Our greatest labour will be the fetching of our
wood, which is half a quarter of an English mile [-ee
fv/rUmg^ or 220 yarda] : but there is enough, so far off.
What people inhabit here, we know not ; for as yet
we have seen none.
So there we made our randevous; and a place for
some of our people, about twenty: resolving, in the
morning, to come all ashore, and to build houses.
But the next morning, being Thursday the 2l8t of
December, it was stormy and wet that we could not go
ashore. And those that remained there all night, could
do nothing ; but were wet : not having daylight enough
to make them[selves] a sufficient court of guard [ ^ guard
house. Here it means, shelter'] to keep them dry.
All that night, it blew and rained extremely. It
was so tempestuous that the shallop could not go on land
so soon as was meet : for they had no victuals on land.
About eleven a clock, the shallop went off with much
ado, with provisions : but could not return, it blew so
strong. And [it] was such foul weather that we were
forced to let fall our [ ? sheet] anchor : and ride with
three anchors ahead.
Friday, the 22nd. The storm still continued that we
could not get aland ; nor they come to us aboard.
This morning, goodwife Alderton [Mary Allbrton]
was delivered of a son ; but dead bom.
Saturday, the 23rd. So many of us as could, went
ashore; [and] felled and carried timber, to provide
ourselves stuff for building.
Sunday, the 24th. Our people on shore heard a cry
of some savages, as they thought ; which cause an alarm,
440 New England in America.
and to stand on their guard, expecting an assault : but
all was quiet
Monday, the 25th day. We went on shore. Some
to fell timber, some to saw, some to rive, and some to
carry : so no man rested all that day. But towards
night, some, as they were at work, heard a noise of
some Indians; which caused us all to go to our
muskets. But we heard no further [of it] : so we came
aboard again, and left some twenty to keep the court of
guard. That night we had a sore storm of wind and
Monday, the 25th, being Christmas Day, we began
to drink water aboard. But, at night, the Master caused
us to have some beer. And so on board, we had divers
times, now and then, some beer : but on shore none at
Tuesday, the 26th, it was foul weather, that we could
not go ashore.
Wednesday, the 27th. We went to work again.
Thursday, the 28th of December. So many as could,
went to work on the hill [The Mowat\\ where we purposed
to build our Platform [Fort] for our ordnance ; and
which doth command all the plain and the bay ; and from
whtoce we may see far into the sea. And [it] might be
[the] easier impaled ; having two rows of houses, and a
fair street [now Leyden street].
So, in the afternoon, we went to measure out the
grounds. And first, we took notice how many families
there were ^willing all single men, that had no wives, to
join some familjQ^as they thought fit, that so we might
build fewer houses. Which was done ; and we reduced
them to nineteen families.
^^o greater families, we allotted larger plot^ to
every person, half a Pole [ ^ 2J yards] in breadth, and
New England in America. 441
three [Â»16^ yoTxfe] in length. And so lots were cast,
where every man should lie. Which was done, and
We thought this proportion was large enough, at
the first, for houses and gardens, to impale them around ;
considering the weakness of our people: many of them
growing ill with colds for [cm (icc(yijmi o/] our former
Discoveries in frost and storms ; and the wading at
Cape Cod had brought much weakness amongst us,
which increased so every day, more and more ; and
after was the cause of many of their deaths.
Friday and Saturday. We fitted ourselves for our
labour : but our people on shore were much troubled and
discouraged with rain and wet those days; [it] being
very stormy and cold We saw great smokes of fire,
made by the Indians, about six or seven miles from us,
as we conjectured.
Monday, the 1st of January . We went
betimes to work. We were much hindered in lying so
far off from the land, and fain to go as the tide served ;
that we lost much time. For our ship [of 180 tons]
drew so much water that she lay a mile and almost a
half off : though a ship of 70 or 80 tons, at high water,
may come to tihe shore.
Wednesday, the 8rd of January. Some of our
people, being abroad to get and gather thatch ; they
saw great fires of the Indians, and were at their
cornfields : yet saw none of the savages ; nor had seen
any of them since we came to this bay.
Thursday, the 4th of January. Captain Miles
Standish, with four or five more, went to see if they
could meet with any of the savages in that place where
the fires were made. They went to some of their
houses ; but not lately inhabited : yet they could not
442 New England in Atnerica.
meet with any. As they came home, they shot at an
eagle and killed her ; which was excellent meat It was
hardly to be discerned from mutton.
