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5^^a..r^. ^V^^/^^t



-L>eC -



THE

CHINA SEA DIRECTORY.

VOL. III.



r .



I COMPRISING

I

THE COASTS OF CHINA FROM HONG KONG
TO THE KOREA;

NORTH COAST OF LUZON, FORMOSA ISLAND
AND STRAIT;

THE BABUYAN, BASHEE, AND MEIACO SIMA GROUPS.

YELLOW SEA, GULFS OF PE-CHILI AND LIACT-TUNG.

ALSO THE

RIVERS CANTON, ¥EST, MIN, YUNG, YANGTSE,. YELLOW,
PET HO, AND LIAU HO ; AND PRATAS ISLAND.



COMPILED IN THE HTDBOORAPHIC OFFICE ADMIBALTT,
EDITED BY

CAPTAIN CHARLES J. BULLOCK, R.N,, F.R,G.S.



TTJBU8HED BY OBDEB OF THE LOBD8 COHMISSIONEBS OF THE ADMIHALTY.



LONDON:



PRINTED FOR THE HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE, ADMIRALTY;

AND SOLD BY

J. D. POTTER, Agent for the sale of AdmirttUy Charts,
31, POULTRY, AND 11, KING STREET, TOWER HILL.
1874.



Price Ten Shillings.
80261. f. '



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THE NEW YO:,K
PUBLIC LID?vARY

371405A

ASTOR, LEW OX AND

TILDEN FOUNDATIONS

R 1928 L



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• ••

m



Chinese Wobds of Frequent Occubeencb

IN THS

Charts and Sailing Directions.



Chine$e,



English.



Chah - - Barrier.

Chah-hwang-muli Boom.

Chan - - District city, islet.

Chin- - - Town.

Chnen - - Channel.

Chnng-yuen - Mainland.



Fan-in
Fan-tan -
Fn -

Gan -

Hai -
Hai-kan -
Hai-kioh -

JBai-mun -

Hai-jau -

Heh-

Hiah-kan -

Hiang-tsnn

Hien, Chan

Ho -

Ho-tun

Hn -

Hnng

Hwang



Kan >
Kiang
Kian -
Kin -
King -
£[ing>cbi-cliau
Koh -
Kwang-lau
Kwan
Kuh -

I<an -
li -
liin -
ling -
liung-

Ma -



- Bnoy.

- Roadstead.

- Departmental city.

- Harbonr.

- Sea.

. - Bight, creek.

- Cape.

- Estuary.

- Gulf. ..

- Black.

- Strait.

- Village.

- District city.

- River.

- Lighthouse.

- Lake.

- Red.

- YeUow.

- Barbarian.

- Mouth.

- River.

- Bridge.

- Gold.

- Capital city.

- Peninsula.

- Rocky peak, headland.

- Lighthouse.

- Custom-house.

- Valley.

- Tower, old.

- Inner.

- Forest.

- Chain of hills.

- Tiger.

- Horse.



Chinese,

Ma-tau
Mian -

Nan -

Ni
Nui

Pau-tai
Peh, pei
Peh - -
Po, Hu
Pu -
Pwang-sheh-

Sha -

Shan, san

Shan-hu

Shan-ting

Shan-tau

Sha-sien

Sha-tan

Sheh ,

Sheh-tan

Shin -

Shui -

Si

Siau-ho

Sima (Japanese)

Siwo ( „ )

So - -

Tah -
Tau -
Tau-tu -
Ting, Ti-tau -
To-muh
Tsiau-pi
Tsui-sha
Tsui-wei
Tung -
Tutan -

Wan -
Wi-moh-ti -
Wei -
Wei -

Yang -
Yen-tun



English,

- Jetty, port.

- Temple.

- South, sonthem.

- Mud.

- Inner.

- Fort.

- North.
•- White.

- Lake.

- Sea-shop.

- Rocks.

- Sand, sand-bank.

- Hill, mountain.

- Coral.

- Mountain chain.

- BluflF, cliff.

- Shoal.

- Bar.

- Stone.

- Reef.

