Great Britain. Hydrographic Office.

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fathoms water render the navigation awkward in the dark. There is
anchorage in south-west winds to the westward of South Gaa island, in 8
or 9 fathoms.



i- — In Tide cove, at the south-west part of Mirs bay, it is high
water, full and change, at lOh. Om., springs rise about 6^ feet ; but during
neaps the wuter remains nearly at the same level.

Off Mirs point in April, two days after change of moon, the ebb made
E. by N., the greatest velocity being 0*3 of a knot. With the flood there
is a great indraught into Mirs bay and Rocky harbour, which must be
guarded against in shaping a course from the Tuni-ang group to pass
outside the Ninepin group.

On full and change in May, the flood inside the Ninepin group ran S.E.,
and the ebb S.W., the former 0-3 of a knot, the latter half a knot. In
March, the moon being 19 days old, the ebb ran to the S.W. 2 knots, or
9 miles in the whole tide.



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cBUP.m] MIKS BAT — TUNI-ANG GEOUP. 129



BZSSCTZOVS. — ^As the ebb stream runs to the southward along the
western shore at entrance of Mirs baj^ a vessel working to windward
with a S.W. wind, will get to the westward speedily by keeping near
the land, passing between the Ninepin group and Tamtu ; but as soon
as the Lema channel opens out she will meet with a strong set to the
eastward.

During August and part of September, if a vessel is eastward of the
Lema islands, she will find it difficult to proceed along shore to the
westward if the wind is from that quarter ; she ought therefore either to
jstand off to the southward for two or three days, if near full and change
of moon, when bad weather may be apprehended, or anchor in Mirs or
Hiariem bay for an easterly wind, which in these months usually happens
every few days, dose in with the coast.

Tmn-AXO GSOVP. — From Mirs point, the south coast of the peninsula
separating Mirs and Bias bays trends N.E. by E. 8 miles to Teyih point ;
and between are two sandy bays, off the westernmost of which, 4 cables
from the shore, is Coast islet, having 4 fathoms water between it and the
land. Six miles eastward of Mirs point, fronting this peninsula, is the
Tuni-ang group, consisting of eight islets, including Single island and
Acong rock.

Xoni-angr, the northernmost and largest islet, is 5 miles in circumference,
and its summit rises like a cone to the height of 960 feet ; off its western
end are two islets ; Net island, the nearest, is sugar-loaf shaped, and at
low tide there is but a foot water between it and Tuni-ang.

PmUk Sockf lying a quarter of a mile westward of Net island, with
4 and 5 fathoms water between, appears like two islets with a shingle
beach connecting them. N.W. J W., 4 cables from Peak rock, is a ledge
of rocks, the northern edge of which is always visible ; and between them
is a reef which breaks at low water.

Immediately southward of Tuni-ang island are three islets, called by the
Chinese Samun (or three passages), whidh form a good harbour, named
Samun road, sheltered from all winds, except those from "W.N.W,, west-
ward to S.W. by S.

Btunnn, the southern islet, is 3 miles in circumference, and distant one
mile from Tuni-ang ; the channel between it and Cone islet to the north-
ward is not quite 2 cables wide, with 9 and 10 fathoms water. The
passage between Cone and Tuni-ang is the same breadth, but crooked,
and has but 2^ fathoms water.

single Island, 200 feet high, is even-topped, and lies S.S.E. If miles
from Samun island.

Aconpr is a remarkable pyramid rock lying 6 cables N.E. of Single
island, with 15 fathoms water between them. N.N.E, J E. about a mile
80251. X



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180 HONG KONG TO AMOT. [chap. ni.

from AcoQg, is a rock with 16 feet over it, on which bearing it is on with
the south-east point of Single island. When on this rock, which rises
so abmptlj that there was great difficnlty in finding it, Cone islet
bore N.W. by W. | W., and was in line with a remarkable gap in
Tuni-ang.

