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which approached as close to the shelving beach as the depth of water
allowed.

SBEF X8UBT8 lie S.E. by E. 3 miles from Gk)at island. The southern
and largest islet has reefs extending a cable in a southerly direction from
its east end. In using the channel between Goat island and these islets,
take care to avoid a sunken rock on which the sea breaks at low water,
bearing E. J N. 1 J miles fi'om the summit of the island, and N.W. | W.
fi miles from the north end of the islets.

Vessels may pass between Eeef islets and Middle reef awash, lying
1^ miles to the northward, the depth being 7 and 8 fathoms ; but bear in
mind that reefs extend rather more than 2 cables northward from the
ialetSy the northern danger bearing W. ^ S. from Chelang point. It wiU
not be prudent to pass in shore of Middle reef.



voni-T, 5 miles E. by N. \ N. from Reef islets, is very
remarkable, of moderate height, composed of red sand, with many ragged
rocks scattered over it. The point has two islets and a reef close off it,
and the depth is 13 fathoms within a mile of the outer islet, which is
80 feet high.



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188 HONG KONG TO AMOY. [ca^p.ffi.

On the western extremity of this headhuid, is a fort, and westward of
the fort a small bay, which affords shelter in the N.E. monsoon;
but & sunken rock| with onlj a foot water over it, lies N.W. bj W« 5^
cables from the fort, with the summit of Chelang point in line with
the southern rock off the fort point S.£. i E., and Fkt rock S. W. i W. .

WUt rook is If miles W. bj N. from Chelang point, and a small sunken
rock lies N.W. of it, and West from the fort. The land on either side of
Chelang point for some distance is of a remarkable red colour with black
mounds.

XXW-TV or Eemsue is a rocky islet, half a mile long N.E. and S,W.,
lying N.E. ^ N. d| miles from Chelang point, and under its highest or
north-east part is a high rock. Its shores are bold-to, but the islet is too
small to afford shelter. The channel between it and Che-chin point is
1^ miles wide, and carries depths of 7 and 8 fathoms ; but off the point is
a large white rock surrounded by reefis.

BZB-CBB-OBZV BAT, formed between Paukshao point on the west, and
Tongmi point on the east, has 7 to 5^ fathoms water at entrance, ahoaJdng
to 3 or 3^ &thoms within a mile of its head, over soft muddy bottom.
It affords shelter from westerly and northerly winds, and from the N.E.
monsoon, but is quite^exposed to the southward and south-east. At the
head of the bay, the land is low with a sandy beach ; the eastern side ot
the bay is high and mountainous. The village of Einsiang stands in the
north-east bight of the bay, immediately under Round hill ; to the north-
ward of Einsiang point are not more than 3 fathoms at low tide. Two
rivers empty themselves at the head of the bay, with bars of less than
9 feet water, and the sea usually breaks across them ; the western river
communicates with Hong-hai bay, and affords a passage for boats and
small junks.

Near Tongmi point is Chino peak, a remarkable conical hill, 455 feet
high, which, with the islets of Tung-ki and Si-ki, render this side of the
bay easy to recognise when well within it. But when in the offing some
have^ in approaching Chino bay, mistaken at first for Chino peak, Round
hill on the northern shore of the bay, which is also a remarkable conical
hill, 1 ,456 feet high. When first seen Round hill rises like an island, and
is a good mark when approaching from the south-westward. The land
about Chino bay, when first made £rom the same direction, appears of a
somewhat uniform height.

Tunv-ki, — Chino peak bears N.W, | N. nearly 2J miles from Tung-ki,
which is 18 feet above thq sea, having some deftached rocks on its eastern
side, and three rocks awash at low water, half a cable from its north-weat
side.



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CBAP.ni,] HCE-CHE-CHIN BAT — TONCh-MI POINT. 189

Bttwonada roek, upon which a steamer of that name strack, Augnst
1$69, lies in nearly mid-channel between Tongmi point and the Tong^
rocks. It consists of two or three pinnacle rocks, with 11 feet on them at
ixfirf Vnikter springs, and 6 or .9 fathoms close to. This dangeroas patch
nee N. by W. f W., 4^ cables from the west extreme of the Tnng-ki rocks-;
Tongmi point bearing N.W. by W. J W., and Si-ki rock S.W. by W.

