao l\iteiVt."
for siMtlonuMit. Tho Waliootnsac Patent eoveriui; twelve
thousanvl aeri\s oi nieadowdand on the banks oi the Wal-
loon Treek was p-anted to six proprietors ineludin.i;: Janies
iV l.aneey. C'harles Williams. ICdward C\^llins. T.erar-
dus vSiuNvesant. Stephen \"an Rensselaer, and iMvderiek
Morris of Albany. The traet be>;an two miles east of the
lloosae River and extended eastward up the Walloomsae to
Haviland's Prook. known to-day as Paran C^vek. in North

PHMUUMi^tOn. \"t.

C'ov. Jonathan P^eleher oi P>oston. after the ICnj^lish were
routed from the upper 1 loosao.iu June, i r;,o. addivssed several
letters to Lieut. -r.ov. r.eoroe Clarke, requesting; a Mmu.il
Board v>f Tv^mmissioners to deeide upon the Twenty-Milo
l.me between New York aiui Mass;ieluisotts. in v>rder to
bettor seen re the New ICngland borvlers. "whereuixMi some
tew people have alivady j;ot and iniuibit." The letters were
iKiioiwi and Riehard lla-:en was eni^aged to survey and
establish the pivsenl northern line oi Massaehusotts in
April. 1 7.}!. and Port Massachusetts was built during the
sunmier of 17.45.

Commissary Majv>r Israel Williams ot Massaehusotts bor-
der forts direeted Lieut. John Catlin. .\i. to negotiate with the



The Poltroons of French and Dutch Hoosac 121

patroons of Dutch Hoosac for supplies. On August 5, 1745,^
both Cajit. Garret Cornelius Van Ness and Barnardus Bratt
visited Fort Massachusetts, and Captain Van Ness agreed
to supply flour delivered at the Van Derrick Mansion in
] )iit eh J looesac at 28 per skipel, in exchange for New England
rum, hides, and tallow at market price shipped to his son,
Cornelius Van Ness, a wholesale merchant in New York City.

Ambuscades of savages began to lurk throughout Hoosac
Valley after the English commenced to l)uild Fort Massa-
chusetts. Nicholas Bovie of Kreigger neighborhood, now
North Pownal, Vt., was scalped and left for dead, although
he survived many years and was known as "Scalped Dick."
His uncle, Petrus Bovie, while a garrison soldier at Fort
Massachusetts, was killed during October, 1747, and Pitt Van
Hogleboom and his youngest son were later slain. The
latter, according to his mother, was buried on the bank of the
Hoosac in the Cohoha cornfield. ^ The late Alonzo Whipple,
oiK' of the Pownal citizens, located his disinterred grave
nu'iny years ago after a freshet, and recovered his brass-
l)()wled pipe, which is now in the possession of V. D. S.
Merrill of Bennington, Vt.

In June, 1746, while Franz Bums and his brother were
hoeing in Cohoha cornfield, they saw their barn on fire. On
nearing their cottage door they beheld a stack of French
rides and in their fright the brothers separated. One
ascended the trail over the Kreigger Rocks and hastened up
the valley to Fort Massachusetts, and the other turned up the
river and met an ambuscade of warriors, who gave chase for
his scalp. He plunged into the river and hid beneath piles
of driftwood until the Indians retreated down the valley.
The next morning he rose from his hiding-place and pro-
ceeded to the English fort, where to his surprise he found his
brother.

' Note 2, at end of volume. ^ See illustration, Chapter VI., p. 137.



122 The Hoosac Valley

Two months later General Rigaud invaded Hoosac Valley
with a vast army of French and St. Francis Indians, They
encamped on the Bums brothers, Cohoha cornfield, west
of Kreigger Rocks, and sent scouts to observe Fort Massa-
chusetts. Captain Van Ness and Bamardus Bratt did not
warn the English commander of an advancing enemy, hoping
thereby to escape molestation, as during former invasions of
the Canadas. Rigaud's returning army and English captives
encamped on the Van Derrick meadow, near Dutch Hooesac.
General Rigaud recorded the loss of Dutch Hooesac to be
£50,000 York currency and an equal loss at St. Croix.

Young Cornelius Van Ness in 1750, after his marriage
with Alida Van Woerdt, a daughter of Capt. Lewis Van
Woerdt of Tioshoke, returned from New York City to St.
Croix manor, to reside there with his father.