A«OKOmAaa«— 'In the N.E. monsoon the trading junks anchor in 9
ikthoms southward of Net island and Peaked rock, and abreast a fort on
Tuni-ang ; bat the ground Is foul within 2 cables of the fort point. The
best anchorage is off the south-west point of Cone islet in 7 and 8 fathoms.
During the prevalence of south-westerly winds there is anchorage, in
9 and 10 fathoms, abreast a bay on the north-east side of Tuni-ang.

lim]>Ui SOCKS. — ^N.E. ^ E. from the sunmiit of Tuni-ang is the
Middle Bock, just awash at high water. From it Acong rock bears
S. f W. ; Bate island, off the east point of Bias bay, N.N.E. ; and Lokaup
island N.W. by N. 4 miles. Three cables south-west of this rock is a reef
which breaks only at lour water, and from which the east end of Cake islet
(on east side of Lokaup) is in line with the Pillars, W. by W. | W.

The channel between Tuni-ang island and Teyih point, the west point
of entrance to Bias bay, is 1^ miles wide ; both shores are steep-to, with
the exception of the reef already mentioned, lying off Peak rock near the
north-west point of Tuni-ang, and a rocky ledge extending south-westerly
fit>m the first point East of a remarkable white rock on the north shoi*e.
The hills on this side attain an elevation of 2,600 and 2,800 feet.

BZAft BAT,* a capacious and deep inlet similar to Mirs bay, has a
ch&in of islands fronting its western shore, which is indented by two
large bays, at the head of the principal of which is Typung harbour.

Typnng barboar, SO named from the walled town of Typung on its
northern shore, although contracted is capable of affording good shelter for
moderate-sized vessels, except with easterly winds, when the anchorage
under Lokaup island should be preferred. On the northern side of tbe
harbour is a smooth conical hiU, off which a shoal commences extending
half a mile from the shore ; the southern side, which is bold-to, must
therefore be kept aboard. Vessels drawing more than 15 feet should not
proceed farther westT^ard than the third point on the south side^ as the
bottom of the harbour is shoaJ.

BumbeU bay, the next inlet northward of Typung harbour, runs back
westerly 6 miles from Big island, and carries a general depth of about
3 fathoms.

* The central part of the bay is often thickly studded with strong-fishing stakes con-
nected with stout rope gear, which fdrm a serions obstacle to navigation by night. As
they are placed in a depth of not less than 6 fathoms, a clear passage is found on the east
side of the bay.



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.m] BIAS BAY* 181

x>aB-io-kons^ Harbour, m the north-eastern part of Bias baj, has an
entrance 1^ miles wide, with a depth in mid-channel of 4 fiithoms.
At 4 miles north-east of Tsang-chau island the soundings decrease to

3 fathoms, and thence shoal water extends 2 miles farther to the head of
tlie Ixarboor. The village 6f Fan-lo-kong is on the northern shore. This
will probably be found the best anchorage in Bias bay in a typhoon.

Pasroda Island, laying 3 cables from the northern shore of the bay, with
a depth of 9 feet inside of it, bears from Tsang-chau N.W. by W. J W.

4 miles, the soundings varying from 4| to 2\ fathoms between them. The
water shoals towards Pagoda island, and W.S.W. 3 cables of it are some
Tocks.

IbOXJLTTV xs&Avn, the southern' of the chain of islands in Bias bay,

has off its south end some pyramidal rocks. It bears N. by E. 6 miles

from Tuni-ang, and the channel between it and the west entrance point of

the \)ay is 3 miles wide, with a depth of 9 fathoms. The island is about 2

miles long, and nearly separated in two places ; the highest part, 330 feet

' above the sea, is near the south end. There is anchorage on either side

of it, according to the prevailing winds.

There are six islets around Lokaup, three on the west, two on the north,

* and one on the east side. The north islet, the Pillars, is remarkable from

the two square pillars on its south side ; there is a reef off the west end

I of the islet south of the Pillars.



»s&B OBOirp^ — ^About a mile northward of the Pillars is Middle
group, connsting of six islets. Green island, 264 feet high, the southern-
most, has an islet off its west end; and at three-quarters of a mile
northward of it is Reef islet, to the S.E. of which is a reef that breaks at
low water ,* the centre of this reef bears N. by E, f £. from Green
island, and S.S.E. | E. from the summit of Eeef islet. There is also
another rock, awash at low water, lying North 3 cables from Beef islet,
and W. % N. from the summit of Red islet; and there is another
N. i W. li miles from Reef islet, and N.W. i N. from Red islet.

