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than islands ; but those to the eastward, are detached, high, and uneven,
excepting Tam-kam, the largest of the Lema islands, which is long and of
an undulating form.

The freshes out of Canton river set almost constantly from the south
end of Montanha, along the shores of the islands to the westward, at tha

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rate of one to two knots an hour^. particularly with strong easterly winds ;
and although at times there seems to be on the surface a flood tide setting
. eastward, or into the entrance of the river, the fireshes underneath
continue to run westward, by which sailing vessels are rendered un-
govanable^ even in fresh winds. Many vessels from this cause, after
getting near Montanha, or between it and Potoe island, have been drifted
nearly to St. John island whilst making every endeavour, with moderate
winds, to keep their heads to the eastward. Steering, therefore, for the
Great West channel, never borrow near San-chau, or the other islands
to the westward, unless it is blowing strong from the S.W., to avoid being
drifted to the westward. The freshes abate at times, and then weak tides
set to the eastward ; but as these are not of long duration, a vessel should
keep on 1|^e eastern side of the channel in deep water towards theLadrone
islands and Potoe, and anchor instantly if she finds the current drifting
her westward.

In the strength of the S.W. monsoon, (as before stated in page 88,)
endeavour, if the wind be steady between S.E. and S.W., to make the
Great Ladrone, bearing about North, and avoid the islands to the west-
ward ; this is the more necessary after the middle of August, when easterly
winds are likely to prevail, several days together, as they are, more or
less, at all seasons. If a vessel falls to leeward about St. John, in
September or October, she will generally make a tedious passage to Macao
' if she keeps close along the islands, where the currents or freshes setting »
westward will oblige her frequently to anchor; as these freshes prevail
only in shoal water, near the islands, the best plan to adopt is, to stand
well off the land, and take every advantage of. the favourable shifts of
wind, to get to the. eastward. ^

Having passed through the Great West channel, or if the vessel has
anchored in Macao road, with a leading wind she may weigh with the ebb,
.if she. can haul over north-eastward for Lintin ; fo^ the tide will then act
upon her port bow, and keep her off the western shore : whereas, with
an easterly wind, the flood is likely to drift the vessel into shoal water
near that shore. With a fair wind, steer about N.N.E. ^ E. from Macao
road for Lintin ; if it be night from 4^ to 5 fathoms are good soundings ;
for at low water springs, greater depth ought not to be expected, until
several miles north-eastward of the road.

Turning up against a n(»therly wind on the Jood, tack from the west
side of the channel in about 4 fathoms, according to the vessel's draught,
• the lead being a safe guide along the western shore, where the bottom
generally consists of mud. The islands eastward of Macao road may be
safely approached, having 5 fathoms near them, and when past Chung*
chau-si, the depth will increase to 9 and 10 fathoms towards Lantao.

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Working hence to Lintin in the night, stand in to 4^ &thoin0 in the
west part of the channel, and do not deepen above 7 or 7^ fathoms to
the eastward. Here, the tides become stronger as the vessel proceeds

In Macao road, ajid between it and Lintin, the tides are frequently
irr^ular, setting in a different direction at the surface to what they
do underneath, by which vessels are rendered unmanageable in light
winds. The ebb is stronger, and continues longer than the flood ; the
freshes often running out b^ow, when a flood tide at the surfiaoe is
setting into the river.

xmzv to tiie 80GA YKHII8. — When within 7 miles of Lintin
steer for its west point bearing about N.^E., and when abreast the
point, run northward in soundings from o to 6^ fathoms : withfi westerly
wind, borrow on the west side of the channel ; if it is easterly, keep in
5 to 6^ fathoms with the flood tide. It will be safe to proceed 9 or 12
miles above Lintin, even in the night, with a working wind, the lead
being a. certain guide, by tacking from the west side of the channel in
4^ f&thomB, and from the east side in 6^ fathoms ; but when about 6 or 7
miles northward of Lintin, tack in 5^ i^thoms from the east side of the
channel, for the deepest water is near the edge of Lintin sand, and if a
large vessel begins to shoal on Its edge to 5 fathoms, she will not have
room to tack.*

Lantao is frequently obscured by clouds or haze, but when its summit
is visible the^est peak of that island affords a good mark for running up
this channel in the day. Steering N.byW. or N.byW.-^W. from the
west end of Lintin, draw gradually the high west peak of Lantao on .with
the west end of Lintin, 'and continue to bring it more^ easterly until it is
on with Lintin peak, or a little open eastward of that peak, and keep it
so, until the vessel is. more than half way from Lintin towards Lankeet.
Then, if the wind is contrary, Lantao west peak may be brought nearly
to tlie east end of Lintin, in tacking from the east side of the channel,
and well westward of Lintin peak when tacking from the west side ; but
on a nearer approach to Lankeet, the west peak of Lantao must not be
bn>ught. westward of Lintin peak.