Friday, the 5th of January. One of the sailors
found aUve upon the shore, a herring; which the
Master had to his supper: which put us in hope
of fish; but as yet we had got but one cod. We
wanted small hooks.
Saturday, the 6th of January. Master [Christopher]
Martin was very sick ; and, to our judgement, [with]
no hope of life : so Master Carver was sent for, to come
aboard [the Mayflower] to speak with him, about his
Accounts [as Trc^ksurer of the Company].
Who came, the next morning. [See page 344].
Monday, the 8th day of January, was a very fair day ;
and we went betimes to work. Master Jones sent tiie
shallop, as he had formerly done, to see where fish could
be got. They had a great storm at sea, and were in
some danger. At night, they returned with three great
seals ; and an excellent good cod : which did assure us
that we should have plenty of fish shortly.
This day, Francis Billington (having, the week
before, seen, from the top of a tree on a high hiU, a great
sea, as he thought) went vdth one of the Master's Mates to
see it. They went three miles ; and then came to a great
water divided into two great lakes : the bigger of them
five or six miles in circuit, and in it an isle of a cable's
length [ = 100 fathoms Â»â€¢ 600 feet] square ; the other, three
miles in compasa In their estimation, they are [of] fine
fresh water ; full of fish and fowl. A brook [the Touni
Brook] issues from it. It will be an excellent help for
us in time.
They found seven or eight Indian houses [wigvxima] ;
but not lately inhabited. When they saw the houses,
New England in Amerua. 443
they were in some fear : for they were but two persons
and one piece [mtc^A^e^].
Tuesday, the 9th January, was a reasonable fair day :
and we went to labour that day in the building of
our town, in two rows of houses for more safety. We
divided by lot the plot of ground whereon to build our
town. After the proportion formerly allotted \we page
440] ; we agreed that every man should build his own
house : thinking, by that course, men would make more
haste than [when] working in common. The Common
House, in which, for the first, we made our rende[z]vous,
being nearly finished, wanted only covering. It being
about twenty feet square. Some would make mortar ;
and some gather thatch : so that, in four days, half of it
was thatched. Frost and foul weather hindered us
much. This time of the year seldom could we work
half the week.
Thursday the 11th. WiLUAM Bradford being at
work, for it was a fair day, was vehemently taken
with a grief and pain, and so shot to his huckle-bone
[hip-bone], it was doubted [feared] that he would
have instantly died. He got cold in the former
Discoveries, especially the last; and felt some pain in
his ancles by times [occaeianaUy]. But he grew a little
better towards night; and in time, through GOD's
mercy in the use of means, recovered.
Friday, the 12th. We went to work; but, about
noon, it began to rain, that it forced us to give over
This day, two of our people put us in great sorrow
and care. There were four sent to gather and cut
thatch, in the morning; and two of them, John
QooDKAN and Peter Browne, having cut thatch all
the forenoon, went to a further place : and willed the
444 iVira; England in America,
other two to bind up that which was cutÂ» and to follow
them. So they did, [it] being about a mile and a half
from our Plantation.
But when the two came after ; they could not find
them, nor hear anything of them at all : though they
hallowed [hallooed] and shouted as loud as they could.
So they returned to the Company, and told them
Whereupon Master Leaver [or rather Carver] and
three or four more, went to seek them : but could hear
nothing of them. So they returning, sent more: but
that night they could hear nothing at all of them.
The next day [, Saturday, the 13th], they armed ten
or twelve men out; verily thinking the Indians had
surprised them : but could neither see nor hear anything
at all. So they returned with much discomfort to
These two that were missed ; at dinner time took
their meat in their hands, and would go [and] walk
and refresh themselves. So going a little off, they
find a lake of water [? Lout Pond, near BHUngUm
Sea]: and, having a great mastiff bitch with them
and a spaniel, by the water side they found a
great deer. The dogs chased him; and they followed
so far as they lost themselves, and could not find the
They wandered all that afternoon, [it] being wet:
and at night it did freeze and snow. They were
slenderly apparelled; and had no weapons, but each
one his sickle ; nor any victuals.
They ranged up and down ; and could find none of
the savages' habitations [wigvxmia].