XLaHBOUS Gxovp, Consisting of nine islets, is not quite a mile north-
ward of Middle group. The southernmost are two small islets, the Twins,
to the N.E, of which, at 2 cables is Shoal island, having rocky ground
extending north-westerly 3 cables from it, on some parts of which are only
3 feet water. At a quarter of a mile westward of the Twins is Tree-a-top
islet, and westward of it, half a mile, is a Sugar Loaf shaped island.
Shoal island is separated from Narrow island by a channel 3^ cables wide ;
should it be used, the shore of the ktter must be kept aboard to avoid the
shoal just mentioned. Narrow island is three-quarters of a mile long,
north and south, and 2 cables wide. Round island lies rather more than

I 2



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182 HONG KONG TO AMOY. [chap. m.

2 cables northward of Narrow island, with a depth of 5 and 6 fathoms
between them ; to the northward of it 2 cables lies a flat rock nearly
awash and steep-to. N. bj W. 6 cables from Round island is Cone islet,
a conical rock surrounded bj reefs; vessels wishing to anchor to the
westward of Narrow island wiU find this channel, or that between Tree-
a-top islet and Sugar Loaf island, the best to enter by.

Sir isiaad. — To the westward of Sugar Loaf is Big island, off the north
face of which is a small islet, and further north a flat rock, with a reef,
which shows only at low water ; when upon this reef the highest part of.
Narrow island bears S.E. by E., and Nobby reef N.E. by E. To the
N.W. of Big island, 4 cables, is Sand patch, a low rock surrounded by
sand ; between it and the island are 3^ fathoms water. There is nlso a
rock awash at high water on the south side of Big island.

The passage to the westward, between Big island and the main, is three-
quarters of a mile wide, but a reef lies nearly in mid-channel and only
shows at half tide ; it bears W. by S. J S. from Sugar Loaf, and N.W. by N.
from Green island.

MiAB PQZWT, the east entrance point of Bias bay, is fronted by rocks
to nearly a mile, between which and the land the channel is unsafe, but
the passage between them, and the rock lying off the south-east end of
Bate island may be used, being 8 cables wide, with a depth inside of 4^
and 5 fathoms.

Sate isiaad is 8 cables long, north and south, and half a mile wide ;
besides the rock off its south-east end, there is another awash at high
water, lying N.N.E. 6 cables from its north end, with the south point of
Lokaup S.W. by W. J W., and the rock off the south-east end of Bate
island S. by E.

Triple Island. — ^From Bias point the eastern coast of the bay trends
northerly 8^ miles to Tsang-chau island. There is anchorage in the N.C
monsoon between Bate and Triple island, lying 2{ miles to the northward.
The channel between Triple and the main is 6 cables wide, with a depth
of 3 fathoms ; but a cable eastward of the island is a small rock nearly
awash.

Tsangr-ciiaii is a low flat islet with a smaller one S.E. of it, lying 6
miles northward of Triple. The passage between it and the main land
is a mile wide, with 2 fathoms water ; but rocks extend off both shores.

MBVBOZA zs&AVD, 480 feet high, and 2f miles in circumference,
beaps S.E. by E. J E. 7^ miles from Bate island, and a vessel will find
shelter from a S.W. wind on its northern side. Off its western side is a
small islet separated by a channel a cable wide, and of 9 feet water.

Tslncoe island, 167 feet high, lies 6 cables northward of Mendoza, with
11 fathoms water between ; near its centre is a remarkable cleft.



