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of half to three-quarters of a mile, and steer for the pass, which is formed
by the high island of Lo-chau to the southward, and the two green islets
off Tylong head to the northward : in this track a vessel will carry 17 and
16 fathoms water from Wag-Ian, and, by keeping in mid-channel, will
have 27 and 30 fathoms deepening as Lo-chau is neared, and shoaling to
14 or 16 fathoms near the islets. The depths will shoal fast to 10 or 11
fathoms when about one or 1^ miles westward of the two islets. From
thence steer for the anchorage off Ty tarn village, on the western shore, in
6^ fathoms. In this position a vessel will be weU sheltered from all
winds, except those £rom South, which cannot affect her much, as the
islands and rocks contiguous to the entrance prevent much swell from
rolling in.

To enter Hong Kong harbour from the westward, directions are given
on page 79, and from the eastward on page 122.

), or Ty-ho, the large high island lying westward of Hong
Kong, is 14 miles long, N.E.byE. and S.W.byW., and its greatest
breadth 6^ miles. About the centre of the island the land is very high,
making in peaks, the highest and westernmost of which rises 3,050 feet
above the sea level.

West Coast. — Close to the western shore of Lantao, 1^ miles from the
south point, is a peaked hill, which at high water is insulated. From this
hiU to the point a mud flat extends about a third of a mile off shore, with
only 2 fathoms water on it ; therefore, in passing this part of the island do
not decrease the depth under 7 fathoms, as the soundings will shoal fast
from 17 to 7 fathoms near the edge of the flat.

About li miles N.N.W. of the peaked hill, and half a mile from the
nearest shore, is a rock above water, having near it a depth of 15 fathoms,

30251. F

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and between it and the shore 7 fathoms, decreasing quickly towards the
latter, N.E. bj N. 1^ miles firom this rock is a bluff point, aud eastward
of the latter a bay, in which is the Tillage of Ty-ho, wlrere thrare is a
creek, or rivulet into whieh A boat may go at high tide. To the southward
of the Tillage are two bays, both of which are shoal, but fresh water .may
be procured in them.*

vortb coMt« — On the northern side of Lantao are two projecting
points three-quarters of a mile apart^ between which is the bay and village
Sah*lo-wang ; and directly fronting the eastern point of the bay and
about a quartep of a mile distant, is a small islet, having a rock awash off
its north-west side. Between* this islet and Saw-chau, 2^ miles to the
northward, the depth is too small for a vessel of large draught at low
water ; towards Saw-chau is the deepest water, 3| and 4^ fathoms, shoal-
ing near the Lantao shore to 3 and 2| fathoms, on a soft mud bottom.

Inm&ediately eastward of the above small islet, between it and Chu-lu-
cock island, is another bay in which is Tung-chung village. Ked point,
the north-east extreme of Chu-lu-cock, has a remarkable rocky appearance,
and is frequented by a company of stone-cutters, who cut the granite,
rocks into slabs for building. The south point of this island is so near
to the Lantao shore, that in passing it is difficult to distinguish it to be
an island. In Tung-chung bay the water is shoal, only 2 and 2^ fathoms ;
and there is but little water on the eastern side of Chu-lu-cock ; firom
thence the northern shore of Lantao is not inhabited.

About one mile E.N.E. of Bed point lies a small green island 230 feet
high, and three-quarters of a mile farther in the same direction another .
small island 200 feet high, which are the Brothers of Dalrymple, or Motoe
of the Chinese. A rock, 30 feet above water, lies about half a mile south- .
ward of the East Brother, and about 1^ miles off the Lantao shore.

The depths near the Brothers are 7 and 8 fathoms, shoaling from the
eastern islet towards the northern shore into 4 or 5 fathom^, and. making
the channel narrow ; a small reef borders the western and northern ends
of the West Brother. According to Captain H. Smith, of H.M.S. Druid,
there is a good channel with 8 or 10 fathoms between the East Brother
and the large rock southward of it ; the rock appears bold on all sides.
From the East Brother the north-east ' point of Lantao bears E«byN.
4 miles.

84m0i Coast. — The southern coast of Lantao forms two large but shoal
bays. The larger and eastern bay, to the north-eastward of the(|^Soko
idands, has in it a small islet and some rocks above water, and a populous

* See Admiralty Chart : East coast of China, Sheet 1, No. 2,212 ; scale, m=0*23 of

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village at its head. The depth is 2 fathoms within the rocks, and 4 and
5 iatiioms in the entrance of the baj, where there appears to be good
anchorage.* The western bay is lesS capacious than the other, and carries
ft depth of 2 to 1^ fathoms.

