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Macsrira islande into the Broadway. On reaehing Hok-tan point, at the
entrance of Nemesis channel, Tei-y6t-kok» a field battery reeently con-
stmcted of 14 guns, was seen strongly posted on a rising ground on the
left bank of the river (surrounded by overflowed paddy fields), which
enfiladed the whole line of the reach leading to it. On entering the reach
ihey observed on the right bank a new battery, scarcely finished, with ten
embrasures, but without guns, and Hok-kang fort dose to it, well built of
granite, surrounded by a wet ditch, and mounting 14 guns and 6 gingalls.
Abreast of these (which they flanked) the river wtfs strongly staked
across.

The Nemesis having got through the centre passage of the stakes,
which was just wide enough to admit of her passing, arrived at 4 p.m.
off the large provincial town of Heang-shan. The dense population
thickly crowded the banks, boats, junks, housetops, the large pagoda, and
surrounding hills ; both sides of the river were packed with trading craft
of the country, the centre of the river, which is very narrow, having
merely suflicient space to allow the steamer's paddle-boxes to pass clear
of the junks moored to its banks. At 6 p.m. the steamer passed on into
a narrow shallow channel, scarcely more than the breadth of a canal,
where she anchored head and stern for the night. At daylight on the
14th, weighed and proceeded up the river in the steamer's draught of
water, and not broader than her own length, grounding occasionally on
both sides ; at 7h. 50m. arrived at the large village of Hong-hau, with a
fort of the same name at the upper part, which flanked a strong and broad
line of stakes 20 feet wide, completely across the river, filled up in the
centre by large sunken junks laden with stones. After making good her
passage through the stakes, which was effected after 4 hours' incessant
labour, she arrived at 4 p.m. off a military station, where she anchored for
the nighU

At daylight on the 15th, the steamer continued her course upwards,
and at 7h. 30m. arrived off the large village of Tam-chau. On moving
up to TegneU, a large town on the left bank of the river, three forts were
passed, all dismantled and abandoned, and on proceeding up to Whampoa
three more dismantled forts were observed. At 4 p.m. the Nemesis came
to in that anchorage, having in conjunction with the boats destroyed five
forts, one battery, two military stations, and nine war junks.'*

juirx F&BBT nrTmiurcB.— All the banks at the entrance of the
channels, between Cum-sing-mun and Lankeet island, are cleared to
the eastward in 14 feet by keeping the northern and highest peak of
Kee-ow island west of S. by W. ^ W., and the summit of Lankeet west of
N.byW.^W.



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112 WESTEBN BEAKCHES 07 CANTON BIYEB. [cujj^.il

The Jank Fleet entrance has 15 feet in it Steer in witib Crag island
bearing N.W. by W., until the highest peak of Kee-ow is S.^W. ; then
steer N.W. by N. until Cone island summit 'is just coming on with south
end of Off isUnd, W. | N., and Flat island with east side of Mud island,
when steer N.W. ^ W. to pass about 3 cables off Crag island. From this
the course into the Wang-mun is W.|S. 3 miles, and then W.^S.
3| miles to the branching off of the various channels ; the mud banks on
both sides are steep-to, but the south was the most to be avoided some
years ago as it was then being reclaimed; beyond this the chart is a
sufficient guide.

TAM-OMAV amJkMMwau* — ^Entering this channel, from off Crag island
steer N.W. 2| milcfs, until the summit of Off island is on with the south-
west point of Crag island^ which mark clears the spit formed between
this and the Wang-mun in 9 feet, — 10 feet being the greatest depth
across the channel at this point ; steer up with the above mark until the
chart is the best guide. The mud bank on the north-east side of this
channel is steep-to, and should be avoided, as it is being reclaimed. If
wishing to proceed by the channel to the northward of the mud bank,
from 3 cables off Crag island steer If miles, with the eastern ends of Crag
and Cone islands in line, then N.W. 6 miles will place the vessel well in
the Tam-chau channel ; or if wishing to proceed to the eastward through
the Swatchway, which has 6 feet in it, having run If miles on the above
line, steer E.fN., feeling the way with the lead, altering course to the
northward until Cone island summit bears S.W., when steer N.E. into the
Lankeet entrance.