No indication of these rocks is afforded by discolored water, and it is
recommended that the passage between Tnng«ki rocka and the ^naini^ ^
should tiot be used for the purposes of navigation* A mile North of Tung*
ki, and East three-quarters of a mile from Tongmi point, is a cluster, of
rocks nearly awash.

si-u islet, 80 feet high, rises abruptly and is cleft at the summit ; Tung-
ki bears from it E.N.E. 3 miles, and Chino peak N.N.E. J E. Between
the two islets the soundings are 11 and 12 fathoms.



fv on the western side of Hie-«he-chin bay, a£fords
good shelter, unless the wind comes eastward of South, there being
5 fathoms water with Paukshao point bearing westward of South.
Faukshao point is of moderate height, with numerous rocks scattered
over its surface. The other point to the westward has a high battery
on it ; and between this latter point and the high land to the northward
is an opening into a harbour, the entrance to which is nearly barred by
rockBy and the harbour loo shoal for vessels drawing over 6 feet. There
is said to be a sunken rock lyiug N.E. about half a cable from Paukshao
point.

CBZso BA.T is on the eastern side of Hi-che-chin bay, to the nor^«
ward of Chino peak, and on its shore is a fort and small village,, abreast
which the water is shoal, the 2-fathonis line of soundings being half a mile
off the land.

cmino reef lies westward from Chino peak; extending 4 cables from the
shore ; from the outer rock, which does not show at high tide unless there
be a considerable swell, Tung-ki bears S.E. ^ E. ; Si-ki, S. by W, } W. j
and East White stone, in the northern part of the bay, in line wit}i Bound
hill, N.N.W. I W.» , .

Saraii &acy, a dangerous coral rock, on which a vessel of that name
struck, lies 8^ cables south-east of Yellow Stone. It has only 7 feet
water on it, 4^ fathoms, mud, close to, and from it Yellow Stone bears
N.W. by W. i W, ; the small rocky islet at mouth of creek leading to



• * See enlarged Admiralty Flan of Chino bay, scale, m » one inch, on Sheet 3, East
Caast of China, No. 1,963, scale, m » * 24 of an inch.



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140 HONa KONa to AMOY. [oHAP.m.

Eieshi-wei N.bj E. |£. ; and the extreme of Chino point S.S.E. easterly.-
To pass westward of the rock, keep East White Stone open westward of
Yellow Stone.

The best anchorage in Chino bay is in 3^ fathoms, &rther northward
than the fort and village, and about East of Yellow Stone which is the
soatfaemmost of all the rocks^ in the north-east part of the bay except the
Sarah Lucy. The walled town of Keishi-wei, bearing E. by N. 3 miles
from Yellow Stone, will be seen over the low land from this anchon^e ;
there is a creek leading up to it which will admit junks at low water.

Between Yellow Stone and the rocks three-quarters of a nule N.N. W. of
it is a channel of 4^ fathoms water ; but vessels are recommended not to
approach that part of the bay northward of Yellow Stone, as there are
several sunken rocks, one of which bears N.W. by W.^W. 1^ miles from
Yellow Stone, on which bearing it is in line with the northern end of
Chino bay hills; from it East White Stone bears N.E. by E. f E, and
West White Stone, N.W. ^ W. As this rock lies south-westward of all
those above water, care must be taken to avoid it when working up. the
bay. The East and West White Stones will be known by their being the
largest of the group.

Vessels drawing less than 18 feet may stand into the bay to the north*
ward of West White Stone, where the depth is 3^ to 2^ fathoms, the water
shoahng gradually toward the beach.

HU ' A 'g H C vozwT. — ^From Tongmi point the coast takes an E. by N. | N.
direction about 16^ miles to Cupchi point, and at the distance of 4|
miles is Black rock point, with black rocks off it, and a square white
rock on its south-west side ; N.W. 1^ cables from the white rock is a
sunken rock.

About 2| miles eastward of Black rock point is the mouth of Hutung
river, which falls into the sea on the west side of Hutung point, but it has
only 6 feet water over the bar. On its south bank is a fort, and close
to the fort a remarkable dome-shaped building like a large beehive,
apparently intended for a fire beacon;* this is a good mark in hazy
weather, being so easily recognised) indeed there is nothing resembling it
on this part of the coast. S.S.E. 1^ miles from the fort is a small islel^
surrounded by reefs and detached rocks, one of which. Figure rock, to the
eastward, is of a curious shape.

At 3 miles eastward of Hutung point the hills come down to the beach^
and on one of their peaks is a conspicuous knob. At a mile off the
beach is a flat rock with sunken dangers between it and the shore ; there
is also a rock awash to the S-E^ of it.