• vatsBiTy a high green island, lying off the east entrance point of the
eastern of the abore bays, and separated from it by a naifrow channel,
has close to its west side some rocks above water. A small vessel will
find good anchorage westward of these rocks, anchoring with them bear-
ing abont S. by E., three-quarters of a mile distant, in 5 fiftthoms. Fresh
water may be procured at the sandy beaches on the south shore of
Lantao. In the channel formed between Lantao and Patung are depths of
7 &thoms ; the ebb here runs to the eastward.

CAP-szirci-imnr »ASSii.aB, or Throat Gates, formed between the
north point of Lantao and the main, is separated into two channels by
Mah-wan island. The channel on the west side of Mah-wan is generally
used by steam vessels, but it is narrow, and the eddies caused by the strong
tides are dangerous. The channel northward of that island should be
used by sailing vessels, for it is wider, has good anchorage, a regular tide,
and in the N.E. monsoon the advantage of being to windward.

Vassase Boek. — ^This sunken rock is described in Appendix, page 574.

l>z&BCTZOirs. — ^A sailing vessel proceeding through the Cap-sing-mun
passage from the westward, should keep close over to the mainland to
avoid a reef, extending a third of a mile from the north-east point of
Mah-wan ; then steer in mid-channel between that island and Chung-hue
island, which lies a mile to the eastward; and after rounding the south
end of the latter, if bound for Hong Kong road, steer for the west end of
Won-chu-chau or Stone-cutters island.

SAiir-CTBAir, lying 3 miles northward of Lantae, and S.E. 4^ miles
from Lintin, is a small narrow island nearly a mile long, with a sharp
hummock on its north end.

^ong-ku, about one mile northward of Saw-chau, is higher and more
rocky in appearance ; and S. W. by S. from the south point of Tong-ku,
and W.bjN, from the north point of Saw-chau, are two rocks above
water, abont a mile distant from each island : the western is named White
rock from its white appearance. The depths near the eastern sides of
Saw-chau and Tong-ku are 5 to 9 fathoms; westward of Tong-ku,
4^ fathoms ; and near the rocks 5 fathoms, at low water .f

* Here H.M.8. Cormorant rode out an easterly gale, in September, 1865, which lasted
48 hours. The anchorage was much exposed, but the holding ground was good, hard,
stiff mud mixed with sand and shells.

t See Admiralty Charts :— Canton river, Sheet 1, No. 1,782, scale »i= IJ inches;
and Sheet 2, ISo. I9741, scale m^3 inches.

T 2

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IAT» or Tong-ku harbour, bounded by the islands Tong-ka
and Saw-chau on the west^ and Castle Peak land on the east side^ is a safe
anchorage, and tolerably sheltered from all winds. The best berth ia in
about 8 or 9 fathoms, with Tong-ku peak just open of the south end of
Lintin, and nearer the mainland than Tong-ku. This safe bay or harbour
was named Urmston by the captains of the fleet who anchored there
in August and September 1823, at the recommendation of Sir James
Brabason Urmston, President of the Company's factory at Canton during
the discussion with the Chinese, relatiye to the affiiir of the Topaze frigate
in 1821-2, at Lintin; the anchorage was found secure, with smooth
water when it blew a gale from eastward. Fresh water was procured in

BlBiMmows.— The approach to Urmston bay for yessels of large
draught, is between the east side of the spit extending from the south
side of Lintin, and the islands Saw-chau and Tong-ku ; and then north-
ward of Tong-ku, the depth there being 7 and 8 fathoms. The passage
southward of Saw-chau has only 3^ fitthoms, and that between Saw-chau
and Tong-ku 2^ fathoms.

The channel between White rock and the east side of Lintin spit is
about 2 miles wide, with 7 and 8 fathoms, decreasing towards the spit to
5 fitthoms. Working northward, do not stand so £bx west as to shoal to
5 fathoms, or to bring the east side of Lintin northward of W.
With the south end of Saw-chau bearing E.N.E. and Lintin peak North,
a Tessd will be on the southern edge of the spit in 4| or 5 fathoms, sand
and mud.

Ktwrnr xbxjutb, lying W.N.W. of Urmston oay, is about 7 miles in
circumference, and its summit terminates in a high conical peak. A spit
of sand extends about 4^ miles to the southward of the island, having a
.depth of 3^ fathoms on its outer part, but only 9 feet within 2^ miles of
the island, and rather less in some places. The spit is steep-to on tbe
west side, with 10 fathoms near it, and 7 fathoms touching its edge. When
within 5 miles of the island, if the yessel is of large draught, do not when
. standing eastward towards the spit, bring the west end of Lintin, west-
.ward of N. | W., or tack immediately after deepening to 9 or 10 fathoms ;
.but in the night do not deepen to above 7 or at most 8 fathoms.

