ooiiri<tor«d M and agreement ; which agreement is double :
&^Si^° Md S% First, the imperial Governor, Massasoit
SrSjI^tt^**' (whose circuits [bovmdariea], in likelihood,
are larger than England and Scotiand) hath
acknowledged the King's Majesty of England to be hia
master and Commander ; and that once in my hearing
[in November, or December 1621] : yea, and in writing,
under his hand, to Captain Standish, both he and many
other Kings which are under him (as Pamet, Nauset,
Cummaquid, Narrowhiggonset, Namaschet, &c) ; with,
divers others that dwdl about the Bays of Patuxet
[PlyTTuytUh] and Massachuset [Boston Bay],
Neither hath this been accomplished by threats and
blows, or [the] shaking of sword and sound of trumpet.
For as our faculty that way is small, uid our strength
less ; so our warring with them is after another
manner, namely, by friendly usage, love, peace, honest
and just carriages [behaviou/r], good counsel, &c. : that bo
FMi «.t; and ^® "^^ ^^^^ ™*y ^^* ^y ^^® ^ peace in
«HHi.'«. that land, and they yield subjection to an
B. ootiuMD. The lawfulness of Plantations. 501
earthly Prince ; but that, as volontarieB, they may
be persuaded at length to embrace the Prince of
Peace, Christ Jesus; and rest in peace with him
Secondly. This composition id also more particular
and applicatory as touching ourselves there inhabiting.
The Emperor, by a joint consent, hath promised and
appointed us to live at peace, where we will, in all his
dominions; taking what place we will, and as much
land as we will ; and bringing as many people as we
wilL And that for these two causes.
First. Because we are the servants of James, King
of England ; whose the land, as he confesseth, is.
Secondly. Because he hath foand us just, honest,
kind, and peaceable ; and so loves our company.
Yea, and that in these things there is no dissimulation
on his part, nor fear of breach [gtiarre!] (except our
security ingender in them some unthought-of treachery ;
or our uncivility [rvdenesa] provoke them to anger) is
most plain in other Relations [at pp. 407-494] : which
shew that the things they did, were more out of love
than out of fear.
It being then, first, a vast and empty chaos ; secondly,
acknowledged the right of our Sovereign King ; thirdly,
by a peaceable composition in part possessed of divers
of his loving subjects : I see not, who can doubt and call
in question the lawfulness [rigkteousneaa] of inhabiting
"or dwelling there; but that it may be as lawful for
such, as are not tied upon some special occasion here, to
live there as well as here. Tea, and as the enterprise is
weighty and difficult: so the honour is more worthy,
to plant a rude wilderness, to enlarge the honour and
fame of our dread Sovereign ; but chiefly to display the
efficacy and power of the Gospel, both in zmIous
502 The lawfulness of PlantcUions.
preaching, Prof eesing, and wise walking under it, before
the faces of these poor blind infidels.
As for such as object the tediousness of the voyage
thither; the danger of pirates' robbery, [and] of the
savages' treachery, &a ; these are but lions in the
way: and it were well for such men, if
they were in heaven. For who can shew
them a place in this world, where iniquity shall m^
compass them at the heels ? or where they
MStUh^.'fti. ^^ have a day without grief? or a lease
of life, for a moment ? And who can tell
but GOD, what dangers may lie at our doors, even in our
native country ? or what plots may be abroad \ho,t(iivn>g\ ?
or when GOD will cause our sun to go down at
noonday ? and, in the midst of our peace and
security, lay upon us some lasting scourge
for our so long neglect and contempt of his most
Objection. But we have here great peace, plenty of
the Gospel, and many sweet delights and variety of
Answer. True indeed, and far be it from us to deny
and diminish the least of these mercies.