- Spirit (celestial).
-. Water.

- West, western.
Rivulet.
Island.
Current.
Town, village.

Pagoda.

Island, head.

Clay.

Promontory.

Wooded.

Cliff.

Gravel.

Rocky, stony.

East, eastern.

Ferry.

Bay.

Isthmus.
Outer.
Military post.

Sheep.
Beacon, buoy.



Note. — The system of pronunciation adopted,* for the most part, in
this work is as follows. The vowels are sounded as in French and Italian,

* There are many exceptions, chiefly in the names of the treaty ports and other
well-known localities which have become established by long usage, and the popular
spelling of which it is desirable to retain. Thus, the double e and double o, and ow,
which are met with frequently, are the equivalents of t, n, and au.



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IT

or 08 in the following English words : — a as in * father;' c as in *they ;*
t as in ^ ravine ; ' o as in * go ; * w as in ' flute,' except before ng^ when it
is more generally sounded as in * flung.* An h following a vowel expresses
a shortened sound. The diphthongs ao, au^ are pronounced as in ' now; '
at as » in ' white ; ' and ei as in ^ weight.' The consonants are pronounced
as in English, except that g is invariably hard.



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ADVEETISEMENT.



The China Sea Directoiy, Vol. III. contains Sailing Directions
for the coasts of China ; including on the south, Hong Kong and
Canton river, Pratas shoal, the north coast of Luzon ; Bashee ; and
EaUintang channels, Formosa and the outlying islands; on the
north, the Yellow sea and gulfs of Pe-chili and llau-tung, as far as
the confines of the Korea.

The Directions in this volume were formerly contained in the
" China Pilot," the fourth and last edition of which embodied the
successive compilations of Eobert Loney, Pnymaster, R.N., Staff
Commander John W. King, R.N., and Commander Charles J.
Bullock, RN. ; the " China Pilot " is now published in two parts
under the title of ** The China Sea Directory, Vols. III. and IV."

The directions for the China coast south-westward of Canton river
will be found in the second volume of the China Sea Directory,
and for the Korea, Manchyria, and Japan in the fourth volume of
the same.

The information in volume III. has been obtained from the
following sources : — Canton river, with the islands at entrance,
are from the surveys of Lieutenant D. Ross, Bombay Marine, 1810 ;
Captain E. Belcher, C.B.,R.N., 1840; Captain W.^ T. Bate, RN.,
1857; and Lieutenant C J. Bullock, R.N., 1858 ; and the Si-kiang
or West River from the surveys of Lieutenant Bullock and J. H.
Kerr, Master, R.N., 1857-59.

The coast from Hong Kong to the Yang-tse kiang, including the
Chusan archipelago, and Pescadores islands, are from the surveys
of Captains Kellett and CoUinson, C.B., R.N., 1842-46.

Formosa and its adjacent islands are from surveys' made by
Captains Kellett, CoUinson, and Belcher, 1845 ; Lieutenant Gordon,
B.N., 1847; John Richards, Master, R.N., 1854; W. Blakeney,
Paymaster, R.N., 1857 ; Messrs. E. Wilds and G. Stanley, Masters,
RN., 1864; Conunanders C. J. Bullock and E. W. Brooker, 1866 ;
and from the reports made by R. Swinhoe, Esq., H.M. Consul

The Yang-tse kiang is from the surveys of Captains Kellett and
Collinson and Lieutenant W. T. Bate, 1842 ; Commander J. Ward,
R.N., Lieutenant C. J. Bullock, and William Blakeney, Paymaster,
R.N., 1869-61 ; E. Wilds, Master, R.N., 1864 ; Sub-Lieutenant L. S.
Dawson, R.N., 1869 ; and also fr6m the observations of several officers
of H.M. Navy and other explorers.



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VI

The Ydlow sea, and gulfs of Pe-chili and Liau-tung, are from
the surveys of Commander J. Ward and Lieutenant Bullock, R.N.,
1860, E. wads, Master, R.N., 1864; and the explorations of
Lieutenant D. Boss, in 1816.

