You might not keep company with me. Doth Excommunication
cut off duties of children to fathers, &c ?
The profane Schism Scy pp. 64-66.
We then come to this judgement as to Franois Johnson.
That by October 1602, he was a dead Christian ; that, by
then, he was an utter disgrace to our sacred Faith ; and that
what he afterwards said, preached, or wrote, is not deserving
of serious attention, from a spiritual point of view.
Christopher Lawne's books, 1612 — 1613.
[ E must now break off the chronological sequence
of events, in order to determine the truthfulness,
or falsehood of Lawnb's two books : for they
profess to describe the inner life of the Ancient
Church from the year 1602 onwards. We may state, at once,
that we consider them worthy of an implicit belief ; and will
now give our reasons for so thinking.
On the 6/16 July 1612, there was entered at Stationers'
Hall, London, to Walter Burrs the Publisher, under the
hands [signcUtLres] of the Rev. Doctor Nidd, a Chaplain to
the Archbishop of Canterbury, and also of Richard Field
and Humphrey Lownbs, the two Wardens of the Stationers'
Company, a book called The prophcme [ ^ri profane] Schism of
the Broumista dsc, [E. Arber, Transcript d^., iii. 490,
The Ancient Church at Amsterdam. 113
This book was written by four persons, Christopher
Lawne, John Fowler, Clement Saunders, and Robert
Bulward: who had, previous to the 9/19 July 1611, with-
drawn from the Ancient Church, and joined themselves to the
Scotch Presbyterian Church in Amsterdam ; of which Church
the Minister was the Rev. John Paget.
The full Title of this book is as follows : in respect to
which it will be noticed that the names of the Place of
Printing, of the Printer, and of the Publisher, are all
designedly omitted from it ; apparently (the book being
of a highly libellous character, if untrue) in view of possible
The profane Schism of the firownists or Separatists ; with the
impiety, diasensions, lewd and abominable vices, of that impure
Robert Bulward ;
lately returned from the Company of Master Johnson, that wicked
Brother, into the bosom of the Church of England, their true
The Preface of this Work thus ends :
And although we be unlearned men which have composed
this book; yet we hope it will not be disliked therefore : seeing
we speak of nothing but which our own knowledge and experience
hath taught us ; and the admonition may take better place, because
that the most which are taken in the net of Brownism, are men of
This Work we refer to as, The profcme Schism <ftc.
As soon as copies of it reached Amsterdam, they led to the
production of another English book there, with the following
A Shield of Defence against the Arrows of Schism shot abroad
by Jean de l'Ecluse in his Advertisement against Master [Thomas]
The Pilgrim Fathers. H
114 The Ancient Church at Amsterdam.
Hereunto is prefixed a Declaration touching a book intituled,
ThA profane Schism of the BrowrdsU.
By John Fowlbr, Clement Saundbbs, Robbrt Bulward.
Printed at Amsterdam, by Hbnrt Laurenson, dwelling upon
the water, at the sign of the Writing Book. 1612, 4.
Apparently the only two copies known of this Work are in
the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Press-marks, Pamph. 10 ; and
4** 9.48. Th. L'Egluse's Advertisement is apparently a lost book.
We shall refer to this Work as A Shield of Defence dtc.
The parts of its Declaration that are material to our
present purpose, are as follows :
Chnstian Beader. There was, of late, a book published in
London, under this title. The profane Schism of the Brotmiste, Such
a book indeed we sent, by one of us, to be printed there ; but in
the publishing thereof, great injury hath been done unto us, and
chiefly in three ways : by Addition, by Detraction [Omdssumly and
by Alteration of the same.
Secondly, there is, in sum, left out the greatest part of the book
which we sent to be printed : yea, in exact account, there is not a
fourth part thereof that is printed . . .
Only this we understand by a letter sent from Chbistophbr
Lawnb, who was entrusted with this business, That he, according
to the order in such like cases, seeking unto such as were
appointed for the allowance of books to be printed; and leaving it
in the hands of [the Bev. Doctor Nidd,] a certain Chaplain of the
Archbishop [George Abbot], to get it read over and viewed, until
he himself might return out of the country into which he was
then going down — before he could come up to London again,
he found the book already printed, contrary to his expectation :
and in the printing thereof, so mangled and defaced as is above
And howsoever we do now disclaim this book above mentioned,
as none of ours ; being thus corruptly printed, with such Additions,
Omissions, and Alterations : yet do we still acknowledge that all
the particular matters of fact recorded against the Brownists, in
that book, are such things as were taken out of our Writing
[mantucript] ; and for proof thereof, we are able and ready to produce
our testimony and witness, as occasion shall require. The most of
them are testified and confessed by themselves ; and the most
The Ancient Church at Amsterdam. 1 1 5
heinous things, even under their own handwriting : and the rest
are such things as either we ourselves, or others, will witness.