^l o>»««.™tt- But have we rendered unto GOD thankful
obedience for this long peace, whilst other
peoples have been at war [Tfie allusion here is to the
Thirty Years War then raging va Oemiany] ? Have we
not rather murmured, repined, and fallen at jars amongst
ourselves ; whilst our peace hath lasted with foreign
Power[s] ? Were there ever more suits in law, more envy,
contempt, and reproach, than now a days ? Abraham
and Lot departed asunder, when there fell a breach
The lawfulnesi oj Plantations. 503
betwixt them ; which was occasioned by
the straitness of the land: and, surely, I
am persuaded that howosever the £railitiee of men are
principal \ihe primary causes] in all contentions, yet
the straitness of the place is such, as each man is fain
to pluck his means, a& it were, out of his neighbour's
throat There is such pressing and oppressing, in town
and country, about farms, trades, traffic, &c ; so as a
man can hardly anywhere set up a trade, but he shall
pull down two of his neighboura
The towns abound with young tradesmen [oHizams];
and thehospitals are f ullof the ancient [ones]. Thecountry
is replenished with new farmers; and the almhouses
are filled with old labourera Many there are who get
their living with bearing burdens ; but more are fain to
burden the land with their whole bodie& Multitudes
get their means of life by prating ; and so do numbers
more, by begging. Neither come these straits upon
men always through intemperancy, ill husbandry,
indiscretion, &c, as some think: but even the most
wise sober and discreet men ^ often to the wall ;
when they have done their best Wherein, as GOD's
Providence swayeth all, so it is easy to see, That the
straitness of the place, having in it so many strait
[Tia/rrow] hearts, cannot but produce such effects more
and more. So as every indifferent [impartial] minded
man should be ready to say, with father Abraham,
'' Take thou, the right hand ; and I will take the left ! "
Let us not thus oppress, straiten, and afflict one another !
but seeing there is a spacious land, the way to which is
through the sea, we will end this difference in a day !
That I speak nothing about the bitter contention
that hath bera about Religion, by writing disputing and
inveighing earnestly one against another: the heat of
504 The lawfulness of Plantations.
which zeal, if it were tamed against the mde barbarifim
of the heathens, it might do more good in a daj than it
hath done here in many years. Neither of the little
love to the Gospel, and profit which is made by the
Preachers in most places ; which might easily drive the
zealous to the heathens : who, no doubt, if they had bat
a drop of that knowledge, which here flyeth about the
streets, would be filled with exceeding great joy and
gladness, as that they would even pluck the Kingdom
of Heaven by violence ; and take it, as it were, by force.
The last let. The greatest let \hvn/d/rance\ that is
yet behind is, The sweet fellowship of friends, and the
satiety of bodily delights.
But can there be two nearer friends almost, than
Abbaham and Lor; or than Paul and Barnabas?
And yet, upon as little occasions as we have here, they
departed asunder ; two of them being Patriarchs of the
Church of old, the others, the Apostles of the Church
which is new: and their covenants were such as, it
seemeth, might bind as much as any covenant between
men at this day ; and yet, to avoid greater inconveniences,
they departed asunder.
Neither must men take so much thought for tiie
flesh as not to be pleased, except they can pamper their
bodies with variety of dainties. Nature is content with
little: and health is much endangered by mixtures
upon the stomach. The delights of the palate do often
inflame the vital parts; as the tongue
""" ' setteth afire the whole body.
Secondly. Varieties here are not common to
all; but many good men are glad to snap at a crust
The rent-taker lives on sweet morsels; but the
rent-payer eats a dry crust often with watery eyes:
B. ifnAmMa. Tkc lawfulfuss of Plafttatiofts. 505
and it is nothing to say, what some one of a hundred
hath ; but what the bulk, body, and comminalty hath —
which, I warrant you, is short enough.
And they also which now live so sweetly ; hardly
will their children attain to that priviledge, but some
circumventor or other will outstrip them, and make
them sit in the dust : to which men are brought in one
Age [lifetvme] ; but cannot get out of it again, in seven
To conclude. Without all partiality, the present
consumption [exhaustion] which groweth upon us here
(whilst the land groaneth under so many close-fisted
and unmerciful men), being compared with the easiness,
plainness, and plentifulness in living, in those remote
parts; may quickly persuade any man to a liking of
this course, and to practice a removal. Which being done
by honest godly and industrious men; they shall be
there right heartily welcome : but for others of dissolute
and profane life, their rooms [vacancy, or absence] are
better than-*their companies. For if here, where the
Gospel hath been so long and plentifully taught, tiiey
BXB yet frequent in such vices as the heathen would
shame to speak of : what will they be, when there is less
restraint in word and deed ?
My only suit to all men is. That, whether they live
here or there, they would learn to use this world as [if]
they used it not ; keeping faith and a good conscience
both with GOD and men: that when the £|ay of
Account shall come, they may come forth as good and
fruitful servants; and freely be received, and enter into
the joy of their Master. R. C.