The north coast of the Yellow sea is imperfectly explored. The
description is from the voyage of H.M. ships Alceste and Lyra,
1816, and also from observations made in the Lord Amherst, 1832,
H.M. ships Blonde and Pyladea, 1840, H.M.S. Dove, 1859. The
observations of the eminent navigators, Krusenstem, 1804, Basil
Hall, 1816, Freycinet, 1819, Beechey, 1827, and Cecille, 1846, have
been embodied.

The Nautical Magazine, the Guide to the Treaty Ports of China,
the remark books of H.M. ships, and documents in the Hydrographic
Office have also contributed much valuable information to the work
generally.

As this work embraces a large extent of coast and many im-
perfectly explored islands and dangers, it cannot be considered
complete, and will still furnish frequent occasions for revision and
amendment. It is requested that officers, both of the Royal Navy
and Mercantile Marine, will transmit to the Secretary of the
Admiralty notice of any errors or omissions they may discover or
additional information they may obtain with a view to the improve-
ment of the book and for the benefit of the mariner.

F. J. E.

Hydrogr&phic Office, Admiralty, London,
December, 1874.



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CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

MONSOONS, PREVAILING WINDS AND WEATHEB, TYPHOONS,

GALES, CURRENTS AND TIDES IN THE CHINA SEA, AND

ON THE COASTS OF CHINA AND FORMOSA; ALSO DI-

RECTIONS FOR MAKING PASSAGES.

Page

Noitli-east and South-West monsoons - - - 1-4

Winds and weather - - - - 6-7

Tfphoons. Tjrphoon harbours. Gales - - - 8-16

Currents in both monsoons - - - 17-18

Japan stream - - - - 19-22

Tides on coasts of China, Luzon and Formosa - - - - 22-24

Directions for making passages - - - - - - 24-44

Eastern routes to China - - - 44-65

Treaty ports - - - - 65

CHAPTER II.

APPROACHES TO HONG KONG AND CANTON RIVER, INCLUDING

MACAO; CHTJ KIANG OR CANTON RIVER; SI-KIANG OR

WEST RIVER ; AND THE WESTERN BRANCHES OF CANTON

RIVER.

Approaches to Macao and Canton river - - - - 68-63

Islands and anchorages in the estuary of Canton river - - - 64-69

Southern approaches to Hong Kong - - - 71-73

Hong Kong. Tytam bay and harbour - - - - , 75-81
Lantao island. Cap-sing-mun passage. Urmston bay. Lintin island.

Fan-si-ak channel. Lankeet island and flat - - - . 81-85
Directions to Canton river through the Lema, Lantao, Tai-ta-mi, and

Great West channels * - - - - - - 86-90

Directions from Lintin to Boca Tigris - - - 91-94

Boca Tigris to First Bar 94-98

First Bar to Wharppoa and Canton - - - 09-105

To Canton through Blenheim passage - - - - - 106-108

Western branches of Canton river . - - - - 109-115

The Si kiang or West river - -s - - - - 116-121



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VIU



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER III.

EAST COAST OP CHINA. — HONG KONG TO AMOT.

Page

Hong Kong to Breaker point. — ^Tathong channel. Ninepin group - 121-123

Port Shelter. Rocky harbour. Mirs bay. Tuni-ang group - - 124-129

Bias Bay. Harlem bay. Sam-chau inlet. Pedro Blanco rock - 130-134

Hong-hai bay. Ty-sami inlet. Hie-che-chin> and Chino bays - 135-139

Cupchi pointy Tungao road. Breaker point - - - - 141-142

Breaker point. Hai-mun bay and river. Hope bay - - . 142-146

Cape of Good Hope. River Han. Swatau or Swatow - - 146-152

Namoa island. Lamock island. Challum, Chauan^ and Owick bays. - 153-159

Tongsang harbour. ReesPass. Hu-tau and Red bays - - 160-163

Cork point. Chapel island. Tingtae bay. Tae-tan island - - 164-169

Amoy harbour and Treaty port - - - - 169-176



CHAPTER IV.