And therefore, though we complain of injury for the manner of
publishing that book: yet let not the Brownists insult thereupon !
Though we be wronged : yet are not they cleared from the matters
there noted ; which are still in force against them.
The Rev. John Paget thus wrote, in 1618, to the Rev.
Henbt Ainswobth of the same city.
You speak of disguised pamphlets that are came out of our
Congregation : but the books which you seem to aim at, are such as,
for the matter of them, are taken out of your offensive Company;
and do, in part, shew the disguised practises of your Separation.
For the persons that published them [t.^. C. Lawns and his
fdlows\ they also were such as came out of your Ck)mpany: who
(leaving their schism, which they once professed with you) were
more fit to witness such things as they had heard and seen among
For the helpers which they had herein ; they had, beside others.
Master [Gilxb] Thorpe; now an Elder of your Congregation also,
but then a Deacon. Out of whose Writing \manuscript\ which he
communicated with them, they received sundry things which they
published; and many more which should have been published, had
not their book been misprinted [in London], contrary to their
minds. For the manner of printing and publishing one of those
books, great injury hath been done unto them : as hath been noted
before. [See previous page!] An Arrow against the Separation of tks
BrownistSy pp. 333, 334, Amsterdam, 1618, 4.
The next point that we have to note is. That neither the
Rev. Fbancis Johnson's Church, nor the Rev. Hbnrt
Ainswobth's Church, either individually or collectively,
dared to attempt, this time, to vindicate themselves from the
perfectly crushing charges of Lawnb's and Fowleb's books
against them, in 1612 and 1613, in a Court of Justice : as we
shall presently see, they had already failed to do, in respect
to the similar accusations of the Rev. Thomas White, in
February 1606, see pp. 118-120. The presumption therefore
is. That what these books state is perfectly true.
1 16 The Ancient Church at Amsterdam.
But what was decided to be done was. That the Bev.
RiCHABD Cltfton, who had now absolutely identified himself
with the Rev. Francis Johnson and his Church, should write
a reply to them : which he did under the following title.
An Advertisement concerning a Book lately published by
Christophbr Lawne and others, against the English exiled Church
By Richard Clyfton, Teacher of the same Church.
Printed in the year of our Lord, 1612, 4.
There is a copy of this rare book in the Bodleian libraiy.
Press-mark, Pamph. 10,
But it had been better for his friends, if Clyfton had held
For at pages 115-125 of this book is printed the Answer
of Daniel Studlbt, now, in 1612, cast out of the Ruling
Eldership, to the accusations of Lawne and his fellows : an
Answer that is perfectly amazing ; for in it Studlet simply
throws away his defence, confessing to immoralities even so
late as in 1610. How Cltfton could be such a fool as to
print this Answer is past all comprehension. How could he
so play into the hands of his enemies !
But having published the book; he went yet a step
further in folly, and retracted it aU in writing : as the Rev.
John Paget, who had the Separatist Churches in the city
where he lived constantly under his observation, thus tells
us in 1618; when Cltfton had been dead now some twenty
The principal penman, or scribe, of the Separation [Master
Cltfton, Teacher in Master Johnson his Company], that hath
written most and purposely against the book which you call a libel
[The profane Schism ^c], hath, long since, acknowledged his fault
for the same ; and that imder his hand in writing : acknowledging
the great fruit that comes by publishing the personal sins of them
that continue in error. And thus, by his repentance, hath made
some satisfaction for his offence : as, in due time, is further to be
manifested. An Arrow against the Separation of the Brotmists, p. 8,
Amsterdam, 1618, 4.
The Ancient Church at Amsterdam, 117
To Cltftox's book, there appeared the following reply by
the Rev. Henbt Aixswobth.
An Animadversion to Master Bichard Cltfton's AdvertuemerU :
who — ^under pretence of answering Christopher Lawnb*s book —
hath published another man's [ff, Ainswobte^s] private Letter ;
with Master Francis Johnson's Answer thereto.
Which Letter is here justified ; the Answer thereto refuted :
and the true causes of the lamentable breach, that hath lately fallen
out in the English exiled Church at Amsterdam, manifested.