The Complaint of certain Adventurebs and
Inhabitants of the Plantation in
That a ship belonging to them, named the
Fortune, of the burden of between 40 and 50 tons or
thereabouts, being upon their way homeward, and near
the English coast, some eight leagues off Use, called by
the Frenchmen He dTTse,* was, the 19th of January last
, assailed and taken by a French Man of Wur,
the Captain whereof was called Fontenau de Pbnnabt
de Brittannie [Bretagne]: and carried to the Isle of
That Fontenau presented the ship, and company
thereof, being 13 persons, as prisoners to Monsieur le
Marquis de Cera, Governor of the Isle. Who although,
upon examination and sight of their Commission, he
found that they were neither pirates, nor assistants to
Bochelle [i.e. to ilie Huguenots there\ and acknowledged
there was no breach [war] between England and France :
yet said. He would make prize of them, to give content
to his Captains and servitors.
That thereupon Monsieur DE Cera kept Thomas
Barton, Master of the ship, seven days, dose prisoner
in his Castle ; and the rest of the company under guard :
* C^yUin John Smith lUtes that thii wm De d'Yeu, off the ooMt of
Poitoii.~i\r«ir Sngland*i Trialt, 2nd Ed^ 1622, 4.
The robbery of the Fortune. 507
and commanded his soldiers to pillage them ; who left
them not so much as a kettle to boil their meat in, nor
a can to drink in.
That Monsieur D£ Ceba took away of the goods of
the Adventurers, in beaver skins and other commodities,
to the value of £400, at the least
That he took away of the Owners, a Newshett
cable [a new sheet-cable : i,e, the chain cable belonging
to the sheet a/nchor], an anchor, two murderers [small
cann^on] with their chambers, eight calivers [handrgums]
with bandileers [shoulder-belts holding powder cha/rges]y
a flag, [an] ensign, powder, shot, ropes, lines, and other
instruments, to the value of £50.
That he suffered his soldiers to pillage the company,
that they took away all their apparel ; not leaving some
of them a hat to their heads, nor a shoe to their feet, to
the damage of £50 at least
That he sent for all their letters ; [and] opened and
kept what he pleased : especicJly, though he was much
intreated to the contrary, a letter written by [Wiluam
Bradford,] the Governor of our Colony in New England,
containing a general Relation of all matters there.*
That when any ship, English or Dutch, came into the
* Posterity will always owe a gradge to this noble thief, for his robbery
of GoTemor Bbadfobd'b despatch : unless it should happily be recovered
from among the existing French archives ; and then posterity would bless
him for ever. Doubtless, the Marquis kept it, in order to send it up to
the Court at Paris.
Governor WiNSLOW tells us, at page 582, that the narrative we have
printed at pp. 407-494, ** came to the press ag^st my will and knowledge. "
It is therefore a makeshift private narrative, sent to press by Cubhmak,
MOBTON, Shiblit and others in the absence of the official one stolen. For,
naturally enough, the Adventurers in London would feel oonstrained to
print some account of the Ck>lony ; in order to further its welfare, and also
to satisfy public opinion. — E. A.
5o8 The robbery of the Fortune.
road ; he caused our oompuiy to be stowed under the
hatchea And — having detained them thirteen days [/
frcm 2(WA JamAMx/ry to leit Febma/ry 1622, The Fortune
arrived in London on the 14tfc February] ; and fed them
with lights, livers, and entrails : because he suffered his
soldiers to eat all their good victuals — at length, he sent
them aboard a little lean flesh, a hogshead of small
[poor] wine, some little bread and vinegar, to victual
them home. But withal prepounded to them, to testify,
under their hands, That he had taken from them bat
two * hogsheads of fox skins f : else, he said, they should
not have liberty.
Howbeit, by the kindness of a young OenUeman,
pitying their distress — who only amongst the French
could speak English — ^they were discharged; giving,
under their hands. That the Marquis of Cera had taken
from them two hogsheads of beaver skins, and some
other small matters.
A Complaint of divers Adventurers
and Inhabitants of New England.
S. P. CoUmial, Vol. V., No 112.
* CApUin John Shith itates, ** Within a month, they [in the Fofimme]
returned here [fr<m, New Plymouth'] for England, laded with clipboard,
wainscot [otdctoood for paneUing'] and walnut [woodl with about three
hogsheads of beaver skins, and some 8axefras[aa#t(0tul the 18 December
." New EngUMd*» Triali, 2nd Ed., 1622, 4.
