Thomas Coventry. Thomas Millsop
Thomas Fletcher. Thomas Mott.
Thomas Ooffe. Fria. Newbald.
Peter Gudburn. William Penington.
The PilCTim Fathers. K
322 IVAo were the Adventurers ?
WiLUAM PsNRiN. James Bhibley.
John Pooock. John Thornbd.
Daniel Potnton. Matthew Thoenhill.
William Quablks. Joseph Tilden.
John Reyell. Thomas Ward.
Newman Rookes. John White.
Samuel Sharp. Richard Wriqht.
These names are preserYed to us in Gk>Yemor Bradford's
UUer Book, reprinted in 1 Mass, Hist. Coll,, iii. 48, Ed. 1794, 8.
The following had also been among the Adventurers prior
to the 25th November 1626.
William Greene. Edward Pickering. Thomas Weston.
The names of six of the above are found subsequently
among the members of the Massachusetts Company.
Thomas Andrews. John Pocock. Samuel Sharp.
Thomas Gopfe. John Reyell. John White.
Captain John Smith, the Hero of Virginia, offers
HIS SERVICES to THE PiLGRIM FATHERS; WHO
DECUNB THEM: AND THEN HIS ADVIOB,
WHICH THEY DISREGARD.
I FTER his return from Virginia in 1612, Captain
Smith devoted his life to the exploration and
colonization of New England. In the following
passages, he describes his negotiations with the
Leyden Separatist Church. All the numbers of persons that
he gives are merely round numbers ; and not exact ones.
In the interim, many particular [separate] ships
went thither, and finding my Relations true ; and that
I had not taken that I brought home, from the French
men, as had been reported : yet further for my pains
to discredit me, and my calling it New England, they
obscured it, and shadowed it, with the title of Canada ;
till, at my humble suit, it pleased our most royal King
Charles, whom GOD long keep bless and preserve!,
then Prince of Wales, to confirm it, with my Map and
Book, by the title of New England.
The gain thence returning did make the fame
thereof so increase, that thirty, forty, or fifty Sail went
yearly ; only to trade and fish.
But notiiing would be done for a Plantation till
about some hundred of your Brownists of England
Amsterdam and Leyden, went to New Plymouth : whose
324 Captain J. Smith and the Pilgrims.
humorous ignorances caused them, for more than a year
[1620 â€” 1621], to endure a wonderful deal of misery with
an infinite patience ; saying, My Books and Maps were
much better cheap to teach them than myself. Many
others have used the like good husbandry; that have
paid soundly in trying their self-willed conclusions.
But those \tht FUgrim Fathers], in time, doing well ;
divers others have, in small handfuls, undertaken to go
there, to be several Lords and Kings of themselves :
but most [have] vantehed to nothing.
The True Travels <fec., pp. 46, 47, [August] 1629, 4.
At last, upon those inducements, some well disposed
Brownists, as they are termed, with some Gentlemen
and Merchants of Leyden and Amsterdam, to save
charges [i.c. the expense of empUyying Capimn Smith],
would try their own conclusions, though with great
loss and much misery, till time had taught them to see
their own error : for such humorists [contrarious people]
will never believe well, till they be beaten with tiieir
Tet, at the first landing at Cape Cod, being a
hundred passengers, besides twenty they had left behind
at Plymouth; for want of good take-heed, thinking
to find all things better than I advised them, [they]
spent six or seven weeks in wandering up and down,
in frost and snow, wind and rain, among the woods
creeks and swamps, [so that] forty of them died, and
threescore were left in most miserable estate at New
Plymouth where their ship [the Mayflower] left them,
and but nine leagues [= 27 miles], by sea, from where
Captain J. Smith and the Pilgrims. 325
Adverti^mf\Jer^U <fec., pp. 17-19, [Written in October
1630; but printed] 1681, 4.
While these were the opinions of Captain Smith; one
fails to see, looking back on the events as they actually
occurred, where he could have done much better than the
POgrim Fathers did, from the time of their first landing at
Cape Ood until their settlement at New Plymouth. His
hardened constitution might, however, have enabled him to
be very helpful in the sickness of the following Spring of
It is very pleasant to see him speak so well of the
Pilgrims; al^ough they did not accept either his offers,
or his advice.
The Names of the Pilgbim Ships.