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CHAP.in.] BIAS BAY — HABXEM BAY. 188



NJE). by E., 3f miles from Mendoza, is the sonth
extreme of a promontory connected to the main by a low sandy isthmns ;
the land near the point is high, and has the appearance of an island when
viewed eastward or westward. On the summit of the Fokai hills is an
artificial mound 670 feet above the sesL, and on the hill over the sonth-west
point is a large fort On the east side of the isthmns are three rocky
islets; and E. by N, 8 cables from the northernmost islet, is a reef
showing at low water, from which the east extreme of Fokai point bears
S. by W. ^ W., and the Pauk Piah rock E.S.E. s

BAB&BBK BAT,* formed on the west side of Fokai promontory, affords
secure anchorage in the N.E. monsoon ; but it cannot be considered safe
during a typhoon^ when the winds are liable to shift suddenly to different
points of the compass. A good berth will be found northward of Hebe
islet in any convenient depth of water.

Selie islet, 70 feet high, is flat-topped, and a ledge of rocks, which
covers at high water, extends 3 cables north-eastward of it.
}^ S.W. by W. 3 cables from Hebe islet lies a rocky 3J fathoms patchy
bearing North from Middle rock, and N.W. ^ N. from the west extreme
of Fokai pointf

HiAdie rock lies 6 cables westward of the west extreme of Fokai point,
10 or 12 feet above the sea, which may be passed on either side.

On the western foot of the Fokai hills is a fort, with a tall chimney on
the hill behind it : north of the fort is a creek, which extends northerly
-along the sandy isthmus, and into which junks run at high water.

TZDBB^— It is high water, full and change, at Tuni-ang island (page 129)
at 8h. Om. ; at Tsang-chau in Bias bay at 8h. 30m. ; and at Hebe islet in
Harlem bay (two days before full moon) at lOh. Om. In the month of
April the current in this neighbourhood set constantly to the westward,
its rate increasing upon the flood, but did not exceed a knot. When,
however, the monsoon drift-current recedes from the coast, the tidal
influences prevail, and it is commonly reported that the flood stream sets
westward and ebb eastward, or directly the reverse of their set north of
Breaker point, see p. 144.

SZBSCTZOVS. — ^Bound to Bias bay from the eastward, pass about a
mile westward of Mendoza island, and then steer N.W. by W. for the
opening between Lokaup and Bate islands, the water shoaling from 13 to
10 fathoms over muddy bottom. With a turning wind, when standing



♦ The natives here are not so shy of intercourse as at other places along the coast ;
they will supply fish and vegetables.

t Mr. Henry F. Woods, R.N., Master of H.M.S. Cormorant, found the depth at
4 cables west of Middle rock to he only 5 fathoms, where in 1812 was 10 fiithoms.



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184 HONG KONa TO AMOY. [cHAr.xn.

W6ttwflurd| do not bring Bate island eastward of N* i £., nor Aeong rock
iOttthward of S. by W. ^ W., until Tsinooe idand bears southward of EoBit^
to aToid the Middle rocks. Thence either proceed up the bay to aa*
anclK^age in 6 fatfaoois, about 1^ miles from the eastern shore, 3 milear
no rt hw ar d of Triple island ; or to the southward of Lokaup to an anohoi^age
in the bay, or in T^pung harbour. There are several populous villages oar
flie eattem shore where no doubt refreshments could be obtained.

If bound to Harlem bay, round Fokai point about half a mile off iii IQf
fathoms water, and either haul up between the shore and Middle rock^ or
pass between that rock and Tsinooe island. If the wind be ea^terlyi it
will perhaps be better, if the vessel is of moderate draught, to adopt the
fonner channel, as she will fetch the anchorage without tacking, taking
care to avoid the 8]^&thoms patch south-west of Hebe islet ; but a lazge
ship should pass westward of Middle rock, although she should have to
tack, she will then be far enough from the high land to avoid the varial^le
flaws of wind, and the disagreeable consequences that might arise firom
being baffled in a narrow channeL



%v nruBT. — From Fokai point the coast trends N.E. by N.
12 miles to Boss head, and at the distance of 9 miles is Coast islet,
lying 4 cables off shore. Shoal water, over rocky bottom, extends 6
cables southward of this islet, and here, close to a flat rocky head, is an
opening a cable wide into the extensive inlet of Sam-chau, the channel,
carrying o and 6 fathoms, being close to a narrow cliff on the southern
shore; but in strong easterly winds the sea breaks across it. The
entrance bears W. by N. ^ N. from Si-ting islet, aiyl E. ^ N. from
Harlem peak, which, being 2,070 feet above the sea, forms a con-
spicuous landmark. S.S.W. J W. nearly 2^ miles from Coast islet is a
sunken rock, from which Si-ting bears East nearly 6 miles, and' Harlem
peak N.W. i W.