If so, CusHMAN must, in some way or other, have outwitted the noble
pirate ; and saved one of the hogsheads of beaver skins from his clutches.
Bbadfobd, however, says, "two hogsheads of beaver and other skins.'*
t The Biarquis had probably never seen a beaver skin in bis life ; and
gave the skins the only name he knew of. — £. A.
Good News from
a tnie Relation of things yerj remarkable at
the Plantation of Plymouth in
Shewing the wonderful Providence and goodness of
GOD, in their preservation and continuance;
being delivered from many apparent
deaths and dangers.
a Relation of such religious and civil laws and
customs as are in practice amongst the Indians
a^oining to them, at this day.
wh^t commodities are there to be raised for the
Wintenance />f that and other Plantations
in the said country.
Written by £. W. ; who hath borne a part in
the forenamed troubles, and there lived
since their first arrival.
Printed by I. D. [John Dawson] for William Bladen
and John Bbllamib: and are to be sold at their
shops; at the Bible in Paul's Churchyard,
and at the Three Golden Lions in
Comhill, near the Royal
To THE Reader.
[OOD Reader. When I first penned this
discourse, I int^ided it chiefly for the
satisfactiou of my private friends: but,
since that time, have been persuaded to
publish the same. And the rather, because of a
disorderly Colony [of Thomas Westoi^s men] that are
dispersed, and most of them returned [to England};
to the great prejudice and damage of him that set
them forth. Who, as they were a stain to Old England
that bred them, in respect of their lives and manners
amongst the Indians : so, it is to be feared, [they] will be
no less to New England, in their vile and. clamorous
reports; because she would not foster them in their
desired idle courses.
I would not be understood to think there were no
well-deserving persons amongst them. For, of mine
own knowledge, it was a grief to some, that they were
so yoked : whose deserts as they were then suitable to
their honest protestations ; so, I desire, [they] still may
be, in respect of their just and true Relation&
Peradventure thou wilt rather marvel that I deal
so plainly; than any way doubt of the truth of this,
my Relation. Yea, it may be, tax me therewith : as
seeming rather to discourage men, than [in] any way to
further so noble an action.
If any honest mind be discouraged ; I am sorry.
Sure I am, I have given no just cause : and am so far
from being discouraged myself, as I purpose to return
512 To the Reader. got. b. window.
forthwith. And for other light and vain persons; if
they stumble hereat, I have my desire: accounting it
better for them and us, that they keep where they
are; as being unfit and unable to perform so great a
Some faults have escaped; because I could not
attend on the press : which I pray thee correct as thou
findest ; and I shall account it as a favour unto me.
To ALL WELL-WILLERS AND FUBTHEBERS OF PLANTATIONS
IN New England ; especially to such as ever have
[assisted], OB DESIRE TO ASSIST, THE PEOPLE
OF Plymouth in their just proceedings ;
GRACE AND PEACE BE MULTIPLIED!
[IQHT Honourable and Worshipful Gentleman ;
or whatsoever. Since it hath pleased GOD
to stir you up to be Instruments of his
glory, in so honourable an enterprise as the
inlarging of His Majesty's dominions, by planting his
loyal subjects in so healthful and hopeful a country as
New England is: where, the Church of GOD being
seated in sincerity, there is no less hope of convincing
the heathen of their evil ways, and converting them
to the true knowledge and worship of the living
GOD, and so consequently, the salvation of their
souls by the merits of Jesus Christ than elsewhere ;
though it be much talked on, and lightly or lamely
I therefore think it but my duty, to oflfer the View
of our Proceedings to your worthy considerations:
having, to that end, composed them together thus
briefly , as you see. Wherein, to your great encouragement,
you may behold the good Providence of GOD working
with you, in our preservation from so many dangerous
plots and treacheries as have been intended against us :
as also in giving his blessing so powerfully upon the
weak means we had; inabling us with health and
ability, beyond expectation, in our greatest scarcities ; and
The Pilgrim Fathen. 518 2 s
514 The Epistle Dedicatory. got. b. window.
possessing the hearts of the savages with astonishment
and fear of us. Whereas if GOD had let them loose,
they might easily have swallowed us up; [scarcely]
being a .handful in comparison of those forces they
might have gathered together against us: which now,
by GOD's blessing, will be more hard and difficult, in
regard our number of men is increased; our town,
better fortified; and our store, better victualled.