When within 5 miles of Lankeet, the west peak of Lantao must not be
brought more westerly than touching the east end of Lintin, when on the
west side of the channel ; and to a considerable way open of the same
when on the eastern side. Here the depths decrease, with only about a
fathom more water on the east than on the west side of the channeL

* See Admiralty Charts: - Sheets 1 and 2 of Canton river, Kos. 1,7S2, 1,741 ; scales,
msl^ and d inches.

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A yessel will pass eastward, in 14 feet water, of all the mud banks at
the entrance of the Western channels (page 111) between Cum-slng-mun
and Lankeet, by keeping the northern and highest peak of Kee-ow island
west of 8. by W. i W., and the summit of Lankeet west of N. by W. \ W,
The pilots sometimes get vessels on these banks in the night ; but with
those of large draught they are more inclined to borrow close to the east-
ward, whereby they have frequently grounded upon Lintin bar ; it will
therefore be prudent, when the pilot appears confused or uncertain of his
position, to uichor before the vessel shoals her water.

From a position about half a mile off the west end of Lintin, a
N. by W. } W. course would lead fair through the channel to the east side
of Sam-pan-chau, were the tides to run in that direction ; but from Lintin
they set N^.W. and S.S.E. nearly as far as the north end of Lintin bar»
and thence to Sam-pan-chau about N.W. by W. and S.E. by E.

Steering northward, with the west peak of Lantao open a little east-
ward of Lintin peak, or keeping in 4]^ to 5^ fathoms, Lankeet island will
be seen making like a saddle, and shortly afterwards two small islets or
rocks will appear close to its eastern end. These rocks will be nearly on
with the middle of the opening of the Boca Tigris when first seen, and
should not be brought more easterly; nor in working ought they to be
brought to touch the point of Tiger island, which forms the west side of
the opening, until within 4^ miles of Lankeet ; being then northward of
Lintin bar, a vessel may edge over to the eastward. There is no good
cross mark to know when clear of the bar ; but a pagoda on the western
shore bearing S.W.§ W,, will lead northward of its extremity. From the
northern end of the bar, Sam-pan-chau is a little open of Anung-hoy
point N.N.W.^W., and the little hill on the east end of Lankeet is
N.W. i N., about 5 miles.

Shortly _ after the rocks off the east end of Lankeet are on with the
middle of the opening of Boca Tigris, or rather more westerly, if the vessel
is within 6 or 7 miles of Lankeet, Sam-pan-chau will be recognized and will
then appear under the land, a little eastward of the high round summit of
Anung-hoy, a high, round hill, sloping to a point on the west side, and
forming the eastern boundary of the Boca Tigris. Anung-hoy peak
in line with Sam-pan-chau humlnock, N. by W. | W., leads westward of
Lintin bar, and eastward of Lankeet spit. Witll a working wind, keep
Sam-pan-chau between the eastern shoulder of Anung-hoy hiU and the
west point of the same ; but that islet must not be opened westward of
Anung-hoy point until clear of the north end of Lintin bar.

With an easterly wind, to prevent being set by the tide towards Lankeet,
keep on the east side of the channel, with Sam-pan-chau shut in a little
eastward of Annug-hoy point, or nearly on with it. When within 4

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miles of Lankeet, a vessel may stand well to the eastward in working,
opening Sam-pan-chau considerably westward ,of the point, being then to
the northward of the extremity of Lintin bar ; do not, however, stand
so far over as to bring Anung-hoy point to touch Chuen-pee, but tack
before they come on, for farther eastward the water is shoal. After
opening Sam-pan-chau of Anung-hoy point, which with a westerly wind
need not be done until abreast Lankeet, steer direct for the land of
Anung-hoy, giving Sam-pan-chau a berth to the westward of half a mile
ox more at discretion, in 9 or 8 fathoms ; then the depths will be 9, 6,
and 7 fathoms to the entrance of the Boca Tigris, increasing to 13 and 15
fathoms abreast south Wantong.

If in a vessel of moderate draught, a cast of 3^ or 4 fathoms hard ground
be got before Lankeet is seen, in a clear night, she may be certain of its
being on Lintin sand, and will deepen fast on hauling westward into
ilie channel.

