that the alarm on board the Mayflower at that time, was no
pretence; but a very real thing indeed. They "thought
themselves happy to get out of those dangers before night
The Captains of those days were but rough sea dogs, at
the best : but all we know of the Master of the Mayflower
goes to show that he was both fair-minded and friendly
towards the Pilgrim Fathers.
See pp. 417-420, 442, 448450.
That Captain Jonbs of the Mayflower was not
THE Captain Thomas Jones of the Discovery.
|H£ Christian name of the Captain of the
Mayfioww is not known. It has been sometimes
said that he was the disreputable and piratical
Captain Thomas Jokbs of the Diacoveri/; but
this seems not to be the case, for the two following reasons :
1. The Bey. Doctor E. D. Neill tells us that at
A Quarter Courts 21 November /I December 1621, Ck>mmis8ions
were granted for Fishing and Trade, among others, to
Captain Thomas Jonbs, Master of the DUcovery^ of 60 tons.
Hutoryoftha Virginia Company, page 261, Ed. 1869, 4.
Now the Mayflower was of 180 tons; and it is very
unlikely that its Captain would afterwards take charge of a
vessel ono-third of its size. It would have been a kind of
professional degradation to have done so.
2. Covemor Bradford writes :
Behold now another Providence of GK>D. A ship comes into
the harbour, one Captain Jones being chief therein. They were
set out by some Merchants, to discover all the harbours between
this and Virginia, and the shoab of Cape Cod ; and to trade
along the coast where they could. Bradford MS,, folios 181-183.
Now it is quite impossible that Governor Bradford, who
had been in the closest possible friendly intercourse with the
Captain of the Mayflower for the seven months from the
6th September 1620 till the 5th April 1621, could ever after
have designated him as " one Captain Jonbs."
Captain T.Jones of the Discovery. 393
^^ It may be interesting to trace the career of this Captain
Jokes up to his death : the more so because he carried John
Port as a Passenger.
The Discovery left London at the end of November 1621 ;
and did not arrive at James Town, Virginia, till April
1622. It was in August 1622, that she arrived at New
The following documents tell the rest of this Story :
THE MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL FOR NEW ENGLAND.
TUESDAY, 17/27 DECEMBER 1622.
At the Tower [of London].
Sir FsRDiNANDO Gorges.
Sir Allen Apslet.
Sir Samuel Argall.
Captain Thomas Love,
Whereas the Council are informed by Leonard Peddook, That
Captain Jones (who was employed by the Company of Virginia to
iish upon the coasts of New England) hath, this last year ,
robbed the natives there, of their furs ; and offered [attempted] to
carry some of them away prisoners : but, being grounded upon the
sands near Cape Cod, the savages escaped; and made great
exclamation against the present Planters of New England. For
punishment whereof. Sir Ferdinando Gorges is desired to signify
this abuse, by letter from the Council, to [Henrt Wriotheslbt,]
the Earl of Southampton [, Treasurer of the Virginia Company].
S. P. Colonial, Vol. I.
394 Captain T. Jones of the Discovery.
JOHV CHAMBKMiAnr TO SIB DUDLKT CASLROV.
L09DOH ; SAT1TEDAT, 26 J17LT /5 AVOTBT 1623.
Our old acqnainULUce, Master Port, is in poor case, and in
prison at the Terceiras \=-the Azores] : whither he was driven by
contrary winds from the north coast of Virginia, where he had
been upon some discorery ; and, upon his arrival [at Terceira], was
arraigned, and in danger to be hanged for a pirate.
a P. Dom, James L Vol 149, No. 48.
OOVKBHOR SIR FBAKCIS WTATT AVD THS CX>UKC1I. OF TIROIJriA,
TO THS LORDS COMMISSIOSXRS FOR THS AFFAIRS OF
VIRGINIA [iM LOKDOS].
JAMSS CITT ; MOXDAT, 3/13 JAJITART 1625.
About the middle of July last ]1624], arrived Captain Jonss,
in a Spanish frigate, which he had taken in the West Indies ;
under the CommisBion of tJje States [General], as he pretended,
granted to Captain Powsll : from whose consortship he separated
himself, and put in here for relief ; his vessel being very leaky,
and her victuals spent. She brought in no prize \^plundef\^ but
some few raw hides ; which, by negligence, lay sunk in the ship,
and were spoUed. Himself died shortly after [July 1624].