It was the Rev. G. Cuthbert Blaxlakd, M.A., in
his " Mai(flov)er Essays," that first asked, What
is the authority for the names of the two Pilgrim
Ships of 1620? Curiously enough, these names
do not occur either in the Bradford Manuscript; or in
The authority for the name of the Mayflower is of the
year 1623 ; and is the heading in the Official Records of the
Old Colony, reprinted at page 383.
The authority for the name of the SpeedweU is very much
later; being indeed of no earlier date than 1669: in which
year it first appeared on the fifth page of Nathanibl Mobton's
New Englcmd^B Memorial.
The Departube from Leyden.
Mayâ€” July 1620.
^F this Exodus, we have two Accounts, which
must here be blended together. We will begin
with Governor Winslow:
Our Agents [%,â‚¬. William Brbwstmr aifkd
Robert Cushman] returning; we further sought the
Lord, by a public and solemn Fast [? in April, or even
earlier in, 1620; as those who went, had to sell ikeir
properties before they could put in their veniv/res], for
And hereupon we came to this resolution :
That it was best for one part of the Church to
go at first ; and the other to stay, viz.
The youngest and strongest part to go.
Secondly. They that went should freely offer
Thirdly. If the major part [majority] went, the
Pastor to go with them : if not, the Elder only.
Fourthly. If the Lord should frovm upon
our proceedings, then those that went [were] to
return; and the brethren that remained still
there, to assist and be helpful to them. But if
GOD should be pleased to favour them that
went, then they idso should endeavour to help
over such as were poor, and ancient, and wiUing
These things being agreed, the major part stayed ; and
328 The Departure from Ley den.
the Pastor with them for the present : but all intended,
except a very few who had rather we would have stayed
[in Holland], to follow after. The minor part, with
Master Brewster their Elder, resolved to enter upon this
great work. But take notice the difference of number was
not great Hypocrisy v/nmxiaked &c., p. 90, Ed. 1646, 4.
â‚¬k>yemor Bradford gives us some farther particulars.
Upon the receipt of these things, by one of tiieir
Messengers ; they had a solemn Meeting, and a Day of
Humiliation, to seek the Lord for his direction. And
their Pastor took this text, 1 Sam. xxiiL 3, 4. "And
David's men said unto him, See, we be afraid here in
Judah ; how much more if we come to Eeilah against
the host of the Philistines ? Then David asked counsel
of the Lord agaiiL" \Oeneva Version.'] From which
text, he taught many things very aptly, and befitting
their present occasion and condition : strengthening them
against their fears and perplexities; and incouraging
them in their resolutions.
After which, they concluded both what number
[150, as stated at page 310], and what persons should
prepare themselves to go with the first: for all that
were willing to have gone, could not get ready, for [on
accov/tU of] their other affairs, in so short a time [t May
â€” JvZy 1620] ; neither, if all could have been ready, had
there been means to have transported them all together.
Those that stayed, being the greater number,
required the Pastor to stay with them; and, indeed,
for other reasons, he could not then well go : and so it
was the more easily yielded unto.
The others then desired the Elder, Master Brewster,
to go with them: which was also condescended unto
The Departure /ram Leyden. 329
It WES also agreed on, by mutual consent and
covenant, that those that went should be an absolute
Church of themselves, as well as those that stayed:
seeing, in such a dangerous voyage and a removal to
such a distance, it might come to pass they should, for
the body of them, never meet again in this world. Tet,
with this proviso. That as any of the rest came over to
them, or of the others returned upon occasion; they
should be reputed as Members, without any further
dismission or testimonial
It was also promised to those that went first, by the
body of the rest, That if the Lord gave them life, and
means, and opportunity; they would come to them as
soon as they could. Bradford MS,, folios 71-73.
[THURSDAY, 20/30 JULY 1620.]
Governor Winslow thus describes the Farewell Feast at
And when the ship [the Speedwell] was ready to
carry us away, the brethren that stayed (having again
solemnly sought the Lord with us, and for us ; and we
further engaging ourselves mutually, as before) : they, I
say, that stayed at Leyden feasted us that were to go, at
our Pastor's house, [it] being large ; where we refreshed
ourselves, after our tears, with singing of Psalms, making
joyful melody in our hearts as well as with the voice,
there being many of the C!ongregation very expert in
music ; and indeed it was the sweetest melody that ever
mine ears heard. Hypocrisy <fec., p. 90, 91, EA 1646, 4.
