Those of these Minutes which are material to our present
purpose will be found quoted at pp. 255-261.
The firm settlement, under another Cha/rter^ of the
Massachusetts Bay, by Gk>vemor John Winthrop and his
associates, practically superseded this Company.
The following documents tell the end of this effort.
25 April. Declaration of the Council for New England, for the
resignation of the great Charter,
Ist May. The presentation of this Declaration to King Charles L
7th June. The Act of Surrender of the great Charts to the
S. P. Colonial, Vol. VIII., Nos. 64, 58, 60.
The twQ Virginia Companies, 253
MINUTES OF THE TWO VIBGINIA COBfPANIES,
RELATING TO THE PILGRIM FATHERS,
IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER.
THE MINUTES OF THE LONDON VIRGINIA COMPANY.
From the Rev. Dr. E. D. Neill's History of
the Virginia Company, Ed. 1869, 4.
WBDNE8DAT, 26 MAT /5 JUNK 1619.
Ma/ S6, 1619. One Master Wbncop, commended to the
Company by [THSopHiLns Clintok, alias Fisnnes], the [4th] Earl of
LiiNOOLN, intending to go in person to Virginia and there to plant
himself and his Associates [the Pilgrim Fathers], presented his
Patent now to the Court : which was referred to the Committee
that meeteth upon Friday morning [28th May] at Master
Treasurer's [Sir Edwin Samdts*] house [, near Aldersgate], to
consider ; and if need be, to correct the same. p. 128.
WSONBBDAT, 9/19 JUMB 1619.
By reason it grew late, and the Court [was] ready to break up ;
and as yet Master John Whincop's Patent for him and his
Associates to be read : it was ordered, That the seal should be
annexed unto it. And have referred the trust thereof to the
Auditors to examine that it agree with the original : which if it
do not, they have promised to bring it into the Court, and cancel
it. p. 128.
WBDNBSDAY, 2/12 FEBBUAET 1619/1620.
At a great and general Quarter Court holden for Virginia, at
Sir Edwin Sandys' house, near Aldersgate, the 2nd of February
The Treasurer, Sir Edwin Sandtb, of Grants of Land : he
acquainted them of four several pair of Indentures lying, all
engrossed, before them. . . .
254 ^^ '^^ Virginia Companies.
Fourth. To John Peiboe and his Associates [the Pilgvim
Fathfir$\ their heirs and assigns.
Whidi>-being, all four, now read and examined ; and finding
them agree with the drafts perused and allowed by the Auditors
â€” were all of them allowed ; and sealed, in view of the Court, with
a total approbation, p. 168.
The MauyjUAJoer returned to London on the 6th May
1621 ; and on the following Ist June, John Pbirgb took a
Patent from the Council for New England.
MONDAY, 16/26 JULY 1621.
July 16th. It was moved, seeing that Master John Pbirce
had taken a Patent of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, and thereupon [had]
seated his Company within the limits of the Northern Plantations,
as by some was supposed ; whereby, as by some was supposed, he
seemed to relinquish the benefit of the PcUent he took of this
Company : that therefore the said Patent might be called in ;
unless it might appear [that] he would begin to plant within the
limits of the Southern Colony, p. 133.
WEONBSDAT, 13/23 FEBRUARY 1621/1622.
February 13th, 1621. Master Deputy [Treasurer, John Ferrar]
acquainted the Court, that one Master John Clarke, being taken,
[coming] from Virginia, long since [in 1612], by a Spanish ship
that came to discover that Plantation, That forasmuch as he hath
since that time, done the Company good service in many voyages
to Virginia ; and, of late [t.e, in 1619, see page 316], went into
Ireland, for transportation of cattle to Virginia : he was a
humble suitor to this Court, that he might be a Free Brother of the
Company, and have some shares of land bestowed upon him. ^
The Rev. Doctor E. D. Neill adds, " He was hired by Daniel
GooKiN, owner of the Providence, to take that ship to Virginia ;
which arrived April 10th 1623. [See S. P. Colonial, VoL II., 14
April 1623]. And, soon after this, he died in the Colony." pp.