When it drew to night, they were much perplexed ;
New England in America, 445
for they could find neither harbour nor meat : but, in
frost and snow, were forced to make the earth, their
bed; and the element [heavens], their covering. And
another thing did very much terrify them. They heard,
as they thought, two lions [tix>lve8] roaring exceedingly,
for a long time together ; and a third, that they thought
was very near them : so, not knowing what to do, they
resolved to climb up into a tree, as their safest refuge :
though that would prove an intolerable cold lodgmg.
So they stood at the tree's root, that, when the
lions came, they might take their opportunity of
climbing up. The bitch they were fain to hold by the
neck; for she would have been gone to the lion. But
it pleased GOD so to dispose, that the wild beasts
So they walked up and down under the tree all
night. It was an extremely cold night
So soon as it was light, they travelled again : passing
by many lakes and brooks and woods ; and in one place
where the savages had burnt the space of five miles in
length, which is a fine champion [open] country and even.
In the afternoon, it pleased GOD from a high hill
they discovered the two isles in the bay [Clark^a lalomd,
and Saquish peninsula in Plynumth harbour]; and
so, that night, got to the Plantation; being ready to
faint with travail [fatigue] and want of victuals ; and
almost famished [perishing] with cold. John Goodman
was fain to have his shoes cut off his feet ; they were
so swelled with cold : and it was a long while after, ere
he was able to go.
Those on the shore were much comforted at their
return: but they on shipboard were grieved, as
deeming them lost.
446 Nem England in America.
But the next day, being [SondayJ the 14th of
January, in the morning, about six of the clock, the
wind being very great ; they on shipboard spied their
great new randevous on fire : which was to them a new
discomfort; feâ‚¬uing, because of the supposed loss of
the men, that the savages had fired them.
Neither could they presently go to them, for want
of water; but, after three-quarters of an hour, they
went: as they had purposed, the day before, to keep
the Sabbath on shore; because, now, ihert was the
greater number of people.
At their landing, they heard [the] good tidings of
the return of the two men; and that the house was
fired occasionally [accidentally] by a spark that flew
into the thatch : which instantly burnt it [i.e, the thatdi]
all up ; but the roof stood and [was] little hurt
The most loss was Master Carver's and Wiluam
Bradford's ; who then lay [there] sick in bed : Mid, if
they had not risen with good speed, had been blown up
with powder : but, through GOD's mercy, they had no
The house was as full of beds as they could lie one
by another; and their muskets were charged: but,
blessed be OOD, there was no harm done.
Monday, the 15th day. It rained much all day, that
they on shipboard could not go on shore ; nor they on
shore do any labour : but were all wet
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday were very fair
sunshiny days ; as if it had been April : and our people,
so many as were in health, wrought cheerfully.
[Friday,] the 19th day, we resolved to make a Shed,
to put our common provision[s] in ; of which some were
already set on shore : but at noon it rained, that we
could not work.
New England in America. 447
This day, in the evening, John Goodman went
abroad, to use his lame feet, that were pitifully ill with
the cold he had got.^ Having a little spaniel with him, a
little way from the Plantation, two great wolves ran
after the dog. The dog ran to him ; and betwixt his
legs, for succonr. He had nothing in his hand : but
took up a stick, and threw at one of them and hit him ;
and they presently ran both away, but came again.
He got a pale board [a stake or paZiTig] in his hand :
and they sat both on their tails, grinning at him, a
good while, and [then] went their way and left him.
Saturday, the 20th, we made up our Shed for our
Sunday, the 21st, we kept our Meeting on land.
Monday, the 22nd, was a fair day. We wrought on
our houses; and, in the afternoon, carried up our
hogsheads of meal to our common Storehouse [i.e. the
The rest of the week, we followed our business
Monday, the 29th, in the morning, cold frost and
sleet: but, after, reasonably fair. Both the long boat
and the shallop brought our common goods on shore.
Tuesday and Wednesday, 30th and 31st of January.
Cold frosty weather and sleet, that we could not work.