And since his death, there are rumours ris^n, contrary to their
first Examinations, of mutinies and disorders committed by Captain
JoNBS and some of his [ship's] company against Captain Powell :
of which, perhaps, we may have more light from England, or the
Low Countries ; according to which, we may the better know how
to proceed, since we conceive the substance of their acts against
the Spaniards are not now too strictly to be questioned.
^Y.CoUmiaL VoLIV., No. 1.
Relation, or Journal,
Beginning and Proceedings
English Plantation settled at Plymouth,
in New England;
by oertain English Adventurers, both Merchants and others.
their difficult PMsage ; their safe Arrival ; their joyful building of,
and comfortable planting themselves in, the now
well-defended Town of New Pljrmouth.
a Relation of Four several Discoveries, since made by
some of the same English Planters
I. In a jooraey to PDekanoldok, the habitation of the Indians' frsatsst King,
Massasott; u alto their Message, [and] the Answer and entertainment they had of
IL In a voyage msde by ten of them to the Kingdom of Nawset, to eeek a boy that
had loet himself in the woods : with snch accidents as befell them In that voyage
III. In their Joomey to the Kingdom of Namasohet, in defenee of their greatest
King, llASSASOTT, against the Narrohiggonsets ; and to revenge the supposed death of
their interpreter Tisquastum.
IV. Their voysgs to the Massaohnsets, and their entertainment there.
an Answer to all such Objections as are any way made against
the lawfolnees of English Plantations
in those parts.
Printed for John Bsllamib, and are to be sold at his
shop at the Two Oreyhoundtj in Comhill,
near the Royal Exchange.
To HIS MUCH RESPECTED FRIEND,
Master I. P.
^OOD friend. As we cannot but account
it an extraordinary blessing of QOD in
directing our course for these parts, after
we came out of our native country; for
that we had the happiness to be possessed of the
comforts we receive by the benefit of one of the most
pleasant, most healthful, and most fruitful parts of the
world: so must we acknowledge the same blessing to
be multiplied upon our whole Company, for that we
obtained the honour to receive allowance and approbation
of our free possession and enjoying thereof, under the
authority of those thrice honoured persons, the President
and Council for the Affairs of New England. By whose
bounty and grace, in that behalf, all of us are tied to
dedicate our best service unto them ; as those, under His
Majesty, that we owe it unto : whose noble endeavours
in these their actions, the GOD of heaven and earth
multiply to his glory, and their own eternal comforts !
As for this poor Relation, I pray you to accept it,
as being writ by the several Actors themselves, after
their plain and rude manner : therefore doubt nothing
of the truth thereof. If it be defective in anything,
it is their ignorance; that are better acquainted with
planting than writing. If it satisfy those that are well
affected to the business ; it is all I care for.
Sure I am, the plckce we are in, and the hopes that
are apparent, cannot but suffice any that will not desire
more than enough; neither is there want of ought
398 To his friend, Master I. P. ».o,
[aiught] among us but company, to enjoy the blessings
so plentifully bestowed upon the inhabitants that are
While I was a writing this, I had almost forgot, that
I had but the recommendation of the Relation itself to
your further consideration: and therefore I will end
without saying more ; save that I shall always rest
Yours, in the way of friendship,
From Pljonouth in
To The Ueadeb.
Courteous Reader. Be intreated to make a
favourable construction of my forwardness
in publishing these insuing Discourses.
The desire of carrying the Gospel of Christ
'into those foreign parts, amongst those people that as
yet have had no kno^iledge, nor taste, of QOD ; as also
to procure unto themselves and others, a quiet and
comfortable habitation : were, amongst other things, the
inducements unto these undertakers of the then hopeful,
and now experimentally known good, enterprise for
Plantation in New England, to set afoot and prosecute
And though it fared with them, as it id common to
the most actions of this nature, that the First Attempts
prove difficult, as the sequel more at large expresseth ;
yet it hath pleased GOD, even beyond our expectation
in so short a time, to give hope of letting some of them
see — though some he hath taken out of this Vale of
Tears — some grounds of hope of the accomplishment of
both those ends, by them at first propounded.