.Commander P. Cracroft, of H.M.S. Reynard^ who visited this inlet in
chase of pirates, says, ^^ The mouth of the inlet is but little wider than
the breadth of a ship ; there is also an inner bar with an equally narroyr
passage ; and across both these bars the tide runs 6 knots. The deptli
in the channel varies from 6 to 8 fathoms, and deepens to 10 fathoms
above the upper bar, where there is ami)le room for a vessel to swing ;
but such is the intricacy of the navigation that a personal examination
should be made, and the state of the tide carefully ascertained before
attempting the entrance."

VBBSO MMUkXCO sooK, (Ty-sing-cham of the Chinese,) in lat. 22°
18^ N.,long. 115° T E., is about 50 feet high, and when bearing North
appears as two rocks ; the summit is of a white colour. It is bold to



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ctt^y.m.] PEDKO BI4ANOO — ^HONa-HAI BAY. 135

approach; havmg 20 fathoms, close to the southward, and 18 fafthoma to
the northward, decreasing gradually to 13 fathoms in the neighbourhood of
the Pauk Piah rock, which bears from it N.N.W., distant 15 miles.

9AjnL »XAB and HTHAAB SOCKB, — ^The Pauk Piah is a flat rock,
4 feet* above high water, fi*om which the summit of the Fokai hills bears
W. I N. 7 miles.

S. by W. 2\ miles from the Pauk Piah are the two Whale rocks, rising
abruptly from the depth of 12 fathoms, and upon which the sea some-
times breaks. From them, the west extreme of Fokai point is on with
tbe summit of Bate island, W. by N. ^ N«, the summit of Fokai bean
N'.tr. hy W. 1^ W. 7 miles, and the summit of Mendoza, West, a little
northerly.

■nrxro-TZiTG and sx-Tzare are two rocky islets about 50 feet above
the sea, lying S.E. \ S. and N.W. \ N. from each other, 1^ miles
apart; around both are sunken and detached rocks, and the depth of
water in their vicinity is 9 fathoms. From Si-ting the Fokai hills bear
S.W. by W. ^ W. 11 miles, and the Pauk Piah S.S.W. i W. 6f miles.

Snnk and Single rocks. — N.W. by W. 1^ miles from Si-ting is Sunk
rock which often breaks, Hat islet bears from it N.E. ^ E., and Har
lem peak W. § N. Mace point, open North of Hat islet, bearing
about N.E. I E., leads to the northward. There is also Single rock,
which breaks only at low water or when there is a heavy sea, and from
which Si-ting bears S.W. by W. ^ W. ; Tung-ting S. W. by S. ; Hat islet
N. by E. J E. ; and Harlem peak, West, northerly.

Hovo-BAX BAT, about 15 miles north-east of Fokai point, is ex-
tensive, but in the upper part the water shoals to 3 and 4 fathoms, and
is open to S.W. and South winds. There are several islands in the bay,
the largest of which, Hong-hai, is in the middle of it.

Vessels are recommended not to pass westward of Tung-ting and
Si-ting, nor into the north-west part of this bay, as they will find a
heavier sea there than outside ; there is also usually a long ground swell
near Inside island, rendering it advisable not to stand farther in than
Hong-hai island.

nr&ST. — In Hong-hai bay is an inlet, not identified, but probably that
which is 9 miles north-east of Fokai point, which was visited by Captain
P. Cracroft, R.N., H.M.S. Reynard in 1849. Its bar extends nearly across
Ihe entrance, leaving an opening, on the south side, of very little more
than a ship's breadth. There is an inner bar also on the south side,
with an equally narrow passage, hugging a point which resembles ** Devil

^ This rock is at least 24 feet above water. Bemark Book of lieut. and Com.
Geo. Digby Morant, B.N., H.M.S. Grasshopper, 1865.