EAST COAST OP CHINA. — AMOX TO THE WHITE DOG ISLANDS,
INCLUDING THE PESCADORES ISLANDS.

Amoy to the River Min. Quemoy island. Hu-i-tau and Chimmo bays 177-180
Chin-chu harbour. Port Matheson. Meichen sound. Ockseu is-
lands. The Yits and channels. Hungwha sound - - - 181-190
Hai-tan strait. Turnabout island. White Dog Islands - - 191-196
Pescadores islands. — Makung harbour. Formosa banks. Pescadores
channel 197-205



CHAPTER V.

PRATAS ISLAND AND REEP. NORTH COAST OP LUZON.
BABUYAN AND BASHEE ISLANDS; BASHEE AND BAL-
LINTANG CHANNELS ; PORMOSA ; ISLANDS NORTH-EAST
OP PORMOSA; AND THE MEIACO-SIMA GROUP.

Pratas island and reef - - - - 206

North coast of Luzon - - . - 209-212

Babuyan islands - - - - - - - 212-216

Batan or Bashee islands - - - - - - 217-219

Gadd and Vele-rete rocks. Botel-Tobago sima - - - 219-221

East coast of Formosa - . - - - 222-229

West coast of Formosa . - -. - 230-251'

North coast of Formosa - 229-252

Islands north-eastward of Formosa - - - 256-258

Meiaco-sima group - - - - - - - 259-267



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CONTENTS.



IX



CHAPTER VI.
EAST COAST OF CHINA. — ^WHITE DOG ISLANDS TO NIMROD



SOUND.

River Min to Wan-chu bay. — River Min. Matson island. Samsah bay
and inlet. Tung-ying island. Fuh-ning bay. Tae islands. Pih-quan
and Nam-quan harbours. Namki and Pih-ki sban islands. Fong-
whang group. Bullock harbour - - . . .

Wan-chu bay to the Chusan archipelago. — ^Wan-chu river. Tai-chau
islands. Tai-chau bay and river. Barren bay. Hieshan group.
Montagu island. San-mun bay. Sheipoo-road and harbour. Kwe-
shan islands. Buffaloes Nose island and channel. Nimrod sound •



Page



268-285



286-301



CHAPTER VII.

EAST COAST OF CHINA.— NIMROD SOUND TO TUE YANG-TSE

KIANG, INCLUDING THE CHUSAN ARCHIPELAGO.

Chusan archipelago, southern part. — Luhwang island. DufTield,
Gough, and Roberts passes. Beak head, Vernon and Sarah Galley
channels. Chukea and Poo-too islands. Channel east of Chusan - 302-310

Chusan island. — Winds and weather. Ting-hai harbour. Directions
for Ting-hai harbour through Tower hill, Melville, and Deer island
channels. Anchorage under Elephant island. Ching Keang harbour 311-317

Kin-tang or Silver island. Ta-outse harbour. Blackwall channel.
Shaaon harbour. Directions through Kwei channel, and channels
north of Lansew. N.E. and East coasts of Chusan. Chin-kea-mun
harbour. Lansew bay - - - 318-322

Chusan archipelago, northern part. Video island. Fisherman's group.
Tae-shan island. Volcano and Chinsan islands. Saddle and Parker
groups. Rugged, and Gutzlaff islands. Tides of the archipelago - 322-330

Approaches to Yung river, Niugpo, and Hangchubay. — Kin-tang chan-
nel. Just-in-the-way rock. Yung river. Ningpo fu. Tsie-kie and
Yu-yao branches. Directions from Ting-hai harbour to Yung river
through Kin-tang channel. Hang-chu bay. Hangchu fu - - 331-339



CHAPTER VIII.

EAST COAST OF CHINA. — THE YANG-TSE KIANG.

Entrance of the Yang-tse to the mouth of the Wusung river.— General
description. Rise and fall of the Yang-tse. Its navigation. Its
changes. Its Lights. Estuary of the Yang-tse. North entrance.
Main or Shaweishan channel. South or Fairway entrance. The
Bar, Tungsha banks, and channel. Outer anchorages. Tides. Di-
rections for entering -.-.•-. 340-368



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- I



CONTENTS,



Page
359-369

- 37(W83



Wusung or Shanghai river. — ^Wusung bars. Directions for the river.
Shanghai. Climate. Temperature. Winds and weather. The
river above Shanghai - - .-.