Blessed therefore be his name ! that hath done so great
things for us ; and hath wrought so great a .change
Accept, I pray you, my weak endeavours. Pardon
my unskilfullness ; and bear with my plainness in the
things I have handled. Be not discouraged by our
former necessities ; but rather incouraged with us :
hoping that as GOD hath wrought with us in our
beginning of this worthy work, undertaken in his name
and fear ; so he will, by us, accomplish the same to
his glory and our comfort, if we neglect not the
I confess, it hath not been much less chargeable to
some of you \ihe Adventv/rera], than hard and difficult
to us, that have endured the brunt of the battle : and
yet small profits returned. Only, by GOD's mercy, we
are safely seated, housed, and fortified : by which means,
a great step is made unto gain; and a more direct
course taken for the same, than if, at first, we had rashly
and covetously fallen upon it.
Indeed, three things are the overthrow and bane, as
I may term it, of Plantations.
1. The vain expection of present [instant] profit:
which, too [fa/r] too commonly, taketh a
principal seat in the heart and affections;
ooT. E. wineiow. Tkc EpistU Dedtcatory. 515
though GOD's glory &c. is preferred before
it in the mouth, with protestation.
2. Ambition in their Gk)vemor8 and Commanders,
seeking only to make themselves, great; and
slaves, of all that under them : to maintain a
transitory base honour in themselves; which
GOD oft punisheth with contempt.
3. The carelessness of those that send over supplies
\Teinf(yrcerftvernis\ of men unto them ; not caring
how they be qualified: so that oft times
they are rather the Image of Men endued
with bestial, yea, diaboliccd afiections; than
the Image of GOD endued with reason,
understanding, and holines&
I praise GOD, I speak not these things experimentally,
by way of complaint of our own condition : but have
great cause, on the contrary part, to be thankful to
GOD, for his mercies towards us.
But rather, if there be any too desirous of gain, to
intreat them to moderate their affections; and [to]
consider that no man expecteth fruit before the tree
be grown. Advising all men that, as they tender their
own welfare, so to make choice of such to manage and
govern their affairs as are approved, not to be seekers
of themselves, but [of] the common good of all for whom
they are imployed. And beseeching such as have the
care of transporting men for the supply and furnishing
of Plantations, to be truly careful in sending such as
may further, and not hinder, so good an action.
There is no godly honest man but will be helpful in
this kind; and adorn his Profession with an upright
life and conversation : which Doctrine of Manners ought
first to be preached, by giving a good example to the
5 1 6 The Epistle Dedicatory. got. k. wimiow.
poor savage heathens, amongst whom they live. On
the contrary part, what great offence hath been given
by many profane men; who, being but seeming
Christians, have made Christ and Christianity stink in
the nostrils of the poor infidels ; and so laid a stumbling
block before them : but " woe be to them, by whom such
offences come I "
These things, I offer to your Christian considerations ;
beseeching you to make a good construction of my
simple meaning, and [to] take in good part this ensuing
Relation : dedicating myself, and it, evermore unto your
service; beseeching GOD to crown our Christian and
faithful endeavours, with his blessings temporal and
Yours, in this service.
Ever to be commanded,
E. W. [Edward Winslow.]
from New England.
Ike good ship, called the Fortime (which,
in the month of November 1621, blessed
be GOD! brought us a new Supply
[reinforcement] of 35 persons) was not
long departed [from] our coast [on 13th December 1621],
ere the great people of Nanohigganset [Na/rrcigansett],
which are reported to be many thousands strong, began
to breathe forth many threats against us ; notwithstand-
ing their desired and obtained peace with us, in the
foregoing summer: insomuch as the common talk of
our neighbour[ing] Indians, on all sides, was of the
preparation they mstde to come against us.
In reason, a man would think they should have now
more cause to fear us that before our Supply came.
But, though none of them were present ; yet
understanding by others. That they [in the Fortvme]
neither brought arms, nor other provisions with them ;
but wholly relied on us: it occasioned them to slight
and brave us with so many threats as they did.
At length, came one of them to us, who was sent by
Canauacus [i.e. Canonicus] their chief Sachem or
King ; accompanied with one Tokamahamon, a friendly
This messenger inquired for Tisquantum our