The two Virginia Companies, 255
THE MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL FOR NEW ENGLAND.
31 MAT 1622â€”5 MAY 1623.
S. P. CoUmial, Vol. II. ; in the Public Record
Office at LondoEu
WBITXHALL ; FRIDAY, 31 MAT /lO JUNB 16S2.
[LoDoviCK Stuart,] the [Ist] ( Sir Pbbdikando Goboes.
Duke of Lbnox. [ gir Samttkl Arqall.
[Thomab Howard,] the [14th]
Earl of Arukdel.
[Edward Oorgbs] the [Ist]
Lord QoRoss [of Dundalk].
Sir RoBXRT Mansell.
Doctor Barkabt Qoche.
First, it is ordered, That, oonceming the Complaint made of
Master Wisrov ; Petition shall be made to His Majesty for the
forfeiture of his ship and goods to the President and Council's
It is ordered that Doctor Gochb shall be Treasurer.
PRIDAT, 5/15 JULT 1622.
The Lord Qoroes. | Sir Samuel Arqall.
Sir FsRDiN AKDO GoRQBs. I Dr B. QocHS, Treasurer.
First, it is ordered, Tliat David Thompson do attend the Lords
[of the Privy Council], with a Petition to His Majesty, for forfeits
committed by Thomas Weston.
SATURDAY, 2/12 NOVEMBER 1622.
Dr K GocHB, Treasurer. i Sif Samuel Aroall.
Sir Ferdinando Oorobs. I Captain Thomas Love.
256 The two Virginia Companies.
It is ordered, That a Commission be engrossed for Captain
Feancis West ; and afterwards sealed.
[It was sealed on 30th November /lO December 1622.]
FRIDAY, 8/18 NOVEMBBB 1622.
Master Treasurer. I Sir Samuel Argall.
Sir Fbrdinaitdo Oorges. |
It is agreed on, That there shall be a Commission granted to
Captain Francis West, to go to New England, Captain of the
ship called the Plantation; and Admiral of that coast during this
And this clause to be inserted in the Commission, That he hath
power to take any to associate [with] him there, for the despatch
of his employments, according as he shall think meet.
And that a Patent be granted to Captain Thomas Squibb, to be
aiding and assisting to the Admiral.
[It was sealed on 22nd November 1622.]
WEDNESDAY, 13/23 NOVEMBER 1622.
The Lord Gorges.
Sir Ferdinando Gorges.
Sir Samuel Argall.
Dr. Matthew Sutoliffe.
[, Dean of Exeter.]
Sir Robert Mansell's Note for payment in of his Adventure
of Â£110, is Hcce^ted prout patet.
*' I am contented to pay this sum this time two years certain ;
or within six months after such time, as I shall receive letters of
advertisement from Captain Squibb, after his discovery and survey
of Mount Mansell ; or else, within six months after his return
" And hereunto I subscribe, this 19th of November 1622.
Tettatur, Ro: Mansell.''
[This Note of Hand was accepted on 22nd November 1622.]
The two Virginia Companies. 257
TUESDAY, 19/29 NOVEMBBR 1622.
Master Treasurer. I Sir Samuel Aroall.
Sir Ferdinando (Joeqes. | Dr. Matthew Sutclipte.
It is ordered, That a letter be written from the Council to
Master Weston, to deliver to Leonard Psddock, a boy, native of
New England, called Papa Whinbtt, belonging to Abbadakkst,
Sachem of Massachusets [t.^. Boston Bay] : which boy. Master
Peddock is to carry over [to New England] with him.
[For Minute of 1*1/21 December 1622, respecting Captain Thomas
JoNis\ see page 2QZ.\
TUESDAY, 21/31 JANUARY 1622/1623.