The mud flats that are being reclaimed have stone groynes thrown
across them, the outer extremes of which are at the edge of the deep
water, and being covered except at low water, are dangerous to naviga-
tion ; they are generally marked with bamboos, with the leaves left on the
upper ends, which when withering, look like yellow flags.

Tbe Tam-Cban Cliaanel is the largest stream in the delta, and die -
charges itself into the estuary of the Canton river about mid-way
between Lankeet and Cum-sing-mun. The rocky hummock, 50 feet
high, opposite Saiwan is an excellent guide into it from the Saiwan
channel, the second turning to the southward being taken ; the flrst
turning being into McCleverty channel, which is very narrow in sontie
parts, but a good gunboat passage, carrying 6 to 26 feet water.

JUksnLBMT nTRAVca, with 17 feet in it at low water, is entered
with highest peak of Ty-cock-tau just open of the south-west extreme of
Lankeet N.W. % N. This mark leads westward of Lankeet spit ; but on
nearing Lankeet give it a berth of 3 cables to avoid the rocks extending



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CHAP. II.] CANTON RIVER TO SAMSHUI* 113

•S.S.W. 1^ cables from its south-west point. Having passed Lankeet,
steer N.W.byN., until its peak bears S.E.^E«; then steer up for
Black point, which may be passed at any convenient distance, llie
lead will be a guide to avoid the bank which extends from Lankeet to
Ty-cock-tau ; but the bank in the middle of the channel has but 6 feet
on it, and is steep-to. There is a deep water channel on the south-west
Bide of this middle bank, but as there are no leading marks it had better
not be used. Having passed Black point, the vessel will be fairly in the
liver, and the chart will be a sufficient guide.

CAVTOir to SABK-8BUZ.* — The Haughty, Forester, Staunch, Starling,
Watchful^ Clown, Kestrel, Woodcock, and Janus gun vessels under the
eommand of Capt. J. J. M*Cleverty, C.B., left the anchorage off Canton,
16th February, and proceeding down the river entered the Saiwan
<;hannel by Hills passage, which passes directly east of the Second Bar
and Si-chi-tau hills. These passages meet at Forbes point, whence the
Saiwan channel falls into the Canton river by three outlets, the one
passing north of Whitcomb island (which is flat) being the best channel.
A spit firtretches half a mile off Forbes point to the south-east, on the
tail of which are only 6 feet.

SiLUBT'Ajr CBAinrBK is easily navigated for 10 miles until nearing the
town of Saiwan, which may be known by its pagodas, where the stream
•divides, into two channels roimd Saiwan bank, a large middle ground of
hard sand and rock, on which several of the vessels grounded both going
tind returning. There is a rock awash on its eastern extremity, which
is in mid-stream.

Saiwan bank extends about \^ miles from the east point of an island
-which divides the stream above Saiwan. It will be avoided by keeping
the south shore of the river aboard in approaching Saiwan, and hauling
•close round the first point westward of the Ty-cock-tau channel. From
the north side, off Saiwan, the bank itself may be crossed in 6 or 7 feet
at low water with the hummock 50 feet high on the opposite shore
l>earing S. \ W. Eastward of Saiwan, the Mount and Ty-cock-tau channels
lead out io the westward of Ty-cock-tau and Lankeet.

Vi&x-Ziinro CBAmrsK. — At 5 miles down the Tam-chau passage, the
squadron turned abruptly to the westward round a sharp point (Bullock
point, off which a spit extends 3 cables) into the Tai-lung channel.