Governor Bradford's account is more pathetic
At length, after much travail, and these debates; all
things were got ready and provided. A small ship [the
Speedv)ell]t of some 60 tonsj was bought and fitted in
330 The Departure from Leyden.
HollanVl: whidi waa intended as to serve to help to
transport them; so to stay in the country and attend
upon fishing and such other affairs as might be for the
good and benefit of the Colony when they came there.
Another was hired at London, of burden [of] about nine
score [180 tons] : and all other things got in readiness.
[THURSDAY, 2^/30 JULY 1620.]
So being ready to depart, they had a Day of Solemn
Humiliation : their Pastor taking his text from Ezra
viii 21, " And there, at the river, by Ahava, I proclaimed
a Fast, that we might humble ourselves before our GOD ;
and seek of him a right way for us, and for our children,
and for all our substance." [Geneva Version,'] Upon
which [text], he spent a good part of the day very
profitably [see pp. 182-184], and suitable to their present
condition. The rest of the time was spent in pouring
out prayers to the Lord with great fervency, mixed
with abundance of tears. Bradford MS,y folio 91.
[FRIDAY, 21/31 JULY 1620.]
Governor Winslow resumes :
After this, they [who stayed] accompanied us to
Delfshaven [ahotU 24 miles from Leyden], where we
were to embark ; and there feasted us again. Hypocrisy
unrrvasked &c., page 91, Ed. 1646, 4.
(Governor Bradford is fuller here.
And the time being come that they must depart, they
were accompanied with most of their brethren out of the
city [of Leyden] unto a town sundry miles off, called
Delfshaven ; where the ship lay ready to receive them.
So they left that goodly and pleasant city, which had
been their resting place near[ly] twelve years [or more
exacO/y^from April 1609 to 2\st July 1620] : but they
The Departure from Leyden. 331
knew they were pilgrims [Heb. xi.] and looked not
much on these things; but lift[ed] up their eyes to
the heavens, their dearest country, and qtdeted their
When they came to the place, they found the ship
and all things ready : and such of their friends as could
not come with them, followed after them ; and sundry
also came from Amsterdam \Qh(/uX 50 miles] to see them
shipped, and to take their leave of them. That night
was spent with little sleep by the most ; but with friendly
entertainment, and Christian discourse, and other real
expressions of true Christian love.
[SATUBDAY, 22 JULY /I AUGUST 1620.]
The next day, the wind being fair, they went aboard
[the SpeedweU] and their friends with them ; when truly
doleful was the sight of that sad and mournful parting.
To see what sighs and sobs and prayers did sound
amongst them ; what tears did gush from every eye, and
pithy speeches pierced each heart : that sundry of the
Dutch strangers, that stood on the key [quay, or wharf]
as spectators, could not refrain from tears. Tet
comfortable and sweet it was to see such lively and
true expressions of dear and unfeigned love.
But the tide, which stays for no man, calling them
away that were thus loath to depart ; their Reverend
Pastor, falling down on his knees, and they all with
him,* with watery cheeks, commended them, with most
fervent prayers, to the LoBB and his blessing. And
then, with mutual embraces and many tears, they took
their leaves one of another : which proved to be the last
leave to many of them. Bradford MS., folios 91-93.
* That 18, on board the Speedwell ; and not on the shore an in the
painting to the Corridor of the Houses of Parliament. â€” K A.
332 The Departure from Ley den.
â‚¬k>vemor Winslow adds a few toadies here.
And after prayer performed by our Pastor, where a
flood of tears was poured out ; they aocompanied us to
the ship : but were not able to speak one to another, for
the abondance of sorrow to part.
But we only [aUme] going aboard, the ship lying to
the key [quay] and ready to set sail ; the wind being fair,
we gave them a volley of small shot [musketry] and [of]
three pieces of ordnance : and so lifting up our hands to
each other ; and our hearts for each other to the Lord
oar GOD, we departed â€” and found his presence with
us, in the midst of our manifold straits [that] he carried
And if any doubt this Relation, the Dutch, as I hear,
at Delfshaven preserve the memory of it to this day
 ; and will inform them.