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136 HONG KONG TO AMOY. [oHAF.nr,

pointy" at the entrance of Hamoaze ; and over these bars the tide sets, at
springs, with the great velocitj of 5 or 6 knots.

The depths in the channel vary from 4 to 8 fathoms, deepening to lO
fathoms above the inner bar, where there is ample room for a ship to swing,
but the navigation is so intricate that a careful examination should be
made before attempting the entrance, and the state of tide correctlj
ascertained.

Bonv-iMi Island, bearing N.E. ^ E. 8 miles from Si-ting^ is half a mile
long, east and west, 3 cables wide, 240 feet high, and has shelter on its
northern side from southerly winds. Two rocks, visible at low water^
lie 3 cables from the shore, S. by E. | E. from its summit, with its south*
west point bearing N.W. by W. f W., and in line with the south end o£
Inside island ; and its east point IN. by W. westerly, and in line with the
highest part of Mace point.

Hat islet is a peaked rock 2^ miles westward of Hong-hal. It is called
by the Chinese Ke«8in-she (fowl's heart), which it more resembles than a
hat ; there are detached rocks about it.

Xnslde Island, 5 miles N.W. of Hong-hai is 460 feet high, a mile long
north and south, and but little more than a cable wide. Three cables off ita
south-west end are some detached rocks ; and in the bays east and west of
it not more than 2^ fathoms will be found at low tide. West, 3 miles
from the island, is the embouchure of a large stream, but with only 6 feet
over the bar at low water.

SHOA& SAT is formed at the head of Hong-hai bay, 3 miles N.N.E. of
Hong-hai island. Its entrance is 2 miles wide, and i^ithin the water
shoals to less than 3 fathoms. In its north-east part is an inlet, with only
6 feet over the bar at low water, which communicates with Hie-che-chin
bay ; by report it is navigable for small boats only.

Three-quarters of a mile eastward of Club point, the east point of
entrance to Shoal bay, is a rocky ledge, part of which is always above
water.



nr&BV, bearing E. | N. 9 miles from Hong-hai island,
has an entrance channel half a mile wide, with 2^ fathoms in it at low
water. The northern shore of the channel is shoal-to, and rather more
than half a mile off the beach are some rocks, which show at low tide>
and from which Ty-sami mound beers S.S.E., and the low conical hill at
the back of the town E. by N. ^ N. Ty-sami mound, 970 feet above the
sea, is an artificial cone on the highest part of the hills near the eastern,
point of Hong-hai bay.*



* See Admiralty Flan of Ty-sami inlet, scale m»l inch on Sheet 2, East Coast of
China.



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CHAP.m.] TY-SAMI INLET — CHELANG POINT. 137

The southern edge of the channel is bordered by a sandbank, which
commences under Tj-sami mound, and extends ]^ miles off shore, until
its north end bears West from Entrance head, where it shoals suddenly
to 3 feet on its edge. The north end of the sandy spit under Entrance
hill (on the south side of entrance), in line with the conical hill at the
back of the town bearing E. f N., will lead into the inlet rather on the
south side of the channel.

Fair anchorage may be found westward of Ty-sami head, with good
shelter in the north-east monsoon; but a long heavy swell rolls in.

T2BSS. — ^In Hong-hai bay it is high water, full and change^ at lOh. Qm.,
rise 6J feet.

OOAT zs&jBjn, lying S.E. 3 miles from Tsiech point, the eastern
outer entrance point of Hbng-hai bay, is the southernmost and largest
of a numerous group, amongst which there are no navigable channels^
S.W. J W. from its summit, and S.S.E. ^ E. from Ty-sami mound, is a
dangerous rock, which shows only when the tide is low and the wind high.
At rather more than a mile inland from the beach northward of Groat
island, is the walled town of Tsieching.

AJrcBORAaE. — There is good anchorage in the N.E. monsoon on the
north-west side of Groat island, which, with the group of islets northward
of it, shelters as well as can be expected from the heavy sea. This road-
stead is very convenient and was always much used by opium vessels^