Tbronffii rAV-sz-AX OHAVirasb. — If a vessel is drawing 23 feet
water, it would be imprudent to attempt the channel on the east side
of Lintin, it being very narrow just above and about Tree island,
with a considerable swell in it when blowing strong from the north-
ward. The southern part of the channel between White rock and
east side of Lintin south spit, is about 2 miles wide, with 7 and 8
fathom8f decreasing towards the spit to 5 fathoms. In working north-
ward, do not stand so far west as to shoal to 5 fathoms, or to bring
the east side of Lintin to bear north of N. by W. When northward of
Ton-ku, if the vessel is of 20 or 21 feet draught, keep the eastern shore
aboard, avoiding the spits of shoal water at the points of the islands, until
off the north end of Mah-chau, the shoal extending from the south end of
which will be avoided by not shutting Tree island in with Mah-chau,
or by not bringing the highest peak of Mah-chau westward of N. ^ W. ;
White rock in one with the north end of Fan-si-ak, is the mark for the
south end of Mah-chau spit.

Thence to Tree island, when standing towards Lintin bar or Fan-
si-ak bank, keep the lead going, and tack in 4 fathoms or less, accord-
ing to the vessel's draught ; but the lead will be the best guide, as the
bank is much curved In shape. Standing eastward, do not bring the
north or highest peak of Mah-chau westward of South, and when the
south point of Sui-chan bears N.E. do not bring the west point of Tree
island westward of N. by W. ^ W., to avoid the shoal spit of 2 and 3
fathoms which extends S.S.E. from that island nearly a mile. Tree
island is safe to approach close to the rocks ; but on the Channel banks

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94 THE CANTON BIVEB. [chap. ii.

to the irestward, the water shoab suddenly to 2^ fathoms, irregular soimd-
ingsy sand and mud.

When near the west end of Tree island, d6 not brbg it to bear
more southerly than S.E. JE,, to clear the edge of the sWe bank.
Standing westward, White rock should not be brought eastward of the
saddle on the east end of Lintin, or the east end of the fishing stakes
No. 8 (in the chart) to the northward [of N.W.byN. the lead not being
a Bofflcient guide for the channel banks. If the fishing stakes be not
removed, they appear to be a preferable guide to the land mark, being
always discernible, but either may be used in clear weather. When
within half a mile of the stakes No. 3, the passage becomes wider, extend-
ing, from the shore bank to Lintin bar, with 4, 4^, and 4^ fikthoms at low
water, shoaling gradually on either side, so as to render the lead a guide
in tacking, the bottom being very soft mud«

If close to Tree island with a leading wind, steer direct for the centre
of the fishing stakes No. 3, and pass them on either side, as circum-
stances require.

There is another range of ^shing stakes (numbered 4), S.W. J W. of
No. 8, which will, when near them and bearing South, warn a yessel of
her proximity to Lintin bar.

Xf prooeedinr np tb^ BZVBS. — See Directions, pages]^96 and 101.
TZDB8. — In the Fan-si-ak channel it is high water, full and change, at
Ih. 10m., but the rise is irregular, especially at neaps, the rise and fall
being then only 2^ to 3 feet, and 6 to 8^ feet at springs ; velocity from
3 to 4 knots, and from 2 to 2^ knots at neaps.

In February it is high water full and chimge in Cum-sing-man harbour
at 12h. 6m., and at Lanheet island at llh. 20m.

A vessel proceeding up with a working wind should weigh instantly
the tide slackens sufficiently for her to make any progress, in whatever
part of the channel she may have anchored. The passage between liintia
and Fan-si-ak should not be attempted in vessels of large draught, having
only 2^ to 2^ fathoms in it at low water.

The OHV xzAva or Pearl river, commonly called Canton river, rises
about 30 miles north of Canton (or 100 miles from the sea) in two streanois,
which unite^at 10 miles above that city; at this junction a long narrowr
stream connects it with the North river by two branches, one at Sam-shni,
the 'Other 10 miles from that place. The Tung kiung or East river,
which falls into it above the Second Bar, drains a large central portion of

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the Ewang-tung proTince^ a sugar [district. The entrance of Canton
river, formed between the islands of Chuen-pee and ly-cock-tauy or
perhaps more strictly between Ty-cock-tau and the island of Anung-hoj,
is divided bj the Wan-tong islands into two channels, the eastern of which
Boca Tigris, is generally used by vessels of large draught ; the western
is called Bremer channel.*

OBUsir-psB ponrT, the south extreme of Chuen-pee island, is close
to a small peak called Chuen-pee hill, and N.N.E. JE. 1| miles from
Sam-pan-chau. On the north-west point of the island is a small watch-
turret, with a fort under it ; and midway between this point and Chuen-
pee poiND FIEST BABS. 99

Anson hay above Chuenpee point. The n(»rthem channel to Tung-knan
jnaj he reached ^om Second bar creek, from Tszekee ftnd Escf^^ creeks
2io2\ miles above Second bar, and from the junk passage north of First
bar island.