And as [I] myself then much desired, and shortly
hope to eflfect (if the Lord will !), the putting to of my
shoulder in this hopeful business : and in the mean time,
these RdatioTie coming to my hand from my both
known and faithful friends, on whose writings I do
much rely ; I thought it not amiss to make them more
general, hoping of a cheerful proceeding, both of
Adventurers and Planters. Intreating that the example
400 To the Reader. g. Momt.
of the Honourable Virginia and Bermudas Ck>mpame8
(incountering with so many disasters, and that for divers
years together, with an unwearied resolution ; the good
effects whereof are now eminent) may prevail as a spur
of preparation also, touching this no less hopeful country,
though yet an infant: the extent and commodities
whereof are lis yet not fully known, [but which] after
time will unfold more.
Such as desire to take knowledge of things, may
inform themselves by this insuing Treatise: and, if
they please, also by such as have been there a first and
[a] second time \i,e, in the Mayflower; cmd also in the
My hearty prayer to GOD is. That the event of this,
and all other honourable and honest undertakings, may
beffor the furtherance of the Kingdom of Christ ; the
infarging of the bounds of our Sovereign Lord King
James ; and the good and profit of those who, either by
purse, or person, or both, are agents in the same. ^
So I take leave, and rest
Q. MouRT. "^
Certain useful Advebtisements sent in a Letter
WRITTEN BY A DISCREET FrIEND UNTO THE PLANTERS
IN New England, at their first setting sail from
Southampton ; who earnestly desireth the
PROSPERITY of THAT, THEIR NEW,
^OVINQ and Christian friends. I do
heartily, and in the Lord, salute you all:
as being they with whom I am present in
my best affection, and most earnest longings
after you ; though I be constrained, for a while, to be
bodily absent from you.* I say, constrained: GOD
knowing how willingly and much rather than otherwise,
I would have borne my part with you in this first
brunt; were I not, by strong necessity, held back for
the present. Make account of me, in the mean while,
as of a man divided in myself, with great pain ; and
as, natural bonds set aside, having my better part with
And though I doubt not but, in your godly
wisdoms, you both foresee, and resolve upon, that
which concemeth your present state and condition;
both severally and jointly : yet have I thought [it] but
my duty, to add some further spur of provocation unto
them who run already ; if not because you need it, yet
because I owe it in love and duty.
The Pilgrim Fathers. 401 2 c
402 A Letter of Advice to the h^t. j. Bobii>M«.
And first, as we are daily to renew our repentance
with our GOD; special, for our sins known; and
general, for our unknown trespasses : so doth the Lord
call us, in a singular manner, -upon occasions of such
difficulty and danger as lieth upon you, to a both more
narrow search, and careful reformation, of our ways in
his sight ; lest he (calling to remembrance our sin^
forgotten by us, or unrepented of) take advantage
against us; and, in judgement, leave us for the
same to be swallowed up in one danger or other.
Whereas, on the contrary, sin being taken away
by earnest repentance, and pardon thereof from the
Lord sealed up unto a man's conscience by his
SPIRIT: great shall be his security and peace in
all dangers ; sweet, his comforts in all distresses ; with
happy deliverance from all evil, whether in life or in
Now next after this heavenly peace with GOD and
our own consciences, we are carefully to provide for
peace with all men, what in us lieth ; especially with
our associates: and, for that end, watchfulness must
be had, that we neither at all in ourselves do give ; no,
nor easily take, offence, [it] being given by others.
Woe be unto the World for offences! For though it
be necessary (considering the malice of Satan, and
man's corruption) that offences come : yet woe unto the
man, or woman, either by whom the offence cometh!
saith Christ, Matthew xviii. 7. And if offences, in
the unseasonable use of things in themselves indifferent,
be more to be feared than death itself, as the Apostle
teacheth, 1 Cor. ix. 15: how much more in things
simply evil ; in which neither honour of GOD, nor love
of man, is thought worthy to be regarded.
Eer. J. BobintoD. Planters of New England. 403
Neither yet is it sufficient that we keep ourselves, by
the grace of GOD, from giving ofFence[s] ; except withal,
we be armed against the taking of them, when they
are given by others. For how unperfect and lame is
the work of grace in that person who wants charity
[wherewith] to cover a multitude of offences, as the
Neither are you to be exhorted to this grace, only
upon the common grounds of Christianity; which are,
That persons ready to take offence, either want charity
to cover offences; or wisdom duly to weigh human
fraility; or lastly, are gross, though close, hypocrites,
as Christ our Lord teacheth, Matthew vii. 1-3. As
indeed, in mine own experience, few or none have been
found, which sooner give offence, than such as easily
take it: neither have they ever proved sound and
profitable members in societies, which have nourished
in themselves that touchy humour.