But falling in with Cape Cod, [9th November], which
is in New England ; and standing to the southward for
the place we intended [about the Hudson river] ; we met
with many dangers : and the mariners put back into the
harbour of the Cape, which was the 11th of November
1620. Where (considering winter was come ; the seas
[were] dangerous ; the season, cold ; the winds, high ; and
being well furnished for a Plantation) we entered upon
discovery ; and settled at Plymouth : where, GOD being
pleased to preserve and enable us, we that went, were at
a thousand pounds charge [ = Â£4,000 now] in sending for
our brethren that were behind ; and in providing there
for them, till they could reap a crop of their own
And so, good Reader, I have given thee a true and
faithful account, though very brief, of our proceedings :
wherein thou seest how a late Writer [Robert Bailue],
The Departure from Leyden. 333
and those that informed him, have wronged our
And, truly, what I have written is far short of what it
was ; omitting, for brevity sake, many circumstances, as :
The laige offers the Dutch offered to us,
Either to have removed into [the Province of]
Zealand ; and there lived with them :
Or, if we would go on such adventures, to go,
under them, to Hudson's river, where they have
since a great Plantation, &a \Nefw Amsterdam,
now New . York] ; and how they would freely
have transported us, and furnished every family
with cattle, &c.
Also the English Merchants that joined with us
in this expedition : whom we since bought out
Which is fitter for a HistOTy than an Answer to such
an Objection : and [which History,] I trust, will be
accomplished in good time.'^
By all which the Reader may see there was no
breach between us that went, and the brethren that
stayed: but such love as indeed is seldom found on
earth. Hypocrisy wn/nuiaked <Â£rc., p. 91, Ed. 1646, 4.
* Does WiNSLOW here refer to the Bradford MS, ! He must have
known of it â€” E. A.
The Business at Southampton.
[? Wednesday, 26 July /5 August] â€” Saturday,
5/15 August 1620.
[ere let us consider the excellent management and
strategy of this Exodus. If the Pilgrims had
gone te London, to embark for America ; many,
if not most, of them would have been put in
prison: especially William Brewster. So only those
embarked in London, against whom the Bishops could take
The stay at Southampton would not have been more Uian
three or four days, but for the leakage of the Speedwell.
As matters fortunately turned out, in spite of all delays,
they were able to leave England, without meeting with either
hindrance, or annoyance, from either the Government, or the
Thus, hoisting sail, with a prosperous wind, they
came, in short time/ to Southampton ; where This wMaboot
they found the bigger ship come from J^^l ^'^^'
* The date of the Arrival of the Speedtodl at Soathamptcm is not stated :
but four days would be a fair allowance for a quick paasacpe of a 60 tons
veaael, from Delfshaven. If 80Â» as she sailed on Saturday 22 July /I
August, she would have joined the Mayjhwer on the following Wednesday
26 July /5 August.
We know for certainty, from page 343, that had not the Spetdwdl .
been leaky, the Mayfovoer was ready to sail on Saturday, 29 July /8 August :
Got. w. Bradford. Tkc Busificss cU Southampton. 335
London, lying ready, with all the rest of their
After a jojrful welcome and mutual congratulations,
with other friendly entertainments ; they fell to parley
about their business, How to despatch with the best
expedition? as also with their Agents, about the
alteration of the Conditions.
Master Carver pleaded. He was employed here at
[Soutjhampton ; and knew not well what the others had
done at London.
Master Cushman answered, He had done nothing but
what he was urged to, partly by the grounds of equity ;
and more especially by necessity: otherwise all had
been dashed, and many undone. And in the beginning,
he acquainted his fellow Agents [John Carver and
Christopher Martin] herewith : who consented unto
himÂ» and left it to him to execute ; and to receive the
money at London, and send it down to them at
[Soutjhampton ; where they made the provisions
[prepa/ratioTis], The which he accordingly did:
though it was against his mind and [the minds of] some
of the Merchants, that they were there made. And
for giving them notice at Leyden of this change [? of
arrangements]; he could not well, in regard of the
shortness of the time. Again he knew it would trouble
them, and hinder the business; which was already
but the twice trimming of the Speedwell at Southampton delayed their
departure for another week.
t The Rev. Thomas Pbinob, who, in 1736, had aooeM to documents now
lost, adds here :
** who had been waiting there, with Master Cushman, seven days." A
Ckrondogical History of New England, Part I., page 70, Ed. 1736, 8.
If this statement be correct; the Mayfiower must have reached
Southampton about the 19/29 July.
336 The Business at Southampton, oot.w. Bradford.
delayed over long, in regard of the season of the year ;
which we feared they would find to their cost.