Tal-lunff RoeiM. — ^After proceeding 3 miles by a broad channel an
obstruction was found in a bed of rocks which bar the river at the
western point of Brine island, which is flat, with Tai-lung pagoda bearing
K.by W. \ W. A passage having 6 to 8 feet at low water runs close to

* Xiieatenant C. J. Bullock, H.M. surveying vessel Dove^ Fobvai:/ 1359.
30251. H



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114 WESTERN BBAXCHES OP CANTON BIVER, [cmjp.n.

the bank nortli of these rocks which hare about 4 feet water on them, and
lie abreast the entrance of a small creek with numerous trees growing on
its bank, the only ones in eight for some distance, and form a first-rate
mark for the yicinitj of these dangers.* This passage, which is about
50 yards wide, the junks use.

Between these rocks and Brine island is a 12-feet passage, very narrow
and difficult, and made more so by the chow-chow water. There is deeper
water in the narrow channel south of Brine island, but the banks of the
island must be kept aboard to avcnd the Tonze rock off the spur of Single-
tree hill on the south shore, and another on the same shore abreast the
entrance of a cutting through the island* In this cutting are 3 to 4
fEUhoms, but it is very narrow at its nortib end, where the Woodcock rock
(dry at low water) lies nearly mid-K^hannel ; pass west of this rock.

cnowB mooka. — About 2 miles above the Tai-lung rocks^ on passing the
mouth of the large branch towards Shuntuk, keep over to the north shore
to ayoid a bed of rocks on which are only 3 feet at low water, lying rather
soath of mid-channel ; they are connected with the south shore about
d cables above the point. To the south is the large town of Yunki^ and
in front of it on the bank is a small fort commanding, the Shuntuk branch.
A mile up the latter branch on the east bank near a amall fort* is a
landing place, from which a road, 6 feet wide^ paved with flag stones,
leads to the walled town of Tai-Iung or Shuntuk. The inhabitants of this
town and district have always been ill disposed to foreigners, on which
account a military demonstration was made on the return voyage bj
marching troops through the town.

At 3 miles west of Yunki, the river trends to the south, the channel
being very narrow, and after a sharp turn to the east suddenly emerges
into Yellow channel, a broad reach, the connecting link of five channels.

xa&H CKAinraXi flows from the .north end of the Yellow channel
tu the south-east, leading directly to the sea by the Wang-mun. There
are two dangers in this channel about 3 miles below Yellow channel and
1^ miles below the entrance of the Yunki junction, where the channel will
be perceived to split round a low island, 4 cables north of which, and
stretching half way across the river from the east bank, is the Hand
rock of only 5 feet water. After passing this, the north point of tbe
island must be steered for, passing close to the westward of it, to avoid
the Mohr rock, of only 4 feet water^ lying W. by N. a cable from the
point and rather nearer the west bank. Thence a run of 4| miles brin^
to the entrance of the Wan-tung junction with the Tam-chau passage.
This junction, which is clear and has not less than 7 or 8 feet water.



^ Cruise of the Whanq)oa steamer, November 1862.



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CttAp. n,] CANTON RIVEB TO SAHSHUI. 115

nms up towards a range 370 feet high, under which stands the town of
Whampoa. The Ynnki junction has only 6 feet at two places, but saves
a distance of 3^ miles in proceeding to the south-east ; near the Tam-
cfaau passage it divides into two streams, the northern of which must be
taken.

8AZ&AMC CBAVSTBA, flowing from the south end of Yellow chann^
also gains the Wang-mun by a course of 19 miles (equal in length to the
Kerr channel). It has two bars of 6 feet water at one and 4 miles
respectively from Yellow channel, and which are above and below the
town of Sailam, to the north of which this channel passes.

jujicriov CBAjnrxxi joins all these passages with the Si kiang. It
is the northern of two, divided by a flat island, the sonihem, Jtinetion
bend, being longer and shoaler.