♦ See view on Admiralty Chart.



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CHAP.m.] HTJTUNG POINT — CUPCHI POINT. 141



CUPCBX vozvx* has a ragged summit, 210 feet high, and near the
sea 18 a dilapidated fort. Daring acts of piracy have been committed in
this vicinity as late as 1865.

viutto rook, 14 feet above high water, lies south 1^ miles from the
point, and inside of it are two islets, and four patches of rock. The junks
pass between Turtle rock and the rock next to the northward, though
sunken rocks lie westward of both, and much discoloured water, which,
however, helps to detect them.

Vive Srothero' rook. — ^Between the islets and the point the channel is*
2 cables wide, but the bottom is rocky and uneven, and a rock on which
the steamer Five Brothers was wrecked, 28th Feb. 1859, lies 60 fathoms
South of the point. The least water on this rock is 12 feet, and as many
sunken dangers ai*e in its vicinity, it would be imprudent for a stranger to
attempt the passage. A ledge of rocks extends 2 cables from the point
westward of the fort, its outer end breaking at low water.

Biaok Mount, a remarkable little black conical hill, rises 230 feet
above the sea from a red sand down, at 4^ miles north-east of Cupchi
pointy and half a mile from the beach : it is conspicuous at night. Reefs
extend half a mile from the shore along this part of the coast.

vaioo Skoal. — ^The U.S.S. FcUos discovered off Turtle rock a shoal,
with a number of soft lumps on it having only 2 fathoms water on them.
From the shoal Cupchi point bore N. | E. 3 miles, and the Hill marked on
the chart as 726 feet high, N.W. | W. As this danger lies in the track
of navigation, vessels should be cautious to give it a wide berth, when
passing the Turtle rock.

8kav rock, 3 feet above high water, lies half a mile off shore N.N.W.
of Cupchi point; and has 2^ fathoms around it, except on its S.E. side,
where there is a projecting reef. There is good anchorage during the N.E.
monsoon to the southward of this rock.

On the main, abreast this rock, is a fort standing on the east side of

entrance to a river leading to the walled town of Kiahtsz. The town is

1| miles from the fort, and southward of it is a pagoda two stories high.

There are 9 feet at low water f on the bar of the river, but the channel

over it is crooked and narrow.



* See enlarged Admiralty plan of Copchi point, scale, m « one inch, on Sheet 3, East
Coast of China.

t Capt P. Cracroft, who visited this locality in H.M.S. Niger, Feb. 1859, found only
6 feet on the bar at low water. On the Srd, the day before new moon, it was low water
on the bar at 10 a.m., and high water at about 4 p.m., with a rise of about 6 feet. The
time of high water on this part of the coast appears to vary with the force of the
monsoon.



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142 HONG KONG; TO AMOT. [chaf. m.

' Nearer the entrance there is a second fort oyer a point, and a martello
tower on the sandy point opposite^ to the southward of which, sand-banks
extend more than half a mile.

. Situated exactly in mid-channel between these sandbanks and the inner
Forit point is a dangerous rode, steep-to, which uncovers at low water,
and may be passed on either side.

- vnrajLO sojui^-^Tfae Tillage of Tungao stands in a bight of the
coast N.E. by £. 15 miles from Cupchi point, the interrening ^ore
being low and sandy. On the bar of the riyer, west of the village, the sea
breaks heavily at low water, and outside the bar the water shoals suddenly ;
so that vessels approaching the anchorage in Tungao road should not
bring the fort at the village to bear eastward of N.E. ^ N., when within
1^ miles of it; this will be found a good roadstead in the N.E.
monsoon, well sheltered and with good holding ground. There are two
pagodas in the neighbourhood, one on the low land at the east side of the
river's mouth ; the other on the hilk 2 miles to the northward.

S.E. 2^ miles from the village is White rock, which forms a good mark
by which this part of the coast may be recognised ; half way between
White rock and the village is a creek with a fort upon the hills east
of it. The laud near the coast is low, with several fishing villages in
the sandy bays, the boats belonging to which are numerous, and being
of different shape and smaller than those of Hai-mun and Cupchi, will
enable a vessel to identify her position in a fog.