Untlii Bar. — ^A sandbank also extends 13^ miles in a N.N.W direction
from the north side of Lintin, and on its northern part is a narrow ridge
called Lintin bar, the southern end of which, in 2^ fathoms, beaxs
W. by N. I N. from Fan-si-ak islet, and N.N.W. J W. about 5 J miles from
Lintin peak. The least water on the bar is 12 feet, and its northern exid.
in 2 J fathoms lies N.W.byN. 10^ miles from Fan-si-ak, with Sam-paxx-
chau just open westward of the west extreme of Anung-hoy island.

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The anchorage off Lintin is about 1^ miles from the sandy beach on
its sonth-west side, in 10 or 12 fathoms ; under 10 fathoms the water
shoals qnicklj towards the island.

Water.— Fresh water may be obtained at the eastern extremity of the
beach on the south side of Lintin ; and occasionally a few bullocks and
vegetables may be procured from the inhabitants of the Tillage.

**»■«■— I* is l"g^ water, full and change, at the anchorage off Lintin
at noon, and springs rise 7 or 8 feet. The streams run neariy North and
South, and the ebb in the freshes sometimes 5^ or 6 knots per hour. In
the N.E. monsoon the neaps are very irregular, sometimes only one flood
perceptible during 24 hours, with a small rise when the other flood should

rAOT-BX-AX xszAT.— Two rocky islets, the easternmost and largest
of which is Fan-si-ak, and the other White rock, lie North 4} miles
from the peak of Lintin. When these islets are in one, E. by S. J S., the
southern extremity of Lintin bar is on the same bearing. The east side
of the channel between the southern extremity of the bar and Lintin is
hounded by mud-banks, with irregular soundings of 2J and 3 J fathoms on
them at low water.

r&AT, extendmg from the north end of Lintin bar,
across the channel to the shoal mud-bank on the west side, and N.W.
towards Lankeet island, consists of sand and mud, with hard bottom in
some places. The depths on it are 3^^ and 3^ fathoms at low water,
and 4^ to 4| fathoms at high water springs ; a vessel therefore drawing
more than 20 feet should not pass over it until about, half flood. Close
to the northward of this flat, are usually some flshing stakes, with boats
made fast to them, and others also between Lintin and Lankeet; care
should be taken not to run over the boats, which generally show lights
in the night.

XJiXWOBT XB&Ami, N.N.W.^W. 19 miles from Lintin peak, is
formed of two hills, sloping into a low point at the west end, where there
is a well of fresh water by a small temple close to some trees ; the island
at this part is covered with earthen vessels containing human bones. A
spit or flat extends S.E. by S. 2^ miles from its south side, with only 2
and 2^ fathoms over it at low water. Between this spit and a long
narrow sand to the westward is the Lankeet entrance of the western
channels of the Canton river, described on page 112.

ABoboracre In Kankeet road. — To proceed up this entrance to an
anchorage in Lankeet road, keep the highest peak of ly-cock-tau just
open of the outermost of the rocks projecting from the west end of
Lankeet N.W. f N. : with this mark on, a vessel will hare 4} or S

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fatbomfl at high water, about 4 miles from Lankeet; aod will cany
rather lesa water till nearlj abreast the west end of the island, where she
will have about 6 fathoms in Lankeet road. This is a convenient place
for a Teasel to moor when circumstances require her stores or sick to be
landed. All the space between Lankeet and Ty-cock-tau is shoaL

UMMU»MM^WLM,Vt or Boat isdet, N. bjfi.^ E. 1^ miles &om the east
end of Lankeet, ^is small, of middling height, resembling a boat turned
bottom upwards, and the best guide for crossing Lankeet flat. An
extensive rocky bank, partly above water, projects N.W. from il;, aad
joins the shoal bank extending from Lankeet to Ty-cock-tau. There are
regular depths of 7, 8, and 9 fathoms to the eastward of Sam-pan-chau.