Bot these things gave not content at present.
Master Weston likewise came up from London, to
see them despatched; and to have the CoTidUions
But they refused, and answered him. That he knew
right well that these were not according to the first
Agreement Neither could they yield to them without
the consent of the rest that were behind : and indeed
they had special charge, when they came away, from the
Chief of those that were behind, not to do it.
At which, he was much offended; and told them,
They must then look to stand on their own legs. So he
returned in displeasure ; and this was the first ground of
discontent between them. And whereas there wanted
well near Â£100 to clear things at their going away ; he
would not take order to disburse a penny : but let them
shift as they could.
So they were forced to sell off some of their provisions
to stop this gap: which was some three or four score
firkins of butter; which commodity they might beet
spare, having provided too large a quantity of that kind.
Then they writ a letter to the Merchants and
Adventurers, about the differences concerning the
Condition8j as foUoweth:
August drd, aniw 1620. [Southampton.]
Beloved friends. Sorry we are that there should be occasion
of writing at all unto you : partly because we ever expected to see
the most of you here ; but especially because there should any
difference at all be conceived between us. But seeing it falleth
out that we cannot confer together : we think it meet, though
<9oT. w. Bradford. The Busifuss at Sautkampton, 337
briefly, to shew you the jast cause and reason of our difEering
from those Articles last made by Robsbt Cubhhait, without our
commission or knowledge. And though he might propound good
ends, to himself : yet it no way justifies his doing it
Our main difference is in the Fifth and Ninth Artid^
concerning the dividing, or holding, of house and lands [899
pp, 306, 307] : the injoying whereof, some of yourselves well know,
was one special motive, amongst many others, to provoke us to go.
This was thought so reasonable, that when the greatest [one] of
you in adventure, whom we have much cause to respect^ when he
propounded CondUiont to us, freely of his own accord, he set this
down for one. A copy whereof we have sent unto you ; with some
additions then added by us : which being liked on both sides, and
a day set for the payment of monies ; those of Holland paid in
After that, Robert Cushman, Master [JoHir] Purcs, and
Master [Christophbr] Mabtiit brought them into a better form ;
and writ them in a book now extant : and upon Robarts shewing
them, and delivering Master [Wiluah] Mullins a copy thereof
under his hand, which we have ; he paid in his money.
And we of Holland had never seen other before our coming to
[Sout]hampton ; but only as one got, for himself, a private copy
of theuL Upon sight whereof, we manifested utter dislike: but
[we] had put off our estates [properties], and were ready to come ;
and therefore [it] was too late to reject the Voyage [Expedition],
Judge therefore, we beseech you, indifferently [impartially] of
things ; and if a fault have been committed, lay it where it is, and '
not upon us ! who have more cause to stand for the one, than you
have for the other.
We never gave Robert Cushman [a] commission to make
any one Artide for us: but only sent him to receive monies
upon Articles before agreed on ; and to further the provisions
[preparatioTis] till John Carver came, and to assist him in it
Yet since you conceive yourselves wronged, as well as we
[do] ; we [have] thought meet to add a branch to the end of our
Ninth Article as will almost heal that wound, of itself, which yo 1
conceive to be in it. But that it may appear to all men, that we
are not lovers of ourselves only ; but desire also the good and
inriching of our friends, who have adventured your monies with
our persons : we have added our last Article to the rent, promising
The Pilgrim Pathcrs, T
338 The Business at Southampton. gÂ«Â». w. Brtdfoia.
you again by letters in the behalf of the whole Company [at
Southampton, and at Leyden],
That if large profits should not arise within ^^T" ^J
the Seven Years, that we will continue together tbU wu not m-
longer with you ; if the Lord give a blessing. cÂ«pted. [W3.]
This, we hope, is sufiicient to satisfy any in this case ; especially
friends : since we are assured that if the whole charge [jf 1,700]
were divided into four parts ; [the Adventurers] of three of them
would not stand \inmt\ upon it, neither do regard it, Sc
We are in such a strait at present as we are forced to sell
away Â£60 worth of our provisions, to clear the haven [the port of
8cutkampton\ ; and withal put ourselves upon great extremities :
scarce having any butter, no oil, not a sole to mend a shoe, nor every
man a sword to his side ; wanting many muskets, much armour,
dc. And yet we are willing to expose ourselves to such eminent
dangers as are like[ly] to insue, and trust to the good Providence