Vorester mockd— Proceeding to the westward by this channel, as soon
as tbe western end of Junction bend opens, hug the north bank to avoid
the Forester rock, awash at low water, with 5 to 7 fath^)ms on either side.
The best guide for its position is the commencement of some rocky hills
which abut on the north bank of the river, and abreast which it lies ; it
can be passed on either side, but it will be better to take the north side,
as the channel is wider. -

BCaiininsr Bar. — Opposite the lime-burnings village of Mahning, under
the western part of these hills, is a low island with long spits from either
end. The channel lies north of it, and continues close along the northern
bank for a mile, where th^e is a bar 6 or 7 feet at low water, the river
being very shallow right across. This also lies 2 miles east of the
Fist cliffs, which mark the entrance of the Junction channel from the
Si kiang.

8.ai»-SBVZ to FAV-sBAsr and CABTOST. — The Fat-shan branch,
which is the direct channel between these places, is said not to be navigable
by vessels drawing more than 4 feet water ; there has been, however, no
means of verifying this report. About 2 miles below or eastward of Sam-
shui, on this branch, stands the flourishing commercial town of Sai-nam
(Hsi-nam^, which probably might easily be reached by small river steamers.
The rise and fall of tide here appears to be 5 or 6 feet.

CAVTZOB', — The above directions have regard to the state of the river
in the years 1857-59, and it is more than probable that many alterations
have taken place since that date, especially at the mouths of those branches
and creeks which fall into the estuary or lower parts of the Canton river.



H 2



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116 THE SI KIANG OE WEST BIVEB. [chap.ii.

THE SI KIANG OR WEST RIVER.

The Si kiang or West river, also called the Blue river, is 500 miles in
length from itssom-ce to its moath which is 9 miles S.S.W. of Macao, and
it receives in its coarse some large tributaries, and with them drains the
entire province of Kwang-si. At Sam-shui^ 75 miles from the sea, where its
course turns from east to south, it receives the waters of the Peh-kiang or
North river which rises in the northern part of the province of Kwang-
tung. From the North river, and from the West river below Sam shui,
are several communications with Fat-shan, Canton, and other parts of the
Canton river, which are described in page 113.

BBOASWAT to flAM-SHVZ.* — From the Broadwaj (page 58) the
Si kiang is entered by the Moto Mun (or Moto mouth) which is bounded
on either side by high hills. Its general course is to the N.N.W. to its
junction with the North river. At five miles within the Moto Mun, on the
left bank, is the entrance of a narrow creek through which the steamer
Nemesis passed into Canton river in 1841 {see page 1 10). At 9 miles above
the north point of Creeper island, on the right bank, is a large branch,
leading to the district town of Sun-wei, the position of which is marked
by a conspicuous pagoda on a hill; at this part of the Si kiang the
pagodas of Liau-si-wan are remarkable on the left bank, and in the
distance to the northward, the conspicuous hill pagoda of Tai-lung.

At 5 miles above the Sun-wei branch is the entrance to the Kong-mun
channel, which runs South 1^ miles, then S.S.E. 1^ miles to the mouth
of a narrow creek leading to Kong-n^un, in which lie many junks.
The nearest distance the gun vessels could get to the fort commanding
this creek was 2,100 yards.

At 3 miles above the Kong-mun entrance, and near mid-channel is
Plover island, about 40 feet high ; the squadron passed eastward of it.
At 7 miles above Plover is Staunch island, which is small and low, with
rocks off its extremes in the direction of the stream ; just above Staunch
on the left bank is Junction channel, {see page 115) leading to Canton
river. North of this, a mile, is Soames fort, so named from the com-
mander of one of the P. and O. Company's ships, who navigated the river
to this point. Above this fort, on the left bank, is the town of Kum-chuk,
2 miles above which, in the centre of the river, is Opossum island, which

* From remarks by J. H. Kerr, Master, R.N., Assistant Surveyor, H.M.S. Actceon
during the cruiae of H.M. gun vessels Opossum, Staunch, Plover, with the boats of Sybille
and Tribune, under Commodore the Hon. C. Elliott, R.N., C.B., October 1857. See
Admiralty Charts : — General Chart of Canton and Si kiang rivers, and adjacent
country, No. 2,662, scale, m»0*46 of an inch; and the Si kiang or West river,
Sheets 1, a, and 9, Noi. 2,733, 2,734, 2,735 ; scales, m=:0-72 of an inch.