Master Treasurer. i Sir Samuel Argall.
Sir Ferdinando Qorgbs. I
Emanuel Altum [or rather Alltham] goeth Captain in the
new pinnace [the Little James], built for Master Peirce's
TUESDAY, 18/28 FEBRUARY 1622/1623.
[John Ramsay,] the Earl of
[Robert Rich,] the [2nd] Earl
Sir Ferdinando Gorges.
Sir John Bourchibr.
Sir Henry Sfelman.
Sir Samuel Argall.
Captain Thomas Love.
Whereas a Petition was exhibited to this Council, in the behalf
of Master Peircs and his Associates, for a certificate unto the
Mayor of Norwich, to redeliver certain barrels of meal which they
had provided to transport to New England, for relief of the
Planters there ; being stayed by the Mayor or his Officers.
The Council answered their Petition prout etc.
The CJotmcU '^^ Mayor and Aldermen answer hereunto, by
miaiBfonned hj letter dated the day [of March 1622, seepage 269] ;
Plymouth Com- whereby it appeared the Council were misinformed
^*Â°^" by the Company, and by one Rounce.
TUESDAY, 25 FEBRUARY /7 MARCH 1622/1623.
Sir Ferdinando Gorges. I Sir Samuel Argall.
Sir Henry Spblman. I
The Pilgrim Fathers.
258 The two Virginia Companies.
Whereas the Adventurers for Master Pbirob's Plantation
exhibited their Petition for the altering of some part of the
Licence granted for the Little Jame$ to Samxtel Althbm [or rather
Allthah] Captain, viz.
That in consideration of many crosses and losses by them
lately sustained, they might have to themselves the Moiety â€”
formerly reserved unto the Council â€” [of] all such prizes as they
should seize and lawfidly take upon the coasts of New England ;
as by the Petition and Licence appeareth.
It is ordered and agreed accordingly. And a Licence is now
sealed and signed by Bobbrt [Rich, 2nd Earl of] Warwick, [Sir]
Fbrdinakdo Gorges, [Sir] Samuel Aroall ; and the former
Licence is cancelled, in the presence of the said CounciL
TUESDAY, 11/21 MARCH 1622/1623.
Sir Ferdinando Gorges. | Sir Henry Spelman.
It is ordered, That the Clerk give notice to Master John
Peirce, to attend the Council on Tuesday next, to answer such
Complaints as his Associates shall object.
Emmanuel Altham, Captain of the Little James of London, and
other of the Adventurers of New Plymouth, crave the aid of the
Council, for [the] discharging of some of their ship's company ;
which were lately pressed \i,e. by a Press Qang] by the Marshal
of the Admiralty, for His Majesty's service.
Whereupon, the Clerk was willed to acquaint the Marshal,
That these persons were shipped in the LUtle James to go to New
England ; and therefore were free, by His Majesty's Charter
granted to the Council [for New England].
The Marshal answered, That he sent not on board [the LUtU
James\ to press any : but if any were pressed, it was their own
fault to be abroad [1.0. ashore\ And that such as were pressed ;
their names were returned to Chatham, where the King's ships
lay : so that he could not discharge them. But he would
henceforth forbear to press any of such ships' companies as should
be bound for New England.
TUESDAY, 18/28 march 1622/1623.
Sir Ferdinando Gorges. | Sir Henry Spelman.
Touching the Petition exhibited to the Council, by the
The two Virginia Companies. 259
Adyenturers of New PiTmouth in New England against Master
John Peirob the Patentee, with whom they are Associates :
Master Peircb and the Associates met, and made several
Propositions, each to the other ; but agreed not.
Whereupon they were appointed to give meeting each to other;
and then to certify the Council what they concluded on : that
then such further course might be taken as should be meet.
