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VOLJI,



GRANT
ALLEN





HILTON PROCTOR GOSS



r>





LIBRARY

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BARBARA

PRESENTED BY



HILTON P. GOSS



FLORENCE



Travel Lovers' Libra


ry


Each in two volumes, profusely illustrated


Florence

By Gkant Allen


$3.00


Romance and Teutonic Switzerland 3.00
By W. D. McCuAf'KAN


The Same.— Un illustrated .


1.50


Old World Memories

By Edward Lowe Temple


3.00


Paris

By Grant Allen


3.00


Feudal and Modern Japan

By Ahthuu May Knapp


3.00


The Same. — Unillustrated .


1.50


The Unchanging East . .
By Robert barb


3.00


Venice

By Grant Allen


3.00


Gardens of the Caribbecs .
By Ida M. H. Starr


3.00


Belgium : Its Cities . . .
By Grant Allen


3.00


Rome

By Walter Taylor Field


3.00


Romantic Ireland . . , 3.00
By M. F. AND B. McM. Mansfield


China and Her People

By Hon. Charles Denby, LL.


3.00

B.


Cities of Northern Italy . . 3.00
By Grant Allen and George C.
Williamson


*




L. C. PAGE & COMPANY |


(INCORPORATED)




New England Building
Boston, Mass.






BENVENUTQ CELLINl-PERSEUS.



FLORENCE



By

Grant Allen



IN TWO VOLUMES

Vol. II.

ILLUSTRATED




Boston
L. C. Page & Company
Publishers



Copyright, igoi
By L. C. Page & Company

(incorporated)
All rights reserved



Fourth Impression, July, 1906



ffiolonfal lPrc03

Electrotyped and Printed by C. H. Simonds & Co.

Boston, Mass., U. S. A.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER

I. The Piazza Della Signoria
II. The Long Corridor of the Uffizi ,

III. The Renaissance Paintings of the

Uffizi

IV. The First Hall of the Tuscan

School and the Tribune
V. The Halls of the Foreign Schools
AND the First Hall of the Ve-
netian School
VI. The Second Hall of the Venetian
School and the Early Floren
TINE Paintings
VII. The Sculpture in the Uffizi
VIII. The Pitti Palace
IX. The Pitti Palace Continued
X. The Bargello
XI. Or San Michele .
XII. San Miniato ....
XIII. The Etruscan Museum
XIV. The Residuum



PAGB
I



31

64



80

93
107
129

145
177
190
204
215



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Volume II.



PAGE

Benvenuto Cellini. — Perseus (see page 6)

Frontispiece

Court of the Palazzo Vecchio ... 5

Loggia dei Lanzi 8

Simone Martini and Lippo Memmi. — An-
nunciation 18

Don Lorenzo Monaco. — Adoration of the

Magi 23

Bicci Di Lorenzo. — St. Cosimo and St.

Damian 24

Piero di Cosimo. — Andromeda ... 29

Ghirlandajo. — Adoration of the Magi . 32

Lorenzo di Credl — Annunciation . . 36

Botticelli. — Strength 40

Sodom A. — St. Sebastian .... 48

Botticelll — Calumny S3

Raphael. — Madonna del Cardellino . 57

Holbein. — Portrait of Richard Southwell 65

Titian. — Flora 71

Mantegna. — Adoration of the Magi (Cen-
tral panel of the Triptych) .... 73

Botticelli Adoration of the Magi . 88

Botticelli. — Birth of Venus (Detail) . . 90



viii List of Illustrations.

Tribuna (Uffizi Gallery) ....
Hall of Niobe (Uffizi Gallery) .

PiTTi Palace

Sebastiano del Piombo. — Martyrdom of

St. Agatha

Raphael. — Madonna del Granduca .
Fra Bartolommeo. — Deposition .
Titian. — Magdalen (Detail)
Albert Durer. — Eve ....
Andrea del Sarto. — Young St. John the

Baptist

Bargello (Palazzo del Podesta) .
Donatello. — St. George
Giovanni da Bologna. — Mercury
LucA della Robbia. — Madonna .
Verrocchio. — Virgin and Child .
Giovanni da Bologna. — St. Luke the Evan-

GELIST

Ghiberti and Michelozzo. — St. Matthew-
San Miniato del Monte

pAgADE OF the BaSILICA OF SaN MiNIATO

DEL Monte

Donatello. — Bust of St. Lawrence .
Michael Angelo. — Dawn (Detail of Monument

of Lorenzo de' Medici) ....
Masaccio. — Head of Christ (Detail of Tribute

Money) .......