But, besides these, there are divers special motives
provoking you, above others, to great care and conscience
As, first, you are, many of you, strangers as to the
persons, so to the infirmities, one of another: and so
stand in need of more watchfulness this way, lest when
such things fall out in men and women as you suspected
not, you be inordinately affected \yi/p8et\ with them:
which doth require, at your hands, much wisdom and
charity for the covering and preventing of incident
offences that way.
And, lastly, your intended course of Civil Community
[aettiifig up the authority of a State] will minister
continual occasion of offence, and will be as fuel
for that fire; except you diligently quench it
with brotherly forbearance. And if taking offence
404 A Letter of Advice to the Ber. j. Boun>on.
causelessly, or easily, at men's doings be so carefully to
be avoided : how much more heed is to be taken that
we take not offence at GOD himself; which yet we
certainly do, so oft as we do murmur at his Prpvidence
in our crosses, or bear impatiently such afflictions
as wherewith he pleaseth to visit us. Store we up
therefore patience against the evil day ! without which,
we take offence at the Lord himself in his holy and just
A fourth thing there is carefully to be provided for,
to wit. That with your common employments, you join
common affections, truly bent upon the general good:
avoiding (as a deadly plague of your both common and
special comfort) all retiredness of mind for proper
advantage [individvxU selj-aeekiTig], and all singularly
affected any manner of way. Let every man repress
in himself; and the whole body, in each person (as so
many rebels against the common good), all private
respects of men's selves ! not sorting with the general
conveniency. And as men are careful not to have a
new house shaken with any violence before it be well
settled, and the parts firmly knit : so be you, I beseech
you brethren, much more careful that the House of
GOD, which you are and are to be, be not shaken
with unnecessary novelties, or other oppositions, at the
first settling thereof.
Lastly, whereas you are to become a Body Politic,
using amongst yourselves Civil Government; and are
not furnished with any persons of special eminency
above the rest, to be chosen by you into Office of
Government: let your wisdom and godliness appear,
not only in choosing such persons as do entirely love,
BaT. J. BouiuoD. Planters of New England, 405
and will diligently promote, the common good; but
also in yielding unto them all due honour and obedience
in their lawful administrationa Not beholding in them,
the ordinariness of their persons ; but GOD's ordinance
for your good : nor being like unto the foolish multitude ;
who more honour the gay coat, than either the virtuous
mind of the man, or [tlie] glorious ordinance of the
But you know better things: and that the Image
of the Lord's power and authority, which the Magistrate
beareth, is honourable in how mean persons soever.
And this duty you both may the more willingly, and
ought the more conscionably to perform ; because you
are, at least for the present, to have only them for your
ordinary Governors, which yourselves shall make choice
of for that work.
Sundry other things of importance I could put
you in mind of, and of those before mentioned, in
more words; but I will not so far wrong your godly
minds, as to think you heedless of these things:
there being also divers among you so well able to
admonish both themselves and others, of what
These few things therefore, and the same in few
words, I do earnestly commend unto your care and
conscience : joining therewith my daily incessant prayers
unto the Lord, that he (who hath made the heavens
and the earth, the sea and all rivers of waters; and
whose Providence is over all his works, especially over
all his dear children for good) would so guide and
guard you in your ways (as inwardly by his SPIRIT ;
so outwardly by the hand of his power) as that both
you, and we also for and with you, may have after
4o6 A Letter of Advice &c. Ber.j.£obiii«»
matter of praising his name, all the days of your, and
Fare you well in him ! in whom you trust, and in
whom I rest
An unfeigned well-wiUer
of your happy success
in this hopeful voyage,
I. R. [John Robinson.]
Relation, or Journal,
of the Proceedings of the Plantation *^
settled at Plymouth in
; EDNESDAY, the sixth of September ,
the wind coming East North East, a line
small gale, we loosed from Plymouth;
having been kindly intertained and
courteously used by divers friends there dwelling : and,
after many difficulties in boisterous storms, at length,
by QOD*s Providence, upon the 9th of November
following, by break of the day, we espied land ; which
we deemed to be Cape Cod, and so afterward it proved.