Upon reading of a letter written from the Mayor and
Aldermen of Norwich to the Council, touching their detaining of
certain barrels of meal from the Adventurers of New Plymouth :
it appeareth that one Boungb of Norwich, Agent for the
Adventurers, had misinformed the CoimcO therein.
Whereupon it was ordered, That Eoukcb should be spoken
with, touching his wrong information. And it is thought fit,
That henceforUi no Information be taken but upon oath.
TUESDAT, 25 MARCH /4 APRIL 1623.
Sir Fbrdinando Gorqes.
Sir Samuel Aroall.
Sir Henry Spelman.
Master John Peiroe and
his Associates [t.e. the
After a long dispute of the differences between Master John
Peircb and his Associates,
It appeared that Master John Peircb obtained from the
Council [for New England] an Indenture, purporting a Grant of
certain lands in New England for settling of a Plantation there,
dated the first day of June 1621.*
It further appeared that, upon the 20th day of April 1622,
Master John Peircb granted Letters of Association unto the said
Adventurers ; whereby he made them jointly interested with him,
in the lands granted by the abovesaid Indenture.
Moreover it appeared that, upon the said 20th day of April
1622, after the said Master Peircb had interested the said
Adventurers in the lands passed unto him by the said Indenture,
that he yielded and surrendered up [to the Council for New
England] the said Indenture, and received up the Counter-part
* This Patent is now preserved in the Pilgrim Hall at Plymouth,
Mastaohusets. â€” E. A.
26o The two Virginia Companies.
And [that he] took [from the same Council] a Patent or Deed
Poll [a legal deedy not indented; executed by one party, and
tJierefore comUting of only one docwment\ of the said lands to
himself, his heirs, associates, and assigns for ever ; bearing dated
the said 20th of April 1622.* With which Surrender and New
Grant, the Adventurers affirmed, that t\%j were not privy unto :
and therefore conceived themselves deceived by Master Peirce ;
which was the cause of their Complaint
At length, by the mutual consent of Master Psiroe and of the
said Adventurers, it was ordered as foUoweth :
Whereas there were several differences between John Peirce,
Citizen and Clothworker of London, and [Jambs Shirlet] the
Treasurer and others the Associates of him the said John Peirce,
that were Undertakers with him for [the] settling and advancement
of the Plantation at Plymouth in the parts of New England ; All
which, after the full hearing and debating thereof before us, were
finally concluded upon, by the offer of the said John Peirce ; and
the mutual acception [acceptation] of the said Treasurer and
Company then present, in the behalf of themselves and the rest of
the said Company :
That the said Associates with their Undertakers and
servants now settled, or to be settled, in Plymouth aforesaid,
should remain and continue tenants unto the Council
established for the managing of the foresaid Affidrs of New
England : notwithstanding a Grant, bearing date the 20th
of April 1622, by the said Peirob obtained, without the
consent of the said Associates, from the said Council ;
contrary to a former Grant to the said Peirce, made in
the behalf of himself and his said Associates, dated the
first of June 1621. And so the said Associates are left free
* On the same day, he received the new Patent, under which it was
beUeyed that he intended to hold the settlers as his tenants ; and oontrul
the destinies of the Colony. He actually set sail for New England,
armed with this Patent ; and was only prevented by providential storms,
which twice drove him back, from consummating his ingenious scheme.
The Adventorers remonstrated with him in vain : and he demanded Â£500
in consideration of the surrender of his Grant. â€” The Hon. W. T. Davus,
AneieM Landmarkt of Plymouth, pp. ii, 45. Ed. 1888, 8.
The two Virginia Companies. 261
to hold the privileges by the said former Grant of the first
of June ; as if the latter had never been : and thej, the said
Associates, to receive and enjoy all that they do, or may,
possess by virtue thereof.
And the surplus that is to remain over and above, by reason
of the latter Grant ; the said Pbircb to enjoy, and to make
the best benefit of, as to him shall seem good.