FiLippiNO Ltppi — Madonna Appearing to

St. Bernard

Andrea della Robbia. — A Baby .



PAGB

IOC

104
108

115
116

122
129
132

146

166
169
174

181
190

194
217



237



Florence.



CHAPTER I.

THE PIAZZA DELLA SIGNORIA.

THE centre of modern Florence is occupied
by the Piazza della Signoria, which con-
tains the Palazzo Vecchio and the Loggia dei
Lanzi. This square was once the Forum of
the Republic, and around it revolved the polit-
ical and social life of early Florence.

In the thirteenth century the Bargello (to be
visited later) was the seat of the Florentine
Government. But in 1298, about the same
time when Santa Croce and the Cathedral were
rising above their foundations, the City began
to feel the want of a second stronghold for its
new democratic (or oligarchic) authorities, and
of a fitting hall for its deliberative assemblies.
I



2 Florence.

In that year, therefore, the Signoria commis.
sioned the great Arnolfo di Cambio, who was
already engaged in building the Duomo, to
begin the erection of a vast castle, now known
as the Palazzo Vecchio. It was evidently based
in idea upon the Palazzo Pubblico in the rival
town of Siena, the foundations of which appear
to have been laid some nine years earlier. The
greater part of the building as it now stands
represents Arnolfo's original work, though the
upper portion of the slender tower is of the
fifteenth century, while the facade toward
the Via del Leone at the back was added by
Vasari in 1540. The courtyard and porch have
also suffered great alterations.

The Palazzo Vecchio in its original form was
strictly the Castle of the Guilds of Florence,
which had imposed their rule in the thirteenth
century over the whole city. It was, in short,
the stronghold of the commercial oligarchy.
The early government of Florence had been
mainly aristocratic, and all its functions were
performed by the nobles; but by 1282, the
Arts or Guilds, among which the Wool-Weavers
and Silk-Workers were the most important mem-
bers, had gamed possession of the executive



The Piazza Delia Signoria. 3

power, which they entrusted to their own Priori
or Guild-Masters. The body thus installed in
the Palazzo Vecchio was known as the Signoria :
it retained power in Florence until the gradual
rise of the democratic despotism of the Medici,
a wealthy commercial family who favoured the
people, and finally made themselves, in the six-
teenth century. Grand Dukes of Tuscany, (See
Villari.) The fortress-like appearance of the
Palace is due to the fact that the commercial
oligarchy had to hold its own by force within
the city against the great nobles on the one
hand, and popular rising on the other. All
Florence, in fact, is clearly built with a con-
stant eye to internal warfare.

In 1376 the Piazza della Signoria was further
decorated by the erection of the Loggia dei
Lanzi, a magnificent vaulted arcade for the
performance of public functions before the
eyes of the citizens. This noble building was
perhaps designed by Orcagna, but was certainly
carried out by Benci di Cione and Simone di
Francesco Talenti. It exhibits the same curious
combination of round arches with Gothic detail
which is also seen in the neighbouring church
of Or San Michele — the chapel of the Guilds.



4 Florence.

The arcade was known at first as the Loggia
de' Priori or della Signoria ; it gained its
present name under Cosimo I., who stationed
here his German lance-men.

I do not advise a visit to the interior of the
Palazzo Vecchio until after you have seen every-
thing else of importance in Florence, when
Baedeker's account will be amply sufficient.
But a cursory inspection of the exterior, and
of the general features of the Piazza, is neces-
sary to an understanding of Florentine history.
As you will already have seen in the picture at
San Marco, Savonarola was burnt at the stake
in this square, near the spot now occupied by
the Fountain of Neptune.