"Wusnng to Chinkiang. — Bush island and Blonde shoals. Harvey point
channel. Confucius channel. Plover point. Langshan crossing.
Keashan point to Kiang-yin and Silver island. The Grand canal.
Treaty port of Chinkiang - - - - -

Chinkiang to Kiukiang. — Nanking. Wuhu. Kieuhien. Hen point.
Nganking. Little Orphan. Poyang junction and lake. The Kan
kiang. Oliphant island bars. Treaty port of Kiu kiang. Rise of
river 384-404

Kiukiang to Hankow. — Red diflP, Collin son, and Gravener bars.
Hankow reach. Treaty port of Hankow. Rise of river. Return
voyage from Hankow to Wusung - - - 404-419

Hankow to Yohchau. — ^Tungting junction. Tungting lake, Yohchau - 420-422

Tungting junction to Ichang-fu. — Tiauhien. Shishow. Sha-sze. Itu-
hien. Ichang-fu. Currents, rise and floods - - - - 423-430

Ichang-fii to Kweichowfu.— First rapids . . - - 431-433



CHAPTER IX.

EAST COAST OF CHINA, — FROM THE YANGhTSE KIANG TO
PE-CHILI STRAIT. NORTH COAST OP YELLOW SEA.

The Tung-hai or Eastern sea. The Whang hai or Yellow sea. Winds
and weather. Directions from Shanghai to Hakodadi or to Nagasaki.
The Whang Ho or Yellow river. Sand banks and islands north of
the Yang-tse 434-439

West coasts of Yellow Sea. — ^Wang-kia-tai bay. Wei-hai or Kyau-chau
bay. Cape Ya-tau. Lo-shan bay. Ting-tsi harbour. Hai-yang.
Ju-shan kau. The Ta ho. Tau-tsui head. Staunton island. Tsing-
hai bay. Tides 440-459

East and North coasts of Shantung peninsula. — ^Tides of Shantung pro-
montoiy. Actspon shoal. Wangkia and Shihtau bays. S.E. pro-
montory. Aylen, Yung-ching, and Litau bays. Shantung promontory.
Anchorages. Directions. Wei-hai-wei, Limg-mun and Yen-tai har-
bours. Treaty port of Chifii. Teng-chau - - - - 460-4/9

The Miau-tau islands.— Anchorages. Hope sound. Directions through

Miau-tau strait and Chang-shan channel. Tides - . - 479-485

North coast of Yellow sea. — ^The Ya-luh kiang. Bouchier, Blonde, and
Elliot groups. Round island. Encounter rock. Ta-lien-whan bay.
Port Arthur, Liau-ti-shan promontoiy - - . - 485-49^



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COKTEKTS. Xi

CHAPTER X.
GULFS OP PE-CHILI AND UAV-TTJKG.

General description. Climate. Winds and weather. Temperatnw.

Duration of Ice. Supplies .-.-•• 600-605
South coast of Gulf of Pe-chili. — Davenport point. Sang-tau. San-

san Saddle. Lai-chau bight. The Ta-tsing ho or Yellow river, Ta*

san ho, and Chi ho- - - - - • • 606-616

The Pei ho or Tientsin river aud approaches. — Bn. Taku forts.

Directions. Ice. Treaty port of Tientsin. To Peking. The Peh-

tang ho. Sha-lui-iien island and banks .... 616-631
West coast of Gulf of liau-tung. — ^The Ching ho, Lau-mu ho, Pu ho,

Yang ho, and Tai-cho ho. Ning-hai. The Great Wall of China.

Cruizer shallows. Strong and Tau-hwa islands. King-chu bay.

Head of Gulf. Kae-chu bank - ... 632-646

East coast of Gulf of Liau-tung — Liau-ti-shan promontory. Society bay.