For performance whereof, both parties have submitted
themselves to the authority and pleasure of the said Council, to
pass unto them new Grants for either of their Interests ; and final
determination of all the differences between them : agreeable [to]
and upon such conditions as are usual, or as in equity the Council
shall think fit
Master [Jambs] Shirlet, Treasurer to the said Adventurers of
New Plymouth, propoundeth, in the behalf of the said Adventurers,
that they may have a PatvrU for so much as is granted to them in
the former Indenture made to Master Peibce, dated the first of
MOKDAT, 5/15 MAT 1623.
Master Treasurer. I Sir Samuel Argall.
Sir Ferdikakdo Gorgbs. I
Touching the differences between Master [Stephen] Hopkins
and Master Peirce :
Master Hopkins allegeth that he hath paid to Master Peirce,
for transportation of himself and two persons more ; and likewise
for his goods.
Which Master Peirce acknowledgeth : but allegeth that, by
reason of his unfortimate return, the rest of the passengers that
went upon the like conditions, had been contented to allow 40s. a
person towards his loss ; and therefore desireth that Master
Hopkins may do the like. Which Master Hopkins, at length,
agreed unto ; so as Master Peirce and his Associates will accept
Â£6, for three passengers, out of [the] Â£20 his Adventure which
he hath in their Joint Stock.
And therefore they both pray that the Council will be pleased
to write to the Associates \thje AdvejUurers in London], to accept
Which they are pleased to do.
A letter was, this day, written and signed prout supra.
The Reasons that moved most of the Pilgrim
Church to migrate to America. 1617.
Governor WINSLOWs account of the more
public motives, is as follows :
I persuade myself, never people upon
earth lived more lovingly, and parted more
sweetly than we, the Church at Leyden, did. Not
rashly, in a distracted humour; but, upon joint and
serious deliberation, often seeking the mind of GOD
by fasting and prayer: whose gracious presence we
not only found vnith us; but his blessing upon us
from that time to this instant : to the
indignation of our adversaries, the admiration of
strangers, and the exceeding consolation of ourselves,
to see such effects of our prayers and tears before our
pilgrimage here be ended. And therefore briefly take
notice of the true cause of it :
Tis true that that poor persecuted Flock of Christ,
by the malice and power of the late Hierarchy [Bishops
were abolished in Englcmd on \st September 1642], were
driven to Leyden in Holland, there to bear vdtness,
in their practice, to the Kingly OflBce of Jesus Christ
in his Church : and there lived together ten years [the
exact time of the unbroken Church at Leyden was from
April 1609 to July 1622, O.S.] under the United States
[ie. the Stages Oeneral\ with much peace and liberty.
The Reasons for Migrating to America. 263
But our Reverend Pastor, Master John Robinson
of late memory ; and our grave Elder, Master William
Brewster, now  both at rest with the Lord;
considering, amongst many other inconveniences,
How hard the country was, where we lived.
How many spent their estate [i.6. aM tlmrr
meaTis] in it; and were forced to return for
How grievous [it was] to live from under
the protection of the State of England.
How like[ly] we were to lose our language,
and our name, of English.
How little good we did, or were like[ly] to do,
to the Dutch ; in reforming the Sabbath.
How unable there, to give such education to
our children as we ourselves had received.
&c. &c. &c.
They, I say, out of their Christian care of the Flock
of Christ committed to them, conceived. If GOD would
be pleased to discover some place unto us, though in
America; and give us so much favour with the King
and State of England as to have their protection there,
where we might enjoy the like liberty; and where,
the Lord favouring our endeavours by his blessing,
we might exemplarily shew our tender [loviTig]
countrymen, by our example, [they being] no less
burdened than ourselves, where they might live and
comfortably subsist; and enjoy the like liberties with
ourselves, being freed from antichristian bondage ; keep
their names and nation; and not only be a means to
enlarge the dominions of our State, but [of] the
Church of Christ also, if the Lord have a people
amongst the natives whither he would bring us ; &c.