Go along any street, as far as the Duomo :
then, turn down the Via Calzaioli. On your
right, as you turn the corner, is the beautiful
little Loggia of the * Bigallo, probably de-
^,r^^'■^^ signed by Orcagna, and built in 1352. Notice
r"^!^^ here the peculiar Florentine combination of
round arches with Gothic architecture. The
statues over the front, toward the Piazza, by
Filippo di Cristoforo, represent a Madonna and
Child, flanked by St. Dominic and St. Mary
Magdalen.







^I-*"



The Piazza Delia Signoria. 5

Continue down the Via Calzaioli till you
come to the Piazza della Signoria. Observe
the fagade of the Palazzo Vecchio. Then enter
the outer court, built by Michelozzo (whose
hand you will now recognise) in the Renais-
sance style, in 1432. The elaborate decorations
were added in 1565 ; though very florid, they
have a certain picturesqueness which is not
unpleasing. The centre is occupied by a
charming little * fountain, by Verrocchio, repre-
senting a Boy on a Dolphin. The surrounding ^^^^-^^^^^V
sculptures, as well as those at the door, are by ht>*"'^'^ljj-tt
inferior Renaissance artists, and quite uninter- "* .^^ cu*:»^
esting. So is Bartolommeo Ammanati's great
fountain, in the square, with Neptune and
Tritons. The equestrian * statue (in bronze)
of Cosimo I., by Giovanni da Bologna, is
scarcely more interesting. It has high techni-
cal merit, but lacks grace or beauty. ^,^j-^^

(Michael Angelo's David stood till recently
at the door of the Palazzo Vecchio. So did the
Marzocco, at present in the Bargello.)

Now, turn to the Loggia dei Lanzi. Note v,.,^:*-^'^"
the noble sweep of the large round arches, and
the character of the decorations. Observe its
resemblance (on a larger scale) to the Bigallo.




r>~



6 Florence.

The figures on the frieze above are after de-
signs by Agnolo Gaddi, and are fine examples
of the characteristic Gothic allegorical person-
ages, with incipient Renaissance leanings. They
represent Faith, Hope, Charity, Temperance,
and Fortitude. Identify the symbols with an
opera-glass.

Of the pieces of sculpture within the Loggia,
by far the most important are the two bronzes.
The one facing the Piazza, to the left of the
^y,^-^ steps, is ** Benvenuto Cellini's Perseus, — one
y-«-v^ ^r^ of the most perfect works of its kind ever
j^r^*^^- cast in metal. The lightness and delicacy of
r-»^vVi^' ' the workmanship, the airy coquettish grace
'* ^i^\ of the young hero, as he holds aloft the head
^^^^"^ of the slaughtered Medusa, have never been
^•^^ ^^■*'€qualled in their own peculiar bravura manner.
'^^^j^^ The work, however, is rather that of a glorified
''^^^^j-^^^ ^artistic silversmith than of a sculptor properly
^v,.*-^"^ - so called. You can see in every line and limb
'•'■*^ ^^^ that the effects aimed at, — and supremely at-
\-v^.- tained, — are those of decorative metal-work,
vp*'-^ not those of greater bronzes and marbles.
Cellini has here transcended the proper limits
of his peculiar art ; and he has done so trium-
phantly. The result justifies him. Stand and



The Piazza Delia Signoria. 7

look, long and often, at this perfect marvel of
technical excellence. When you have exhausted
the central figure, turn to the reliefs and statu-
ettes at the base, also by Cellini. (The relief
in front, * Perseus rescuing Andromeda, is a
copy ; the original you will see when you
visit the Bargello.) The * four admirable fig-
ures in the niches represent respectively, Jupi-
ter (Zeus), the father of Perseus ; Danae,
his mother ; Minerva (Athene) ; and Mercury
(Hermes), both of whom befriended him. (Read ccv^^
up the story in a classical dictionary, if you do''^^f*^^t__ ->-
not already know it.) The Latin verses on the ^^ /oV-'"
base are neat and appropriate, '"'^^Z'

The second bronze, round the corner toward
the Uffizi, is * Donatello's Judith, with the head
of Holofernes, erected in front of the Palazzo
Vecchio after the expulsion of the Medici. It
bears the inscription, " Salutis Publican Exem-
plum." The work, however, is heavy and con-
fused, and shows that Donatello had not yet
wholly mastered the art of modelHng for bronze-
casting. The reliefs below are better, espe-
cially that of * Cupid and Psyche.