Imprinted at Amsterdam, by Giles Thorpe, anno Dommt,
This Work throws some side lights on the Pilgrim Church.
At page 111, the Rev. John Robinson replies to
Johnson's censures of his Justification of the Separation <ke.
At pp. 133-136, is The Testimony of the Elders of the
Church at Leyden, respecting the Split at Amsterdam. It is
signed by the Rev. John Robinson and William Bbewstkb.
Therefore Bbbwstbb was a Ruling Elder at Leyden at least
as early as 1613.
At page 136, the following passage occurs in this
And here the work of GOD'S Providence is to be observed,
That they [the Franciscan8\y who would have no peace with their
brethren [the Atnsivorthians] abiding in the same city with them,
are about to leave it themselves ; and to settle their abode
This fixes the Exodus of the Rev. Fbanois Johnson's
Church to Emden in 1613. But they were not there long.
When his next book, A Christian Flea, appeared in 1617 ;
tbe Church was back again in Amsterdam.
It also appears from this book, that two men and a widow
of the Ainsworthians were the chief owners of the building of
the Meeting House at Amsterdam : but that the ground on
which it stood was held, in trust onlyy by a man who belonged
to Johnson's Church. It was upon these facts, that the
Burgomasters awarded the building to tbe Ainsworthians :
1 1 8 The Ancient Church at Amsterdam.
who, ousting the Franciscans therefrom, occasioned their
migration to Emden.
On the 15/25 May 1613, there was entered, also to Walter
BuBRB, at Stationers' HaU, London, under the license of the
same Rev. Doctor Nidd, another book on the Ancient exiled
Church. [E. Aebeb, Trfmicri'pt <£?c., iii. 523, 1876, 4.] It
has the following Title.
Brownism turned the inside outward. Being a Parallel between
the Profession and Practice of the Brownists' religion.
By Christopher Lawnb, lately returned from that wicked
London. Printed for Walter Burre, and are to be sold at
his shop in Paul's Churchyard, at the sign of the Crarie. 1613, 4.
This Work adds no new facts. It merely applies those
already known. It may be regarded as a Supplement to
ThA 'profane Schism <kc.
We have gone thus deeply into the bibliography of these
books, in order to show that Lawne's books were never really
controverted by those whom they so deadly attacked ; and
therefore, that we must^ in default of their denials, accept the
statements contained in them as substantially true.
The case of the Rev. Thomas White.
RETURNING now to the chronological sequence
of events, we have next to note that about the
year 1603, a Clergyman named the Rev. Thomas
White joined the Ancient Church. He was so
shocked with what he saw there, that he wrote a book with
the following Title. ^
A Discovery of Brownism ; or a brief discovery of some of the
errors and abominations daily practised, and increased, amongst
The Ancient Church at Amsterdam. 119
the English Company of the Separation remaining, for the present,
at Amsterdam in Holland.
London. Printed by E. A. [Edward Aldeb] for Nathaniel
F08BR00KE ; and are to be sold at his shop at the West End of
Paul's. 1606, 4.
British Museum Press-mark, 698, 8, 4 (7).
This book was entered at Stationers' Hall on 26 October
/5 November 1605. [K Arbeb, Trwmcrijpt <£?c., iii. 304,
It is as strong in its accusations as anything that
Chbistopheb Lawne and his fellows ever wrote some seven
or eight years later.
The Rev. Francis Johnson immediately published the
An Inquiry, and Answer of Thomas Whitb his Discovery of
Browniim, 1606, 4.
A copy of this rare book is in the Bodleian Library. Press-mark,
a 3. 1. Line
At pages 28, 29 of this Inquiry o&c., which was written
and published before the Trial came on, is the following
For which Master Studlbt hath called him before the
Magistrates here [ue, at Amsterdam], for a slanderer ; desiring
that proof may be brought, or satisfaction made, according to
The woman he hath named before to be Judith Holder.
For which, also, she hath called him before the Magistrates of
Lawne, at pp. 26-30 of I%e profane Schism <kc.y prints a
certified copy of the Arrest RoU of the city of Amsterdam,
relating to this trial. From which it would appear, that
Francis Johnson, Jacob Johnson, Henry Ainsworth,
Francis Blackwell, Daniel Studley, Christopher
Bowman, John Nicholas, Judith Holder, William Barbor,
and Thomas Bishop caused the Rev. Thomas White, and
his wife Ross White, to be arrested on account of the
120 The Ancient Church at Amsterdam.
accusations in the above mentioned book ; which specifically
charged Studley with immorality; and Bowman, with
peculation, on account of which he was called "Judas the
The trial came on upon the 14/24 February 1606. We
give the result in Lawne's words.