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CHAP. II.] THE BROADWAY TO SAHSHUI. 117

has two summits and makes like a saddle. Pass north of it, abreast the
town of Kow-kong, which with Kmn-chuk are important at the centres of
a giieat silk producing district.

From Opossum island the river has two channels, one on either side of
two low flat islands, the united length of which is 4 miles ; both these
channels were used by the squadron, one going up the nver, the other
returning, but on both occasions thej passed north of Opossum. The
east channel leads past the large town of Sam-chau ; the west channel
up to the town of Ku-lo-wa^ between which and Sam-chau is a ferry. In
the west channel, 1^ miles aboye Opossum island, is a small creek,
having a pagoda on its right bank, and what appeared to be a fort on
its left.

Three miles abovo Ku-lo-wa* is a seven-storied pagoda on a low hill
close to the right bank of the river, and at half that distance on the left
bank is a pagoda on the low land. Above the seven-storied pagoda was
the appearance of two channels ; the east one, 4|^ miles long, was used
bj the squadron, keeping near the left bank when off the north end of
the island separating the channels. At the north end of the wedt channel,f
on the right bank, is a pagoda. At 12\ miles above the seven-storied
pagoda is Campbell island, which is about 40 feet high and rocky ; the
squadron passed east of it. Here the river narrows considerably.

Just abreast Campbell island on the right bank is a creek, on the north
side of entrance to which is a patch of rock, probably covered at high
tide. A pagoda stands on the summit of a low cliff, south of the entrance.
On the right bank, 3 miles above Campbell island, is a pagoda ; and at
6 miles, the junction of the Peh kiang or North river, in the embou-
chure of which lie two flat islands forming three passages, the two
western of which have not been explored. The eastern, Sam-shui reach,
is a narrow channel which runs direct to Sam-shui, and joins a stream
running almost direct to Fat-shan, page 115. Sam-shui is a walled town
standing a mile inland at the north-eastern angle of the junction, and
fronting it to the south-east is a nine-storied pagoda.

The country between Soames fort and Sam-shui is a silk district.
The least depth passed over by the squadron between Creeper island
and Sam-shui was 6 feet at low water (or 12 feet at high water), which
was just below the entrance of the Kong-mun channel ; but as they did
not search for thfe deepest channel, there, is doubtless deeper water to be
obtained.



* Off Ku-lo-wa there is a considerable ledge of rocks, about one foot above water
extending some distance into the stream. — Cruize of the Whampoa steamer, November
1862.

t This west channel did not appeai; to be navigable, a sand-spit from the south bank
numing well across its mouth. — Ibid,



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118 THE SI KIAKa OK WEST EIYEB. [ohaf. n.



wmut to flXV-Hnro wikmrn.* — ^Proceeding from the Sam-shui
juuction, pass mid-channel through New reach (where there lies a ilat island
having a large white fort at its upper extremity), then keep along the
north shore of Kwang-Ii reach, taking the north channel of the riVcr,
whidh splits round a richly cultivated island. The South channelia
full of shoals, and a long spit runs out from either end of Ewang-li island ;
this channel was re-examined, and still found very shallow, by a party
who made a trip to Wu-chu in the Whampoa steamer in November 1852,
an account of which was published in the China Mail ; they found the
rhrer generally deeper thafi the charts give,^ but the water would probably
be at a higher level in November than in February, when it is remarkable
for its clearness, from which it has derived the name of Blue river. ' ' *

WTMMT BAm. — ^Proceeding by this north channel (Kwang-li bend),
which is deep, after passing the village of Ewang-li, keep the north banic
, aboard but not very close. When clear of the island, the First bar is met,
where the river is very broad abreast the town of Tau-kai. Not more
than 2 fathoms were found here at two places, but in November 1862
there were 2| fathoms. This is 75 miles from the sea.