The French and Indian War was first announced in central
Hoosac on May 28, 1754, by a party of French and Indians,
who encamped at the Bamhartand Bowen, Falls Ouequick
saw-mills. The Van Ness, Van Corlaer, Van Woerdt, Vroo-
man, Gothout, Onderkirk, Bratt, Van Derrick, De Ruy-
ter, Letcher, Bachus, De Fonda, Huyck, Van Dee! (Diel),
Voseburgh (Vose), Van Hogleboom, and Kreigger families
made their escape to Fort Massachusetts ahead of the war-
party. The enemy later burned both St. Croix and Dutch
Hooesac and marched up the valley. The Dutch burghers
on their way to Fort Massachusetts sent a warning to the
English proprietors at West Hoosac hamlet, now Williams-
town, and Capt. Elisha Chapin assigned them the West
Hoosac homesteaders' barracks. Upon the arrival of the
English, therefore, they found their quarters crowded with
a "Dutch clutter," and several families were forced to
journey on to their Connecticut homes. This led to a
bitter military jealousy, and the Connecticut settlers
built a fort on the Square in West Hoosac, not only



The Patroons of French and Dutch Hoosac 123

as a refuge from the French and Indians but from the
Dutch.

The loss of the patroons on May 28, 1754, in Dutch Hooesac
and St. Croix, as reported by Captain Chapin, consisted of
"Seven dwellings, fourteen barns, and fourteen barracks of
wheat amounting to £4000 York currency in each hamlet."

The Brimmer massacre took place two weeks later, on
June 15th. Johannes George Brimmer and his three sons
were laboring in their cornfield when an Indian blanket was
discovered by the elder Brimmer. He signalled to his sons
to follow him with the team to their dwelling. Jeremiah,
ithe eldest son, while mounting one of the horses, was killed
Iby a fatal ball, and immediately four savages rose from their
iambush. Godfrey and Jonathan Brimmer seized their
jguns and ran behind a brush-fence, but the warriors soon

1

located them. Godfrey fired without effect, and according
to custom of surrender, dropped the butt of his gun and
placed his left hand over its muzzle. He then extended his
right hand to his captor, who seized him by his collar band,
passed around him three times, and laid his right hand upon
his head. Another savage seized Jonathan, a lad of sixteen
years, and performed a similar ceremony, after which the
party turned down the Hoosac. Jonathan picked up several
small boulders as he crossed the Walloomsac ford and threw
'them at his captor, which caused the savage to laugh in
i admiration at Jonathan's defiance.

i The Brimmer boys marched up the Owl Kill to St. Johns
I lodge, where they were welcomed by three hundred Schagh-
ticoke and St. Francis warriors. The lads were seated in
the centre of the circle and requested to sing hymns. After
their third refusal the savages prepared to torture them in
order to make them sing, but an old Indian hunter, who had
visited the Brimmer home, arose and prevented the torture,
and six weeks later they were sold as slaves to French officers.



124 The Hoosac Valley

After the Fall of Quebec in 1759, the Brimmer boys escaped
and were again captured by the British near Fort Ticon-
deroga. Patroon Stephen Van Rensselaer obtained their
release and they returned to their parents at Rhinebeck-
on-the-Hudson.

A part}^ of thirty soldiers from Fort Albany visited " Dutch
Hooesac" and buried the body of Jeremiah Brimmer the
latter part of June, beside the great boulder near the present
residence of Henry J. Brimmer. The family returned to
their farm in Hoosac Pass about 1 763 and Jonathan remained
on the homestead, and Godfrey located on upper Little
Hoosac. The late Hezekiah Coon and Daniel Brimmer
remembered the adventurous tales related to them by the
venerable Jonathan and Godfrey Brimmer.

Lieut. -Gov. James De Lancey held a conference with the
Schaghticoke and Mohawk sachems between June 14th
and July 8th, in 1754, and advised the Albany Assembly
that it was time that the colonists should exert themselves
to stop the passage of the French, no less barbarous than
the Indians, prowHng through the unguarded passes of the
Hoosac Valley, to scalp and lead British subjects to captivity
in New France.

Eight weeks after the Brimmer massacre, St. Croix and
Dutch Hooesac were totally burned. Two official letters
of Capt. Elisha Chapin addressed to Col. Israel Williams,
dated at Fort Massachusetts, picture the deserted hamlets
of central Hoosac between August 3d and 28th, 1754.

Fort Massachusetts,

August 3, 1754.
Sir:

Last Sunday morning I sent a scout to Sencoick (St.

Croix) and they returned this minit. They find where the

Indians marched off and burned all afore them. They

think there was about 400 of the enemy. They see a man



I



The Patroons of French and Dutch Hoosac 125

come out of Albany yesterday. The Gent, of Albany was
very desirous that he should come to the fort and acquamt
me that there is 44 Indian canoes come out 9 days sense
and desine for our scattering frontieers in New England.
From Sir
Yrs

to Com

Elisha Chapin.

Fort Massachusetts,

August 25, 1754.

Sir:

This day there came a man from the Dutch and informs
me that 4 days past there came 5 Indians from Crownpint
and informs them that there is eight hundred Indians desine
to destroy Hosuck (Hooesac) and oare new town (Williams-
town) and this fort, and desine to be upon us this night. I
sent a man right down to Hosuck to hear farther about the
if!air, but the people was all moved off but 2 or 3 that was
coming to the fort and they tell him the same account. The
Indians that brought the account was sent in order to have
some parsons move from Sencoick (St. Croix) that they had
regard for, but if they come I hope we are well fixt for them.