Concerning these Articles which they laid in against Master
White, as though he had slandered them therein : when as Master
White had once taken order, by his Attorney, to answer the
matter ; when as also he had, for proof thereof, brought sundry
witnesses before the Burgomasters, which there did testify, and by
their oaths and depositions confirm, the things which Master
White had written : then was Master White discharged ; and
had liberty from the Magistrates to go for England, as his
occasions or business should require.
After which time, there was never any other sentence given by
the Magistrates to reverse the same : insomuch that at length, the
Brownists themselves (although troublesome and contentious in
this, as in other actions) were content to let their Suit fall, and
ceased to proceed any further therein. And much better had it
been for them, never to have begun it ; than, with so much shame,
and so many rebukes, to leave it off, pp. 28, 29.
We have only one remark to make here on this subject ;
and that is, That from the date of this verdict, 14/24 February
1605/1606, the Community over which the Rev. Francis
Johnson presided, must be regarded in its collective capacity
as a Church of CfiRiST, to be corrupt and dead. For,
notwithstanding this damaging legal exposure, matters went
on in it, for some years to come, just as they had gone on in
Here then the ''Holy Discipline," in actual practice,
utterly broke down.
The Ancient Church at Amsterdam. 121
Peter Fairlambe. 1606.
Jn the 1/11 July 1606, there was entered at
Stationers' HaU London, the undermentioned
Work, [E. Abbbb, Tra/MGri'pi <fec., iiL 326,
The Becantation of a Brownist
^ PsTBB Fairlambe.
At London. Printed for Henrt Qosson ; and are to be sold at
the sign of the Sun in Paternoster row. 1606, 4.
This work contains a Bibliography of Works for, and
against^ the Separation, up to the time of its publication.
It does not concern the Separatist Ohurches in Holland ; but
is connected rather with Barbary and the Rev. Thomas
Bernhebk The Bev. Francis Johnsok is however
frequently mentioned in it
The aerival of fresh English Churches in
[ETWEEN October 1607 and August 1608, the
Pilgrim Church, from Scrooby, arrived in
Amsterdam: and, for a time, joined itself to
the Ancient exiled Church there.
In 1608, Uie Gainsborough Church, under the Rev.
John Smtth, the Se-Baptist, arrived in Amsterdam: and
formed itself into the Second exiled English Church there.
Its history is briefly told at pp. 131-140.
122 The Ancient Church at Amsterdam.
That unspeakable Daniel Studley. 1592 — 1612.
[E are not going to defile this book with any
account of the goings on of Daniel Studlet in
the Ancient Church; from, at least, 1604 till
1612. We will merely say that this Ruling
Elder was the Falstaff of that Community; ever prowling
about after other men's wives, ^., &c., ^. The details will
be found in TKq profcme Schism dte.
At pp. 15, 16, of that Work, will be found the Artidea
exhibited against him, at the time of the Split on 15/25
December 1610, in order to secure his deposition. An effort
At page 11, Lawnb thus refers to the two men who
took the trouble to deliver him over to Satan, on 28 July
/7 August 1611.
But who be those two subscribers that set their hands to this
Excommunication? These two be the two special Champions of
the Franciscan Schism ; the two principal pillars of that rotten
Separation : the one [Daniel Studlet] by his wit^ and the other
[Edward Bekst] by his wealth.
At page 16, Lawne calls Studlby "that hypocritical
The following additional passages are all that need be
adduced here :
But if any would further know what this Daiosl Stxtdlet is,
let them ask Samuel Fulleb, a Deacon of Master Robinson's
Church ; and desii^ to see a copy of the letter which Danibl
Stxtdlet sent unto him : or let them ask Master [Giles] Thorpe,
a Deacon of Master Ainsworth's Church; and desire to see a
book intitled "The First Part of The Hunting of the Fox^' and
there shall he see Daniel Studlet traced up and down. The
profane Schiem 4&c,, p. 11, Ed. 1612, 4.
It is clear £rom this passage that Giles Thorpe, the
Printer at Amsterdam, was the author, and probably also
the printer, of The fftmting of the Fox.
The Ancient Church at Amsterdam. 123
The next passage shows that this, at present lost book, was
printed before the 15/26 December 1610.