And the appearance of it much comforted us : especially
seeing so goodly a land, and wooded to the brink of the
sea; it caused us to rejoice together, and praise QOD
that had given us once again to see land.
And thus we made our course south-south-west,
purposing to go to a river ten leagues to the south of
the Cape: but, at night, the wind being contrary, we
put round again for the Bay of Cape Cod. And upon
the 11th of November, we came to an anchor in the
Bay : which is a good harbour and [a] pleasant Bay ;
circled round, except in the entrance, which is about
four miles over from land to land ; compassed
about [encircled] to the very sea, with oaks, pines,
juniper sassafras, and other sweet wood. It is a
4o8 New England in America.
harbour wherein a thousand Sail of ships may safely
There we relieved ourselves with wood and water,
and refreshed our people ; while our shallop was fitted
to coast \sa\l along the shore of] the Bay, to search for a
[place of] habitation.
There was [there] the greatest store of fowl that
ever we saw. A^d, every day, we saw whales playing
hard by us. Of which, in that place, if we had [had]
instruments and means to take them; we might have
made a very rich return : which [instruments], to our
great grief, we wanted. Our Master and his Mate, and
others experienced in fishing, professed we might have
made £3,000 or £4,000 worth of oil. They preferred it
before Greenland whale-fishing ; and purpose, the next
winter [1621—1622], to fish for whale here.
For cod, we assayed ; but found none. There is good
store, no doubt, in their season.
Neither got we any fish all the time we lay there :
but some few little ones on the shore. We found great
mussels, and very fat and full of sea pearl[s] : but we
could not eat them ; for they made us all sick that did
eat, as well sailors as passengers. They caused to cast
[vomit] and scour [pv/rge]. But they were soon well
The Bay [i.e, Provincetown harbour] is so round and
circling that, before we could come to anchor, we went
round all the points of the compass. We could not
come near the shore, by three-quarters of an English
mile; because of shallow water: which was a great
prejudice to us. For our people, going on shore, were
forced to wade a bow -shot or two, in going aland ;
which caused many to get colds and coughs : for it was,
many times, freezing cold weather.
New England in America. 409
This day, before we came to harbour, observing
some not well affected to unity and concord ; but gave
some appearance of faction : it was thought good there
should be an Association and Agreement that we should
combine tc^ther in one body ; and to submit to such
Government and Governors as we should, by common
consent, agree to make and choose : and [we] set our
hands to this that follows, word for word.
\ N the name of OOD, Amen, We, whose nam^s
are underturitten, the loyal subjects of our
dread Sovereign Lord King James; by the
grace of GOD, of Great Britain, France,
and Ireland King ; Defemder of the Faith ; ike.
Having undertaken for the glory of GOD, and
advancement of the Christian faith, and honov/r of our
King and country, a Voyage [Expedition] to plant the
first Colony in the northern parts of Virginia ; [we] do,
by these presents, solemnly and mutuaUy, in the presence
of GOD and one of another, covenant and combine
ourselves together into a Civil Body Politic, for our
better ordering and preservation ; and fv/rtherance of
the ends aforesaid: and, by virtue hereof, to enact,
constitute, and frame such just and equal laws,
ordinances, acts, constitutions, Ojffices, from time to
tirfie, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for
the general good of the Colony ; unto which, we promise
all due submission and obedience.
In witness whereof, we have hereunder svhscribed our
na/m£s.* Cape Cod, 11th of November, in the year of the
*This Compact was signed by forty-one, out of the sixty-five adult
male passengers then on board the Matf/lower, See the names of those
who signed, and d those who did not, at pp. 378-880.— £. A.
4 1 o New England in America.
reign of omr Sovereign Lord King JameSj of 3ngland
France and Ireland 18; and of ScoUcmd 54. Anno
The same day, so soon as we could, we set ashore
fifteen or sixteen men, well armed ; with some to fetch
wood, for we had none left : as also to see what the
land was ; and what inhabitants they could meet with.
They found it to be a small neck of land. On this
side, where we lay, is the Bay ; and [on] the further side,
the sea. The ground or earth [consists of] sandhills, much