In the morning, the Master and others saw two savages,
that had been on the island [Cla/rk*8 Island] near our
ship. What they came for, we could not telL They
were going [gone] so far back again, before they were
descried, that we could not speak with them. *
Sunday, the 4th of February, was very wet and rainy :
with the greatest gusts of wind that ever we had, since
we came forth [ie. from England] : [so] that though we
rid in a very good harbour, yet we were in danger;
448 New England in America.
because our ship was light, the goods [being] taken out,
and she unballasted. And it caused much daubmg
[plaster made of eoHh] of our houses to fall down.
Friday the 9th. Still the cold weather continued,
that we could do [but] little work. That afternoon, our
little house for our sick people, was set on fire by a
spark that kindled in the roof ; but no great harm was
done. That evening, the Master [Captain Jones], going
ashore, killed five geese ; which he friendly distributed
among the sick people. He found also a good deer
killed. The savages had cut off the horns ; and a wolf
was eating of him. How he came there we could not
Friday, the 16th day, was a fair day: but the
northerly wind continued, which continued the frost.
This day, after noon, one of our people being a
fowling ; and having taken a stand by the creek side, in
the reeds, about a mile and a half from our Plantation ;
there came by him twelve Indians, marching towards
our Plantation : and in the woods, he heard the noise of
many more. He lay close till they were passed; and
then, with what speed he could, he went home, and gave
the alarm. So the people abroad in the woods returned,
and armed themselves ; but saw none of them : only
toward the evening, they made a great fire, about the
place where they were first discovered [seepage 441],
Captain Miles Stakdish and Francis Cooke, being
at work in the woods, coming home, left their tools
behind them : but, before they returned, their tools were
taken away by the savages.
This coming of the savages gave us occasion to keep
more strict watch; and to make our pieces and
furniture [muskets and their equipm^ent] ready, which
by the moisture and rain were out of temper.
New England in America. 449
Saturday, the 17th day [of February, 1621], in the
morning, we called a meeting for the establishing of
Military Orders amongst ourselves : and we chose MiLES
Standish, our Captain; and gave him authority of
command in affairs.
And afi we were in consultation hereabouts, two
savages presented themselves upon the top of a hill
[Strawberry Hilt, now called Watson's Hill. Its Indian
name was Cantaugca/nteest] over against our Plantation,
about a quarter of a mile and less ; and made signs unto
us, to come unto them.
We likewise made signs unto them, to come to us.
Whereupon we armed ourselves, and stood ready : and
sent two over the brook [the Town Brook] towards
them, to wit, Captain Standish and Stephen Hopkins ;
who went towards them. Only one of them had a
musket ; which they laid down on the ground in their
sight, in sign of peace and to parley with them : but
the savages would not tarry their coming. A noise of a
great many more was heard behind the hill: but no
more came in sight.
This caused us to plant our great ordnance in places
Wednesday, the 21st of February. The Master came
on shore, with many of his sailors, and brought with
him one of the great pieces, called a Minion [, a cannon
weighing 1,200 i6Â«., having a bore of 3^ inches, and
firing 340 yards] and helped us to draw it up the hill ;
with another piece that lay on shore : and mounted them ;
and a Saker [, or Sacre, a cannon weighing 1,500 Ihs.,
having a bore of 3^ inches, and firing 360 yards],
and two Bases [, cann/m ; each weighing 202 Ws. and
having a bore of IJ inches,]
He brought with him, a very fat goose to eat with us ;
The Pilgrim Fathers. 2 r
450 New England in America.
and we had a fat crane, and a mallard, and a dried neat's
tongue : and so we were kindly and friendly together.
Saturday^ the 3rd of March, the wind was south ;
the morning, misty ; but towards noon, warm and fair
weather. The birds sang in the woods most pleasantly.
At one of the clock, it thundered : which was the first
we heard in that country. It was [of] strong and
great daps; but short But, after an hour, it rained
very sadly [grievoualy'] till midnight
Wednesday, the 7th of March. The wind was full
east; cold, but fair. That day. Master Carver, with
five others, went to the great ponds [BUUngton Sea;
or possibly, the Oreat 8ov,th PoTui] ; which seem to be
excellent fishing places. All the way they went, they
found it exceedingly beaten [trodden] and haunted with
deer : but they saw none. Amongst other f ow][s], they
saw a milk-white fowl with a very black head.
This day, some garden seeds were sown.
Friday, the 16th [March 1621], a fair warm day
This morning, we determined to conclude of the
Military Orders: which we had begun to consider of
before: but were interrupted by the savages; as we
And whilst we were busied hereabout, we were
interrupted again. For there presented himself ,a
savage ; which caused an alarm.