&AWTAO, mad TJLX-TA-MZ onAMMMJM.* — ^Lema cbaimel formed by the
Lema islands on the south, and the Fu-toy group on the north, is about 6
miles wide, and safe to navigate, with depths of 19 to 14 fathoms, soft bottom.
This channel should, if possible, be always adopted by sailing vessels bound
to Hong Kong or Canton river in the N.E. monsoon, to effect which they
ought to make the N.E. head of the Lema islands, bearing to the west-
ward. If the weather be thick, and the wind blow strong at East or
S.E. it may be prudent to heave to, when land cannot be discerned above
3 or 4 miles.t The depths are 19 to 21 fathoms, close to the head, and
about 18 fathoms at the entrance of the channel. If the weather will not
permit the vessel to enter the channel, do not shoal under 25 or 26
fathoms, as in these depths she will drift clear outside all the islands.

If, however, the vessel should happen to be near the entrance of the
Lema channel in the evening, and a typhoon is expected, she should
run immediately for Tytam bay on the south side of Hong Kong, or'lfor
the Tathong channel, or the east Lamma channel, as may be most con-
venient ; in either of which she will be secured from the tempest, if. an
anchorage ia gained before night.

During S*W. or westerly winds, it will sometimes be found diffici|lt ta
turn through the Leqia channel from the eastward, as there is generaUy
a set from West to East, occasioned by the ebb coming from the west-
ward out of the numerous channels, and the flood from the S.W. ; ydth

♦ See Admiralty Cliart j— East coast of China, Sheet 1, No. 2^ 12.

t The NatOUus of Galcutta, September, 1S02, made Pedro Blanco, and after inxadng
to the westward, hove to for the night, keeping in from 18 to 14 fathoms. A strong
easterly gale had prevailed in the night, which increased, with thick weather at day-
light, when they found themselves close to the east side of one of the rocky islands
northward of the Lema channel, on which the vessel struck, and soon went to pieces.

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a Btrong S.W. wind the stream rims about 1^ knots per hour to the
eashnu*d, only slacking a little when it ought to change its direction.
Pa-toj island maj be approached with safety to a quarter of a mile, and
the 'wbole north side of the Lema islands to half a mile.

Tbroayii KAarrAO OHAmmxi. — From about a mile southward of

Pu-toy, a West course for 19 miles will lead to the entrance of Lantao

channel, passing southward of Lamma and northward of Lingting, the

depths decreasing from 17 fathoms off Pu-toy, to 12 and 13 fathoms

soxithwardof Lamma, and to 7 and 8 fathoms as the channel is approached ;

there are 12 fathoms in the middle of the entrance, decreasing to 7 or 8

&thom8 towards A-chau. Lingting, which is of considerable height, and

terminates at the summit in a conical peak, may be passed on either side

as the wind requires. If passing southward, give a wide berth to the

Needle rocks off its north-west point ; and to those off its north point, if

passing northward ; but the channel northward of this island is preferable,

for in dayligbt it has no hidden danger, and a vessel may work from side

to side. In the night do not approach the north side of the island within

I| miles to avoid the two small rocks (page 68), off its north point.

Chi-chau, when seen from the eastward, has a remarkable appearance,
and is a good guide ; it makes like a high, round, detached island, with
distant rugged land westward of it, which are the islands of Lafsami and
Chung-chau. Having entered the Lantao channel, the course through
is N.W. by W., and the depths will be variable, not under 8 or 9 fathoms,
nor above 25 fathoms. The ebb runs through in strong eddies, particu-
larly in July or August, when its rate is sometimes 4^ knots per hour at
springs. With a light wind, at times, it is difficult to manage a vessel
here ; on some occasions two or three boats, assisted by the sails, have
been baffled in their attempts to tow the vessel's head round. After
passing between Chi-chau and A-chau, the water will deepen in mid-
channel towards Chung-chau and Lafsami, and close to the south-west
point of Lantao, are 7 fathoms. Having rounded the point at a moderate
distance, steer to the northward for Lintin, or to the westward for Macao
road, as circumstances require ; in the latter case the depths will gradually
decrease io 6^or 5 fathoms.

In turning through the Lantao channel, when standing northward do
not shoal under 7 fathoms in a vessel of large draught, nor pass the
line of bearing between the south points of Lantao and A-chau. Between
the northern Soke island and the Lantao shore, a good channel one mile
wide, may be taken by a vessel when blowing fresh from the northward.
In this case, after passing the south point of Fatung, a small rocky islet
will be seen in the bay on the southern shore of Lantao ; steer to the nortb-
westward until this islet is shut in behind the western point of the bay,

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when keep towards the sooth point of Lantao, and the depth will be 4^
fathoms, mud, between the point of the sandj spit and the Lantao shore.