In hast from
Sr

Your's etc.

Command. Elisha Chapin. '

During the campaigns of 1755 and 1756 the governors of
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York fortified the
trails leading up the Little Hoosac and Green River to Housa-
tonac Valley. Col. Israel Williams of Berkshire militia
submitted plans ^ for the Hoosac Valley defences to Governor
Shirley on September 12, 1754- He proposed that "two new
forts" should be built— one on the Square in West Hoosac,

' Perry, Origins in Williamstown, p. 250. =■ Ibid., pp. 286-291.



126 The Hoosac Valley

now Williamstown, to be garrisoned by Connecticut militia;
and another at St. CroLx, near the junction of the Walloonisac.
to be garrisoned b}^ New York militia. He considered that
if those "large openings " were closed and a proper garrison
and artiller}^ posted at Fort Half-AIoon, Fort Schaghticoke.
and Fort Massachusetts, the frontier English settlements
of Deerfield and Stockbridge would be protected. Fort
Hoosac was built during ^March, 1756, and Fort St. Croix
about the same time, although there is no contemporary
record of the latter fort 's construction. Capt. Isaac Wyman 's
Journal of Operations of Fort Massachusetts' during the earh-
summer of 1756, under date of June 15th, records that:
General Winslow sent Alajor Thaxter and one hundred and
fifty men from Fort Half-AIoon "acrost to our Fort at the
loar Eand of Alelomscot " ' (Walloomsac) , proving that a forti
was built there at that time. '

During the late summer of 1759, Col. Israel Williams
rallied his Alassachusetts regiment and reinforced General
Wolfe's army against the French at Quebec. His troopers,
marching do\\-n the Hoosac \^alley trail, kept an eye on the
deserted cornfields of Dutch Hooesac and St. Croix. After
the Peace of Paris was signed in 1763, hundreds of Congre-
gationaHsts, Baptists, Quakers, Adventists, Presb3i:erians,
and Alethodists located on patents in Schaghticoke, Cam-
bridge, Hoosac, and Rensselaer militar}- districts, where
their stone walls remain and the old grafted stock survives
in the orchards to-day.

' Perry, Origins in Williamstow?!, pp. 278-280.

' Melomscot refers tx> Mellen's patent, one of first settlers on the Walloomsac
Tract. It was mentioned by the German ofiScer Glick in 1777. Capt.
Isaac WjTuan's Journal, kept between May 19 and Juty 10, 1756, came
into the hands of Col. Israel Williams, successor of Col. John Stoddard's
Hampshire (Berkshire) County militia, in 174S. It descended to Capt.
John Williams, a son of Col. Israel Williams, residing in Old Deerfield.
Gen. E. Hoji;, author of Itidiati Wars, 1824, discovered the Jotirnal, August
31, 1820.



CHAPTER VI

FORT MASSACHUSETTS AND ENGLISH HOOSAC

I 745-1 746

In a pleasant glade.
With mountains round about environed,
Atid mighty woods, which did the valley shade.
And like a stately theatre it made,
Spreading itself into a spacious plain;
A nd in the midst a little river played.

Spenser.

Fort Massachusetts, 1745-1746 — Schaghticoke's Challenge of Hoosac Head-
waters — Ephraim Williams, Jr. — ^King George's or Shirley's War, 1744-
1748 — Rigaud De Vaudreuil's Invasion, 1746 — Burning of Fort — March
of English Captives to Quebec — Return of Redeemed Captives, 1747 —
Tombs of Chaplain Norton and Sergeant Hawks.

IN 1745, twenty-one years after Fort St. Croix was built in
Dutch Hoosac, the EngHsh built Fort Massachusetts
a mile west of the junction of the Mayoonsac with the Asha-
waghsac, in the present limits of the First Ward of the City
of North Adams. Nature set her seal of grandeur upon this
veritable Thermopylae, and it became a counterpart of the
glade to which Belphoebe bore the wounded Timias.

The felling of the first pine trees for the construction of
Fort Massachusetts opened a clearing sixty rods in extent
on the ox-bow meadow about the site of the blockhouse.
The St. Francis Ledge was exposed on the north; Hoosac
ford on the east; a cornfield on the south extended along
the river's bank, and on the west stretched an undisturbed
spruce and hemlock marsh-land four miles to the pine grove
of River Bend campground, north of the site of Moody

Bridge in Williamstown.

127



128



The Hoosac Valley



The blockhouse on the upper Hoosac was modelled after'
Fort Shirley, and Lieut. John Catlin, 2d, accompanied b>
several Fort Shirley and Fort Pelham soldiers, came over



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