. msumMMMa VAS8.— Four miles above Kwang-li is the entrance of a fine
pass, the river flowing amongst mountain ranges, which rise to the hejlglit
of 2,000 or 3,000 feet. This pass, called the Siu-hing-hc^, is Z^ miles in
length, and nearly straight, and in its narrowest part from 200 to 300
yards wide ; the water is deep, but its depth was not ascertained.

•SAO-Koro, (or Siu-hing) a waUed city of the second class, witih aa
ezienaive suburb lying to the westward, stands on the left or north bank
of the river, 20 miles above, the 8am-shui junction, and 6 miles above the
pasBy in latitude, by observation, 23^03^^., and longitude, by roug^ijom-
putation, 1 13° 03' E. The river here is 6 to 7^ caWes wide, with a depth
of 5 to 6 &thoms along the north shoi:e,

HDas.— The tidal influence was felt at Shao-king, there being a rise
and fall of 3 feet or more in February^ but the stream, though completely
checked, never turned.

flBAO-Kziro to -wir-cBV Fir.— For 22 miles above Shao-king the
river winds through a hilly country, opening out again near Narrow
island, which appears in the centre of the river, but is joined by sand-
banks to the north bank. The sands off this island are said to have



* Sam-shni to Wtioha-fti is from the survey and remarks of Lieutenant Chas. Bnlloek,
B.N., in 1867. See Admiralty Chart of Si-kiang, Sheet ii.

t The soundings of the Chart are reduced to the lerel of February 1858 which is
oonsidered to be the lowest state of the river. See also "Tides and Cttirents/' on
page 120.



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<«AP. n.] SAMSHTJI TO BTLLO-KISQ AM) WU-OHU FU. 110

increased^ it is therefore advisable to keep over near Tree head on the
tsonth bank. The hills, varying from 100 to 1,500 feet in height, are
in general densely wooded, and laany of them are highly cultivated.
Occasional ragged hills of marble are seen, one of which, of most
picturesque form, crops out on the north bank of the river, and is called
Kai-yak-kwan, or the Cock's comb, which it strikingly resembles. There
is also a group inland 2 miles north of Shao-king, to which the name of
the Seven Stars is given^ after the constellation of the Great Bear.

From Kai-yik-kwan* (30 miles above Shao-king), by an easy navigation
of IG miles, the walled city of Tak-hing is reached, a thriving, prosperous
place; and 3 miles above it the river takes a short shajrp twist, romid
Steep point on the south shores, which must be closely and oarafidly
passed to avoid the Flat rocks in the northern and central parts of ih6
river, and the chow-chow water, which is liable to turn a vesseSl's head
against her helm. Between thiis and Tai-lik-hau the water is said to be
deeper tlian marked on the chart.

At 50 miles above Shao-king, and on the left or north bank of the riveri
a single mass of granite (in the form of a thumb) rises perpendicularly
some 300 feet out of a range of hills of 1,400 feet elevation. Its local
name is Kum-kwoh-shek, but it is also called Fa-pew, or the Flowery
tablet, and is the most remarkable object in the river. After passing
this, the navigation becomes dangerous, as the river bed is studded with
rocks.

The Fapew rocks lie in the river south-west of the Flowery tablet, and
to avoid them the south shore must be kept aboard. At the first bend
above this, Fairies' bridge reef is said to ertend two-thirds across the
river &om the point on the eaat bank which lies opposite the village of
Taching. After passmg Tu-lok-heu, 3 miles above on the eastern shorey
closely, to avoid the end of Tulok spit &'om the opposite shore, the west
bank of the river should be. closed, and when passing the Bed hills,



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