BAl-&oonff rock.* — This sunken danger, which is directly in the track
of vessels proceeding from the anchor,age in Tungao road round Breaker
point when keeping inshore to avoid the north-east monsoon, lies
S. by W. § W. one mile from the White rock. Near the centre of rocky
ground, carrying 5 to 10 fathoms, are two pinnacles lying north and south,
50 yards apart, with only 11 feet water on them at low tide, the lead
slipping off nnto 6 fathoms on either side. The islet inside Breaker point
bears from it E. by N. northerly, and the north pagoda N.N.W. J W.

BXBAKBS VOZVT,! lying 7 miles eastward of White rock and
E. by N. I N. 23 miles from Cupchi point, may be known by a black
dome-shaped hill rising 280 feet from a red sand drift on the point, whence
the hills trend northward and westward, dipping suddenly at their
extremity. At the south extreme of the point is a remarkable rocking
stone, and off the south-east and south-west points of land on each
side of the stone are two small islets ; a fort stands on the point within.



* On which the steamship Hai-Loong struck in 1872.

f See enlarged Admiralty plan of Breaker point, scale, m =one inch, on Sheet 3, East
Coast of China, No. 1,963.



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cSAi-.m.] TXTNGAO BOAD — ^BEEAKEB POINT, 148

Petacied reefs lie off the shore, which should not be approached within
half a mile. Light proposed.

At 2 miles westward of Breaker point is a small islet, having Flat reef
to the south-eastward of it^ distant 9 cables.

aiat reef is a bed of dark-coloured rocks, half a cable in extent,
crowned with two conspicuous masses 12 feet above high-water mark.
A quarter of a mile W. hj N. J N. from Flat reef is Black rock, 15 feet ;
and N.N.W.,half a cable, another, 12 feet above high water.

Corea roek. — ^A pinnacle, having but 14 feet water over it at low
water spring tides and 6 fathoms around, lies two-thirds of a mile
S.W. I S. from Flat reef, with the apex of the islet westward of Flat
reef bearing N.N.W. J W., distant a little over a mile ; Dome hill
N.E. J E., a little over 2^ miles ; and Breaker point N.E. by E. J E.,
dists^t 2\ miles.

■nuree-fatboms patcb. — One and a half cables westward of the Corea
rock is a rocky patch with 3 to 5 fathoms water over it, and 7 fathoms
around. From the 3 fathoms spot the apex of the islet westward of Flat
reef bears N. by W. § W., distant a mile ; Dome hill N.E. J E., 2^ miles ;
and Breaker point N.E. by E. ^ E., 2^ miles.

SvniL roeit has but 7 feet water over it at low water springs ; it is
the shoalest ,part of a rocky patch about a cable in extent. From this
rock the apex of the islet westward of Flat reef bears N. ^ E., distant
half a mile ; Dome hill N.E. by E. | E., 2| miles ; and Breaker point
E. by N. J N., 2J miles.

When on Sunk rock, Black rock and the rock (12 feet high) respec-
tively to the West and N.W, of Flat reef are in line,

souvsnrGS. — The depths between Corea rock and Flat reef are very
irregular, with numerous patches of from 3 to 5 fathoms, but outside of
these dangers the soundings are regular, although they indicate a pro-
jecting ledge 3 miles to the southward.*

OBmaULXi amwABTff.f — ^Dome hill appears of that form when viewed
ftom the westward, but it is by no means conspicuous when passing at a
moderate distance southward of Flat reef, and when seen from. off Breaker



♦ Eeported danger off Breaker point. Information has been received that the Ocean
Steamship Company's vessel Ulysses struck on a wreck or rock, carrying away her
rodder. From a position near, in 13 fathoms, the following bearings were taken : —
White rock ,W.N.W., flat rock N. by W. J W., Dome Hill North. Some of these
bearings, which would place the vessel, roughly, about 3 miles S.S.E. of White rgck,
must be erroneous. JEd.

t Navigating Lieutenant J. W. Reed, commanding H.M.. surveying vessel Rifleman,
1867.



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144 HONG KONG TO AMOY. [cHAP.ni.

point is still less conspicuoas, appeaxing then as a straggling sand hill, of
inconsiderable height.

It was found impossible at night to form a safe judgment as to the
distance of the land, although the weather — during the three nights ihe
Rifleman remained there — was clear and starlight, and the horizon to
seaward plainly visible. The islet could only be made out with difficulty
from a distance of 2 miles, and Breaker point from a distance of 2|
miles could not be distinguished. The range of dark hills seen over the
high sandy coast is very deceptive at night, and Dome hill can then very
seldom indeed be recognised with certainty ; strangers cannot do so readily
by daylight, and at night are very liable to mistake for it a round-shaped
hill at the extremity of the back range.