B&nsBni aad ivvABDOJL »AssAcns.r^At 3 miles above Escape
creek, and 5^ above Second bar, the river divides into two main branches,
the Whampoa and Blenheim passages, which meet again at Honam point,
juBt above the city of Canton, and opposite the foreign settlement. By the
Blenheim or sonthem passage the distance to Honam point from the
junction is 16^ miles, and by the Whampoa or n(»rthem passage 14 miles.
Canton lies on the latter below Honam point, and 8 miles beiow the dty is
Whampoa, the anchorage for foreign vessels. Above Whampoa the river
in some parts is not navigable, even at springs, by vessels drawing more
than 13 feet, so that those of heavy draught have to proceed to Canton by
Blenheim passage.


rxuav liAM isXiAJTB. — ^At 2 miles above Escape creek, and near the east
bank of the river, is First Bar island, low and ^at, westward of which are
the four flat islands, smaller but similar, and then the larger Danes Island,
the western part of which is covered with hilly ground which marks the
position of Whampoa. The four channels between Danes island and the
four low islands are shallow and not used by foreign vessels^ the navigable
passage into the northern or Whampoa passage being that which is next
westward of First bar island, carrying from 20 to 30 feet water.

Vlat xsiand Beacon, to mark the extremity of a mud bank, is on the
south-east end of No. 1 Flat island, the one which is next westward of First
bar isl^id. It is an open pile construction, with lantern on top, but no
light is exhibited.

Vint Bar is formed at nearly half a mile above First Bar island, between
a shoal bank of sand bordering the west side of First Bar island, and a
sboal spit projecting from the eastern point of the low Flat islands. The
least depth on it in 1857 was 20 feet.

Bmnswlok ^atcbes, on one of which the Brunswick struck in 1798,
and the Wyndham was totally lost in 1815, Ue about two-thirds of a
mile above the west end of the First Bar island, on the northern shore of
the river. The rock on which the Brunswick struck is described to be
about half a cable long, N.E. by E. and. S.W. by W., with irregular depths

♦ The gangs of pirates which infest the neighhonrhood of Whampoa, especially about
the period of the Chinese new year (Fehmary), are supposed mostly to belong to the
villagefi on Escape creek.

G 2

G 371405 A

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100 THE CANTOK &IVER. [chap. n.

of 8 to 18 feet on it at low water. The Secimd Bar pagoda bore from it
S. by E. } E. ; Whampoa pagoda W. ^ N. ; west extreme <^ First Bar
idand S.E. ^ E. ; and a large house inland N. ^ W. ; and with this house
bearing from N. ^ W* to N. by E. a vessel will be on .the line of the rock.

There are channels l>etween the patches, and to the southward of them ;
but the narrow 4-fathoms channel x^orthward of the patches, close along
the north shore, is most generally used. North Shore pagoda in line with
the bluff point inside the Rocky head on Louisa island, N.W. by W. \ W.,
leads south of the patches, but oyer 15 feet at low water on the edge of the
bank off No. 1 Flat island.

ivvABDOA. — ^Above Brunswick patches, Cambridge reach which leads
up to Whampoa is clear and deep, excepting that for yessels of deep draught,
a shelf that extends northward from the Flat islands, has only 18 feet on
its edge in mid-channeL Then is reached the Chinese town on the northern
side of Danes island, known to foreigners as Bamboo town. Above this
lie the premises of the Union Dock Company, next the hill with a chapel
embosomed in foliage at its foot forming the Farsee burial ground, and then
the British Vice-consulate perched on the brow of a hill, behind which lie
the basins and workshops of the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company.
Fronting these is English reach, and above it, south-westward, American
reach. Opposite is Sulphur point, formed by the confluence of Elliot
passage (of which American reach is a part), and the direct channel to
Hongkong. Whampoa new town extends from Sulphur point along the
left bank of American reach.