Before the schism of the Ainsworthians from the Franciscans,
the sins and scandals of Daniel Studlet were shewed and
manifested by divers of the Ainsworthians \9ee pretnona page] : and
yet such opposition was made against them as that Daniel Studlet
did neither soundly repent, nor lose his Office : from which he is
now [t.e. on aome date between August 1611 and August 1612]
That which the Popular Government could not then effect^ is
now effected since that Government was changed by Master
Johnson [t,e. since he became the autocrat of his Church}, A Shield
o/Defencey p. 37.
Surely the Rev. John Robinson was thinking of Daniel
Studlby, when he wrote the following passage in the second
book which he published after his removal to Leyden. If so,
he had come to regard the Ancient Ohurch at Amsterdam
as a " rebellious rout.'*
But this I hold, that if iniquity be committed in the Church ;
and complaint, and proof, accordingly made ; and that the Church
will not reform, or reject the piuty offending : but will, on the
contrary, maintain presumptuously, and abet, such impiety — ^that
then, by abetting that party and his sin, she makes it her own
by imputation ; and enwraps herself in the same guilt with the
sinner. And, remaining irreformable (either by such members
of the same Church as are faithful, if there be any ; or by other
sister Churches), wipeth herself out of the Lord's Church Boll :
and now ceaseth to be any longer the true Church of Christ.
And whatsoever truths, or ordinances, of Christ, this rebellious
rout [crotpd] still retains ; it but usurps the same, without right
unto them, or promise of blessing upon them : both the persons
aud sacrifices are abominable unto the Lord. Tit. L 16 ; Prov.
xxL 27. Justification of S^oaration^ p. 247, Ed. 1610, 4
It would seem likely that, knowing the motives for it,
the Rev. Francis Johnson resented the Exodus of the
Pilgrim Church to Leyden; which would have greatly
reduced his importance, if not his income. At any rate, we
1 24 The Ancient Church at Amsterdam.
have here the reply of him and his Ruling Elder to the
foregoing opinions of the Pilgrim Pastor.
Master Johnson, for the further manifestation of Master
Robinson's errors, since that time, also brought Master Robinson's
book against Master Bernard \A Jmtificaticm of Separation Sc.^
1610] into their Meeting House [at Amsterdam] ; and there, before
the Congregation, made a solemn testification against the manifold
errors contained in it : which he disclaimed ; and not only so, but
wrote to Master Robinson, to rebuke him for the same.
Danisl Studlet is so apt in reproach that he runs upon the
Letter : making, as it were, an Alphabet of Slander ; having it so
perfect as his A B C. For trial hereof, see how he grinds his teeth
against Samuel Fuller, a Deacon of Master Robinson's Company ;
whom, with his friends, he describes [? in 1610, or ? 1611] as
being* "ignorant idiots, noddy Nabalites, dogged «xhePioweni
DoEOS, fairfaced Pharisees, shameless Shemites, of etndiey's eio-
malicious Macchiavellians." quAit lettor to
Thus doth this Alphabetical Slanderer flourish ^^^^^ ^°"®'*
among them, with the taunting and flaunting figures of his profane
conceited spirit Theprofime Schism <tc., p. 76.
The Ancient exiled English Church at Amsterdam
spuTs IN two.
Saturday, 15/25 December 1610.
jOHNSON, instigated Governor Bradford thought
by Studley, in the year 1609, developed very
autocratic views about TeU it unto the Church I
making the Eldership to be a kind of aristocracy,
and all the rest of the community to be merely dummies.
' Whereupon there arose in the Church a fierce wrangle for
more than a year; in which Aiksworth appears to have
been very patient and reasonable, and Johnson to have been
specially arrogant and violent.
At last, the inevitable Split came on Saturday,
The Ancient Church at Amsterdam. 125
15/25 December 1610 : when each section delivered the other
over to Satan, as the manner was.
Johnson, having deposed Ainsworth from his Office of
Teacher, appointed Clyfton in his place. He had then for
his Ruling Elders, Daniel Studley, Edwabd Benet, Jacob
Johnson, Stanshall Mercer : and, later, Christopher
Bowman, then a Deacon, was promoted to the Eldership.
Only one of Johnson's Elders went out with Ainsworth :
and that was Jean de L'Ecluse. He was immediately
accused by Jacob Johnson of drunkenness. The profcme
Schism Jsc.y p. 73. Had he not gone out, he would not have
been so accused.
Ainsworth appointed Master May for another of his
Kuling Elders ; and, later on, promoted Giles Thorpe, the
Deacon to an Eldership in his Church.
Johnson published the following defence of his opinions.
A short Treatise conceming the exposition of those words of