Hereby, in their grave wisdoms, they thought we
264 The Reasofts for Migrating to America.
might more glorify GOD, do more good to our country,
better provide for our posterity, and live to be more
refreshed by our labours; than ever we could do in
Holland where we were. Hypocrisy v/nmuxsked ^c, pp.
88, 89, Ed. 1646, 4.
Oovemor Bbadford tells us more folly as to the private
motives for the migration :
After they had lived in this city [Leyden] some
eleven or twelve years â€” which is the more observable,
being the whole time of the famous Truce between that
State [ffoUand] and the Spaniards [This is not quite
exact. The Ten Yea/re^ Trvuce vxjl8 fromfi 9th April 1609
to 6th April 1619] â€” and simdry of them were taken
away by death; and many oUiers began to be well
stricken in years: the grave mistress. Experience,
having taught them many things; those prudent
Governors [Robinson and Brbwster], with sundry of
the sagest members, began both deeply to apprehend
their present dangers ; and wisely to foresee the future,
and think of timely remedy.
In the agitation of their thoughts, and much
discourse of things hereabout, at length they began to
incline to this conclusion â€” of removed to some other
place. Not out of any newfangledness, or other such
like giddy humour; by which men are oftentimes
transported to their great hurt and danger: but for
sundry weighty and solid reasons; some of the chief
of which, I will here briefly touch :
And first, they saw, and found by experience, the
hardness of the place [Leyden] and coimtry
Holland] to be such as few, in comparison, would
come to them ; and fewer that would bide it out,
and continue with them. For many that came to
The Reasons for Migrating to America. 265
them, and many more that desired to be with
them, could not endure that great labour and hard
fare; with other inconveniences, which they
underwent, and were contented with. But
though they Iqved their persons, approved their
Cause, and honoured their sufferings: yet they
left them, as it were weeping, as Orpah did her
mother in law Naomi [Ruth i 14] ; or as those
Romans did Cato in Utica, who desired to be
excused and borne with, though they could not
all be Catoes. For many, though they desired
to enjoy the Ordinances of GOD in their purity
and the liberty of the Gospel with them; yet,
alas, they admitted of bondage with danger of
conscience, rather than to indure these hardshipa
Tea, some preferred and chose the prisons in
England; rather than this liberty in Holland,
with these afflictions. But it was thought that
if a better and easier place of living could be
had, it would draw many ; and take away these
discouragements. Yea, their Pastor would often
say. That many of those [that] both wrote and
preached now against them; if they were in
a place where they might have liberty and live
comfortably, they would then practice as they
Secondly. They saw that though the people
generally bore all these difficulties very cheerfully
and with a resolute courskge, being in the best and
strength of their years ; yet old age began to steal
on many of them, and their great and continual
labours with other crosses and sorrows hastened
it before the time : so as it was not only probably
thought, but apparently seen, that, withki a few
266 The Reasons for Migrating to America.
years more, they ^ould be in danger to scatter,
by necessities pressing them ; or sink under their
burdens; or both. And therefore according to
the divine proverb, that "a wise mack seeth
the plague when it cometh, and hideth himself,"
Prov. xxii 3 [Geneva Version]; so they, like
skillful and beaten [veteran or weatherbeaten]
soldiers, were fearful either to be intrapped or
surrounded by their enemies, so as they should
neither be able to fight, nor fly. And therefore
[they] thought it better to dislodge betimes to
some place of better advantage, and less danger ;
if any such could be found.
Thirdly. As necessity was a taskmaster over
them, so they were forced to be such not only to
their servants; but, in a sort, to their dearest
children : the which, as it did not a little wound
the tender parts of many a loving father and
mother, so it produced likewise sundry sad and
sorrowful effects. For many of their children (that
were of best dispositions and gracious inclinations ;
having learnt to bear the yoke in their youth,
and [being] willing to bear part of their parents'