The Aaoiiorare is in English and American reaches, the best position
being between the north sides of Danes and French islands, and Whampoa
new town opposite. It is a safe anchorage with a moderate tide, in from
^ to 6 fathoms, soft mud bottom ; there is, however, scarcely room for two
large ships to moor abreast, which occasions the lower part of the shipping,
when there are many arrivals, to lie moored in English reach, abreast the
• entrance of Junk creek.

TIBB8. — At Whampoa, it is high water, full and change, in the month
of March at Ih. 40m., in April, at Ih. 15m.,iknd in May and June, at
Oh. 30m. ; and the rise at springs is 7 to 8 feet. In March the day find
night tides rise to the same level. From April to October the day tides
are the higher ; and from November to February the lower. In May ^nd
June, the level of spring tides is 4 feet higher, and that of neaps. 2 feet
higher than in March.

IRTBAMVOJL 3>OCX8. — The docking accommodation is considerable,
there being eight docks of various classes. The Hong Kong and Whampoa
Dock Company have four, of which two are of granite, one of wood, and
two mud docks available for small vessels at low charges. The UnicMa.


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CXAF. n.]



Dock Company possess four other docks. The dimennons of the firat are
as follows >-*


















Length over an -





9 on blocks




. .—

Breadth - -





Depth oyer sill at spring tides
Depth at neaps - - -







Dock A, the principal dock at Whampoa^ is on the north-west side of
Danes island, nnder the cemetery hill, and was formerly called Couper's
dock. It can be nsed as either one or two docks, being fitted with two
caissons, and can be pumped out in abont 4 hours. There is a pair of
shears, capable of lifting 50 tons, on the jetty alongside which vessels can
lie at all times of tide.

Both A and B are, as regards capacity but not depth oyer sill, the largest
docks in Chin% and are fitted with every appliance in the way of caissons,
powerful steam pumps, &c. to ensure safety and despatch in the work.

Dock C is also fitted with caisson and steam pumps. Docks D and E
are mud docks, available for small vessels at tery low rates.

The workshops on the above premises, as regards repairs of ships and
steam machinery, boiler, and blacksmith's work, and supervision of ex-
perienced Europeans, are equal to those of Hong Kong, as described on
page 78.

The four docks of the Union Company are pumped out in 5 hours, and
capable of taking in vessels drawing 15^ feet at spring tides. They also
have workshops comprising the difierent departments of the shipwright,
blacksmith, boiler maker, and foundry, and all other necessary appliances
for repairs of ships, steamers, and steam machinery under experienced
Europeans; also ships' stores. They have a jetty with powerful lifting
shears, alongade of which vessels can lie to take out masts, boilers, &c. and
a steam tag to tow them to the docks free of charge, and back or to sea at
reduced rates.

BIBBCTZOV8 for prooeediBflT to WVAMVOA-^Having entered Canton
river by the Boca Tigris, be careful when approaching Duff rock not to
bring Sam-pan-chau to touch the east end of North Wantong, until the high
land of Geefu island is shut in with the western part of Tiger island. , In
passing through the channel between the latter island and Towling flat,
observe that Tomb point, on Chuen-pee island, kept well open of Anung-
hoy north fort, will lead westward of the western edge of the flat ; and the

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102 THE OANTOK BIVEB. [obcip.ii.^

eastern end of North Wantong kept open of Tiger island fort will lead
north-east of Bate rock. With a working wind, a vessel of lafgfe dranghlr
had better back and fill through this channel, as the tides in it are strong.
After passing Tiger island keep the watch tower on Chuen-pee fort
open of Anvng-hoy north fort, until Bower point., th^ efkst .^^eme
of Ty-cock-tau, is in line with the eastern side ot Tiger .i^lafid; then
steer up the river with this latter mark on, and it will lead in the deepest
part of the channel, but nearest to Towling island, in.7,.or B.fiaihoms:
water. When the remarkable high part of Greefu is on with thd highest,
land to the westward, or bearing S.W., keep more eastward, and open
Bower point again. Thence steer to the northward, pasii' on eilher side
of the Smdl bar, esnd attend to the soundings on the chart.

The two Fairway marks for crossing the Second bar are given in
page 98 ; but the services of a pilot are here indispensable to a vessel of
20 feet draught, unless the channel be previously buoyed ; for the knolls
or shoal patches being formed of sand and gravel mixed with mud, are
subject to alter in position by the fireshes of the river and the spring
tides, which also render the navigable channel changeable. A pilot can
be obtained from amongst the fishermen on the spot, who then buoy the
channel with their sampans, but sufficient time should be given them to

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