The other sculpture in the Loggia is of less
importance. By the steps are two lions ; to the



8 Florence.

right, an antique ; to the left, one by Flaminio
Vacca. Under the arch, on the right, is a mar-
ble group of the * Rape of the Sabines, by
Giovanni da Bologna, with good * relief beneath
it. Within, left, is a modern group of the Rape
of Polyxena, by Fedi, not wholly unworthy of
the company in which it finds itself. In the
centre, is the * Dying Ajax (or perhaps, Mene-
laus with the body of Patroclus) a good antique,
probably a Greek original; another example of
the same exists at Rome, where it is known as
Pasquino. This replica has been greatly re-
stored. On the right is a frigid Hercules slay-
ing the Centaur Nessus, by Giovanni da Bologna.
By the back wall are five antique portrait-statues
of Vestals or Priestesses : together with a * he-

,.<^ roic barbarian female figure, known as the
.^^"^^^ ^ Thusnelda (the third on the left), and remark-
c^^^"^ able for its powerful expression of grief on a
fine half-savage countenance.

^ In visiting the Ufifizi, you proceed round the
corner from the Loggia dei Lanzi, and enter a
spacious quadrangle, a narrow oblong in shape,
and open at the side toward the Palazzo Vec-
chio. The Palazzo degli Uffizi, which girdles
this quadrangle, was erected as public offices



^^




LOGGIA DEI LANZI.



The Piazza Delia Signoria. 9

(whence the name) by Vasari, in 1560, and
completed by Alfonso Parigi, in 1580. Round
the lower floor runs a continuous arcade, the
Portico degH Uffizi, the niches of which, after
remaining long empty, have been adorned in
our own time with a series of marble statues of
distinguished Tuscans, all named below, which
it is well worth while some day to go round and
inspect or identify. The building contains, in
its lower portion, the Post Ofhce, the Central
Archives of Tuscany, and the National Library ;
but of course to the visitor its chief importance
is derived from the picture gallery and sculpture
on the upper floor.

The collections in the Ufflzi are, on the v^^^-^
whole, the most important and valuable in "^^_
Florence. In painting, it is true, the gallery ,:^«^ ^^^
contains fewer fine works of the great Early ^^ -.^
Renaissance artists than does the Belle Arti ; 00^ "■■'
but on the other hand, it is rich in paintings by
Raphael, it has some noble designs by Leonardo
and Fra Bartolommeo, and it represents more
fully than the rival gallery the pictorial art of
the High Renaissance. Moreover, it is not
confined to Tuscan and Umbrian works (to
which nevertheless I advise you in Florence




lo Florence.

mainly to address yourself) but has some admi-
rable North Italian and Venetian specimens, by
Mantegna, Titian, Giorgione, and others. Out-
side Italy altogether, it also embraces some
noble Flemish, German, and Dutch works, which
it will be impossible for you to pass by wholly
unnoticed. Then, finally, it has in addition its
collection of sculpture, including several famous
works, once unduly over-praised, as well as
many antiques, less celebrated in their way, but
often more deserving of serious attention. I
have endeavoured to note in passing the most
important of all these various treasures, giving
most attention, it is true, to Tuscan and Um-
brian handicraft, but not neglecting the products
of other schools, nor the antique sculpture.

As everywhere, my aim here has been purely
explanatory. If at times I have diverged into
an occasional expression of aesthetic approbation
or the opposite, I hope the reader will bear in
mind that I never pretend to do so with author-
-^^ ity, and that my likes and dislikes are merely
those of the average man, not of the professed
critic.
«- '^ ^^. Do not attempt to see all the Ufifizi at one
<^^^^ "' ^ visit, or even any large part of it. Begin with



|V^






v-^^r^



The Piazza Delia Signoria. 1 1

a little bit, and examine that thoroughly. Do
not try to combine the paintings and sculpture
in any one room ; observe them separately on
different occasions. Follow for each class the
general order here given ; you will then find
the subject unfold itself naturally. Study Bae-
deker's excellent plan of the rooms before you
go in. Recollect that the galleries extend, in
three arms, right round the top floor of the
entire building, as seen from outside ; this will
help you to understand the ground-plan of the
rooms, as well as the charming glimpses and
views from the windows.