Port Adams. Hulu Shan and Fu-chu bays. Bittern shallows. The

Liauho, Treaty port of Newohwang. Ying-tse ... 646-664



APPENDIX.

EASTERN PASSAGES TO CHINA. RECENT DISCOVERIES AND
INFORMATION. TIDE TABLE. TABLE OF POSITIONS.

Winds and currents of Eastern passages to China ... 564-572
Chinese money, weights, and measures. Passage rock. Hong Kong.

Hart rock, Namoa. Typhoons at Amoy. Ockseu light. Tonbridge

rock, Ftoker group -. - - - 572-576
Climate of Shanghai. Rise of Yangtse at Hankow. Navigability of

the higher parts of the Yangtse ..... 576-578

North coast of Yellow sea. Navigation of the Yellow river. Tide

table. Table of positions 679-689



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THE

CHINA SEA DIRECTORY.

VOL. Ill



CHAPTER L
NAVIGATION.



MONSOONS, PREVAILING WINDS AND WEATHER, TYPHOONS, GALES,

CURRENTS AND TIDES IN CHINA SEA AND ON THE COASTS OF

CHINA; ALSO DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PASSAGES.



WINDS AND WEATHER.

The southern portion of the region which comes under description in
this volume is within the influences of the periodic winds called the
N.E. and S.W- monsoons, the former of which prevails from October to
April, and the latter from May to September. Its proper geographical
situation is in the N.E. trades, but during the summer season there is a
complete reversal of the trade-wind, and the S.W. monsoon occurs. The
N.E. wind is the more steady of the two, both in force and duration, and
north of Formosa, where the trade -wind of the Pacific finds little obstruction
it prevails for nearly nine months of the year. The S.W. monsoon is
regular in the China sea, but northward of Hong Kong it seldom blows
with intensity for a longer period than three months, viz., June, July, and
August ; still during this period it prevails more or less over all the coasts of
China^ Tartar/, and Japan, reaching almost to the Benin islands and nearly
1,500 miles eastward of the Philipine islands, beyond the Marianas. It
may therefore be said that in the northern part of China, which is without
the limits of the N.E. trade- wind, the influences of the monsoons prevail, and
the periods of northerly and southerly winds are the same as those of the
monsoons, though they are much diminished in regularity, and broken by
calms and variables, in the summer season especially.

The following remarks on the monsoons are taken from the Admiralty
wind and current charts : — " China Sea. — ^In April, change of monsoon
with calms and light variable N.E. and S.E. winds. In May, light S.W.
80251. A



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2 WINDS AKD WEATHER. [chap.i.

monsoon on Asiatic side ; N.E. and S.E. winds in the centre, eastern and
northern parts. In June, monsoon strong and steady. In September
the monsoon falls light and variable, with fresh squalls from the southward,
shifting to N.W., and blowing violently with rain on the coasts of Borneo
and Palawan. In October, N.E. monsoon sets ih fresh and steady in
northern parts^* light with calms and S.W. squalls south of parallel of 13^
N. In November and December, monsoon strong, but calms, variables,
and rains experienced on eastern side."!



Tbe KO&TH-BABT MOKSOOir Usually begins in the northern part
of the China sea about the end of September or early in October ; but in
the southern part it seldom blows steadily till November ; light southern
or variable breezes prevailing the greater part of October. This monsoon
generally sets in with a gale, which sometimes comes down without warn-
ing, and with a violence that has ejtposed several vessels to great danger ;
therefore when the monsoon is about to change, they should avoid
anchoring in exposed positions, and weigh instantly if the wind freshen,
as the swell rises so quickly as to cause a difficulty in getting the anchor.
The first burst of the monsoon frequently lasts a week or ten days.
The weather in some years is settled and fine during September and
October ; but the period of the autumnal equinox is a very precarious one,
for within a few days of it storms are very likely to occur.

In November the N.E. monsoon prevails generally ; but it blows more
steadily, and with greater strength, in December and January. The
weather in these months is frequently cloudy, with much rain and a
turbulent sea, particularly southward of Pulo Sapata ; there are also con-



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