From the small islet off the north side of Chung-chau, Lintin peak
bears N.^E. 14 miles; the sand spit extending off the south side of
Lintin is on the latter bearing, therefore a vessel will clear it if this islet
is kept S. by E. until Lintin peak bears N. by E., then steer for the west
point of Lintin. In a dark night, a N.N.W. or N.W. byN. course
(according to the tide) should be steered from the middle of the Lantao
channel until the water shoals to six fathoms, then steer North, keeping
a good look out for the fishing stakes ; on this latter course, if the water
deepens above 7 fathoms, keep a little westerly until the vessel is near or
above Lintin, where she can anchor. By not deepening above 7 fathoms,
she will not be too near Lintin sand spit, there being 9 and 10 fathoms
close to. The ebb tide, from the west end of Lintin to the eastward, sets
South ; but on the western shore its direction is S.E.

Tbroofia TAX-TA-MX OHAvmBlta — Proceeding towards the river
through Tai-ta-mi channel, between the Lema and Kypong islands, after
clearing Cfimbridge rock (page 72), steer northward for Lingting,
passing between it and the Samoun group, and then through the Lantao
channel ; or pass between the Samoun group and Ai-chau, and proceed
either for the Lantao channel or to the N.W. direct for Lafsami. Having
approached Lafsami, keep within a mile of its western side, and of the
south part of Chung-chau, to avoid the 4-feet needle rock ; after passing
Chung-chau, steer for Lintin, or for Macao road.

If the channel be taken between the great Ladrone and Gap rock,
or the narrow passage between the latter and the Kypong islands, steer
northward, and proceed along the west sides of Ai-chau and Lafsami. Or
if bound for Macao road, there is a more direct passage about a mile wide,
with 13 fathoms water, between Fak-leak and Chuk-wan, then on the
north sides of Tong-ho and Liungnib, and to the southward of Ty-lo,
which track lies nearly in a direct line towards the road. Although this
channel is safe in the day-time great care must be . taken to avoid the
Raleigh rock (page 67). There is a safe passage between the Great
Ladrone and Pak-leak, with 14 to 9 fathoms water, but recollect the
sunken rock lying half a mile from the north side of the Little Ladrone,
and also the Clio rock (page 66) ; a vessel taking this route should pass
southward of Potoe.

To OAMTOm Wnm tbroatrb CWBAT 'WBST C«AinNrBXi. — ^This
channel, on the west side of the Ladrone islands, is generally used
by vessels bound to Canton during the strength of the S.W. monsoon,
and to do this they endeavour to fall in with the Great Ladrone
bearing about North or N. by E. ; but late in the season when the winds

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indine to the eastward, or at any other time when tbej are expected to
come fiiom the northward or eastward, it will be prudent for a sailing
veasel to make the N.E. head of the Lema iahmde, and proceed, towards
the river by the Lema and Lantao channels, page 86. Here the risk
of being horsed to the westward by the freshes setting out of the Great
West channel is avoided, and a northerly wind will lead to an andiorage
in the river. When typhoons happen on the coast, they generally
commence in a moderate gale from the northward, which is a leading
wind for these channels, and as the wind commonly veers to the eastward
before it blows hard, a vessel with the first of the gale may get well up
the river above Lintin, where these storms are less violent than ontside
among the islands.

As the approach to the Canton estuary is probably more safe |han that
of any other large river in the world, there being no sandbanks at
its entrance, and the channels amongst the islands outside being mostly
all free from hidden danger, a stranger should not hesitate to push
through the nearest convenient channel without a pilot, if the weather is
tolerably clear. But the streams must be attended to, as they set in
varying directions amongst the islands to the south-eastward according
to the prevailing winds ; a strong easterly wind generally producing a
westerly current or tide, which abates in strength when the ebb should
be setting to the south-east. If an outside pilot can be obtained at a
moderate rate he may be useful, to run the vessel into some cove or place
of shelter, if a storm should be approaching, or if she be in a disabled
state. Macao road should not be used if there is an appearance of bad
weather, but she should be run up the river well above Lintin.

About South 30 miles from the Great Ladrone, the depths increase
to 27 or 28 fathoms ; about 60 miles from it, to 42 and 44 fathoms ; and
soundings extend on the same meridian to about lat. 20^ N. ; ftom hence
they continue westward towards Hainan head ; but converge towards the
land, with deeper water eastward of the meridian of the Ladrone islands.
A vessel falling in with the land in thick weather may easily distinguish
whether it be that of the islands eastward of the Great Ladrone ; for the
Kypong aud Lema islands have soundiogs of 23 and 24 fathoms close to ;
whereas the islands between the Great Ladrone and St. John to the west-
ward haye only 10 and 11 fathoms at a considerable distance outside.
These are also large and of regular appearance, resembling a coast more

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