A passage, built quaintly over houses and
shops, and distinguishable outside, crosses the
Ponte Vecchio from the Uffizi to the Pitti. It
was designed by the Medici as a means of in-
tercommunication, and also as a place of possi-
ble escape in case of risings or other danger.
You can cross by means of it from one gallery v^uo
to the other ; but you must pay an extra franc V^
for entrance in the middle w*^-^****




CHAPTER II.

THE LONG CORRIDOR OF THE UFFIZI.

APPROACH from the Piazza della Signoria.
The entrance is by the second door under
the portico on the left hand side of the Uffizi
Palace. (The statues and busts on the stair-
case and in the vestibule, etc., will be treated
separately, with the other sculptures.)

The Long Gallery, which we first enter, con-
tains for the most part early works in painting,
many of which are of comparatively slight artis-
tic importance. I advise you to begin with
the paintings alone, not attempting to combine
them with the sculpture in the same day. Turn
to the right on entering the gallery, and start
at the end of the room with the oldest pictures.

Number i is a Graeco-Byzantine Madonna, of
the tenth century, interesting as representative
of the starting-point of Italian art. It should
be compared with 2, an Italian picture aiming

12



The Long Corridor of the Uffizi. 13

at the same style (twelfth century), which again
leads up (at a distance) to the Cimabue in Santa
Maria Novella. Observe the superior technique
of the Byzantine. These early Madonnas de-
serve close attention.

Number 3 is a Crucifix, where the position
of the Madonna and St. John on the ends of the
arms is highly characteristic : the type survives
till quite a late period. By its sides are small
scenes from the Passion, the types in which
should be carefully noted. The face of the St.
Peter, for example, in the upper left compart-
ment, already strikes a key-note ; while the
Christ in Limbo, delivering Adam and Eve from
the jaws of death, contains all the salient ele-
ments which you will find, improved and trans-
formed in later versions. Note in crucifixes the
point where the two separate nails in the feet,
seen in this example and the next, are replaced
by the single nail, a later representation. Ob-
serve also whether the eyes are open or closed.

Number 4 has the same devices of towers
and canopies, to mark towns and interiors, to
which I have already called attention in the
barbaric Magdalen at the Belle Arti.

Number 6, a Crucifix with the single nail, has



14 Florence.

the position of St. John and the Virgin well
marked on the cross-pieces. The pelican feed-
ing her young above is symbolical. It recurs
often. I do not dwell upon these very early
works, as they lack artistic interest ; but the
visitor who takes the trouble to examine them
in detail, as well as the Madonnas in their
neighbourhood, will be repaid for his trouble.
For example, 5, by Guido da Siena, an im-
portant early Sienese master, marks decided
advance upon 2, and leads the way to the later
Sienese manner, which is already present in
embryo in this picture.

In 7, do not overlook Peter and Paul, and St.
Catherine between the wheels, in the predella.

The next, 8, is a fine altar-piece, attributed to
Giotto, of the Agony in the Garden, where the
angel with the literal cup and the three sleeping
Apostles are highly characteristic of the type.
You have seen them elsewhere in later ex-
amples. Note the little figure of the donor at
the side. The Kiss of Judas and the Parting
of the Raiment in the predella must not be
omitted.

Number 9 is a Florentine altar-piece, where
the Madonna and Child are flanked by the



The Long Corridor of the Uffizi. 15

patron of the city, St. John the Baptist, and
the local bishop, San Zanobi, identifiable by
the Florentine lily on his morse or buckle.

Then, 10, St. Bartholomew enthroned, with
his usual knife, and angels recalling the man
ner of Cimabue, was of course painted for
an altar dedicated to the saint. Note these
saints enthroned, in the same way as Our Lady,
often with other saints forming a court around
them.