He very boldly came all alone, and along the houses,
straight to the randevous: where we intercepted him,
not suffering him to go in ; as undoubtedly he would,
out of his boldness.
He saluted us in English, and bade us " Welcome I "
For he had learned some broken English amongst the
Englishmen that came to fish at Monchiggon [Monhegan,
New England in America, 45 1
off the coast of Maine] ; and knew by name the most of
the Captains, Commanders, and Masters that usually
He was a man free in speech, so far as he could
express his mind ; and of a seemly catriage.
We questioned him of many things. He was the
first savage we could meet withal. He said, He was not
of these parts ; but of Morattigon,* and one of the
Sagamores or Lords thereof ; and had been eight months
[Jvly 1620 â€” Ma/rch 1621] in these parts. It lying
hence a day's sail with a great wind ; and five days by
land. He discoursed of the whole country, and of every
province ; and of their Sagamores, and their number of
men and strength.
The wind beginning to rise a little, we cast a
horseman's coat about him: for he was stark naked,
[having] only a leatlier about his waist, with a fringe
about a span long or [a] little more. He had a bow, and
two arrows ; the one headed, and the other unhea4ed.
He was a tall straight man. The hair of his head [was]
black ; long behind, only short before : none on his face
He asked [for] some beer ; but we gave him strong
water [epia^its : ? braTidy]^ and biscuit, and butter, and
cheese, and pudding, and a piece of a metllard : all which
* Samosst wm Â» naifeive of Pemaqnid ; and Chief and original proprietor
of what is now the town of BriBtol, Maine. He seems to have gone on
board of Captain Dbrmeb's ship at Monhegan ; when he was on his way to
those shores, with Squanto, on his paoifio mission, 1619/1020: and to
have been hmded by Dbrmeb on Cape Cod ; when he redeemed there the
shipwrecked Frenchmen from their savage captors. This was only six
months before the Moj/fower arrived ; and the Pemmaqnid Chief still
lingered among his new friends : delayed by that overruling Providence
which needed him for the use of interpreter, to which he was now put. â€”
H. M. Dextir, Lib, of New England HUiory, I. 88, Ed. 1865, 4.
452 New England in America.
he liked well; and had been acquainted with such
amongst the English.
He told us the place where we now Utc is called
Patuxet: and that, about four years ago \in 1617], all
the inhabitants died of an extraordinary plague; and
there is neither man, woman, nor child remaining; as
indeed we have found none. So as there is none to
hinder our possession, or to lay claim unto it.
All the afternoon, we spent in communication with
him. We would gladly have been rid of him at night :
but he was not willing to go this night. Then we
thought to carry him on shipboard ; wherewith he was
well content, and went into the shallop : but the wind
was high, and the water scant [dAoUotc;], that it could
not return back. We lodged him, that night, at
Stephen Hopkins's house ; and watched him.
The next day [, Saturday, the 17th], he went away,
back to the Masasoits ; from whence, he said, he came :
who are our next bordering neighboura There are sixty
strong, as he saitL
The Nausites are as near south-east \pT TuUier
north-east] of them, and are a hundred strong; and
those were they, of whom our people were encountered ;
as we before related [at pp. 431-434]. They are much
incensed and provoked against the English : and about
eight months ago [? July 1620], slew three Englishmen ;
and two more hardly escaped by flight to Monhiggon
[Monhegan]. They were Sir Ferdinando Gorges his
men ; as this savage told ua As he did likewise of the
huggericy that is " fight," that our Discoverers had with
the Nausites [ see pp, 431-434] : and of our tools that were
taken out of the woods ; which we willed him should
be brought again, otherwise we would right ourselves.
These people are ill affected towards the English, by
New England in Amerua. 453
reason of one [Captain Thomas] HuntÂ» a Master of a
ship; who deceived the people; and got them, under
colour of trucking [appearance of bartering] with them,
twenty out of this very place where we inhabit, and
seven from the Nausites: and carried them away [to
Spain], and sold them for slaves for Â£20 a man ; like a
wretched man that cares not what mischief he doth for
Saturday, in the morning, we dismissed the savage ;
and gave him a knife, a bracelet, and a ring. He