Beside it are two Giottesque Crucifixions, in
the first of which, 13, the position of the Ma-
donna, the Magdalen, and St. John, and the
angel catching the sacred blood, will by this
time be familiar. In the second, 12 (a Cruci-
fix), note the gradual approximation to reality in
the altered positions of Our Lady and St. John
as contrasted with those in earlier Crucifixions.

Number 1 1 is again a Florentine Madonna,
with the two local saints, John the Baptist and
Zanobi, a mandorla of cherubs, and angels
holding the Florentine lily. Note that this is
sometimes represented by the white lily and
sometimes by the iris.

Number 14 is an altar-piece of the school of
Orcagna, St. John the Evangelist, enthroned,



i6 Florence.

with his eagle by his side, trampling on the
vices, in a fashion which is characteristic of
Dominican painting. They bear their names :
Pride, Avarice, Vainglory. Notice, above, the
characteristic Christ, holding the Alpha and
Omega. You will do well to spend a whole
morning (if you can spare the time), in attentive
study of these first fourteen numbers. They
cast floods of light on subsequent painting.

Beyond the door is 17, an Ascension of St.
John the Evangelist ; an altar-piece closely
suggested by Giotto's fresco in Santa Croce.
Compare with photographs.

Above it, 1 5, by Pietro Lorenzetti, is a char-
acteristic and gentle Sienese Madonna. Com-
pare it with Guido's Number 5. Observe the
placid Sienese angels, with their somewhat ill-
humoured mouths, drawn fretfully downward, a
survival from the morose Byzantine severity.
Very early art is never joyous. The inscription
is curious, because in it, as in most pictures of
the school of Siena, the panel itself speaks in
the first person — So-and-so painted me.

Number 16, the story of the Anchorites in
the Desert, by Pietro Lorenzetti, is partly remi-
niscent of the great fresco in the Campo Santo



The Long Corridor of the Uffizi. 17

at Pisa. Most of its many episodes you will
find explained in Mrs. Jameson. It takes much
studying.

Above, 26, is a good altar-piece by Bernardo
Daddi; St. Matthew, St. Nicholas of Bari.
Nicholas was the name of the donor.

From this point the technical excellence of ^^.^^
the pictures increases rapidly. 20, St. Cecilia, ""-^ ,^t^^^
patroness of music, once wrongly attributed to ,3>i»-^^''°^*„^
Cimabue, is a good and stately Giottesque sj—^"^,^,>ffl^"
figure, for her altar in her old church at ^r- ,.^.^"^



jw-^




Florence, now destroyed. Round it are eight ^^^^cj^j^'*^
(habitual) stories of her life. On the left side, in v>-^ ""^^ .-^^
the first is her wedding feast (note the music) ;
in the second she reasons with her husband,
Valerian, in favour of virginity ; in the third an
angel crowns Cecilia and Valerian ; in the fourth
Cecilia converts her husband's brother, Tibur-
tius. On the right side, in the fifth picture, is
the baptism of Tiburtius ; in the sixth, Cecilia's
preaching ; in the seventh, her trial before a
Roman Court ; and in the eighth, her martyr-
dom in flames in her bath. All are quaintly
and interestingly treated. See Mrs. Jameson.

The altar-piece above has its name inscribed
on it. Its types are worth study.



1 8 Florence.

Number 23, ** Simone Martini and Lippo
Memmi, the Annunciation, is one of the lovehest
altar-pieces of the early school of Siena. The ex-
quisite angel, to the left, bears a branch of olive
(beautifully treated) instead of the more usual
lily, which, however, stands in a vase to sepa-
rate him from the Madonna. Note the words
of the Salutation (raised in gold) issuing from
his mouth, and the inscriptions on his charming
flowing ribbons. Do not omit the exquisite
work of his robe. Our Lady herself, seated in
a dainty inlaid chair, representative of the finest
ecclesiastical furniture of this period, shrinks
away, as often. The book and curtain are
habitual. The Madonna's almond-shaped eyes


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