For these reasons soundings only can be relied upon to enable vessels
to pass the above dangers safely at night ; when by keeping in depths of
11 or 12, not less than 11 fathoms, they will pass from 1 to 2 miles to
the southward of Corea rock.

TZBB8. — It is high water, full and change, in February, at Kin-siang
pointy at the head of Hie-che-chin bay, at 7h. Cm. ; at the Shag rock,
north-west of Cupclii point, at 8h. Cm. ; and in Hai-mun bay and at the
<5ape of Good Hope at 9h. Cm. ; rise, 6 or 7 feet.

In Tungao road it was high water, full and change, in January, at
3h. Om. At 5 miles eastward of the road the ebb ran to the westward one
knot per hour on the 12th day of the moon, and no flood tide was per-
ceptible during that month. There is a tide race with the flood ofi^ the
southern promontory of the cape of Good Hope which at times is very
turbulent.

From observations on the tidal streams^ from January to May, between
Hong Kong and Breaker point, the ebb ran ito the eastward, but, generally
speaking, very little tide was experienced. To the eastward of Breaker
point, however, the flood set to the eastward, which is its direction,
throughout the north-east coast of China ; the times of high water, full
and change, from Hong Kong to the Yang-tse kiang, not deviating more
than one to 3 hours before the moon's transit, unless obstructed by
local causes, with the exception of the vicinity of Breaker point, where it
was high water at 3h. 30m. p.m. at the full moon, January 1845. It
would therefore appear that the tidal wave from the Pacific ocean strikes
first upon Breaker point.

TOira-&AB ponrx is 4^ mUes N.E. ^ N. from Breaker point, and
about a mile westward of it is the entrance to a creek leading to the
walled town of Tong-lae. On the eastern side near the entrance is
a fort, under which indifferent shelter might be found in the N.E.
monsoon by a vessel of not more than 12 feet draught, but she would



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r



<jHAP.mO BREAKER POINT— HAI-MXJN BAY. 145

be in an awkward position should the wind veer southward of East.
Sunken rocks abound along this portion of the coast, one of which lies
6^ cables off the land, with the fort bearing N.W. by N., and Rocky point
N. by E. f E.

Rocky point is the low extreme of the land N.E. 1^ miles from Tong-lae
point ; hence the coast trends northerly, and at the distance of 4^ miles
is a headland with reefs extending a quarter of a mile south-east of it.



BiLZ-Mmr BAT and Bxvss. — ^N.E. ^ E. 7 miles from the above head-
land is Hai-mun point, and between them Hai-mun bay, which has a
general depth, of 6 and 7 fathoms, and at its head the entrance of Hai-mun
river with 10 feet on the bar at low water. The town is built on the left
bank, one mile within the entrance, and north of the town the liver turns
to the westward. The land being low to the northward, a canal communi-
cation with the estuary of the river Han will most likely be found.

The highest part of the hills at the back of Hai-mun point forms two
peaks, on the highest of which is an artificial mound 690 feet above the
sea. There are three pagodas on the land to the northward of the bay,
two of which are on the hills, and can be seen in dear weather from
Namoa island ; the other is on the low land.

Parkyns rook. — ^At 9 cables southward of Hai-mun point are two rocks
on which the sea breaks when there is a heavy swell. From the southern,
Parkyns rock, the artificial mound bears N. | E., the cape of Good Hope,
E.N.E., and Rocky Head point, on east side of entrance of Hai-mun river,
N.W. Rocky Head point in line with west peak of Pagoda range, bearing
N.W. i N., passes close to south-west side of the rocks ; there is a passage
between them and the main.*

A rocky ledge with only 2^ fathoms on its south end, extends 6 cables
from the fort on the east point of a sandy bay, 1 J miles E.S.E. of Rocky
Head point. The above mark passing close to Parkyns rock, points to
its southern edge, from which the fort bears N.E. On ^this ledge is a
rock awash at low water lying W. | N. half a mile from the fort, with
the west peak of Pagoda range in line with a large stone near the centre
of the Brst sandy beach eastward of Rocky Head point bearing N.W. ^ N.

Near the anchorage of Hai-mun river is another rock showing at low
water, from which the south extreme of Hai-mun point bears E. by S.,
Rocky Head point N.E. ^ N., aud the west peak of Pagoda range
N.W. by N.

Cautioii. — On many occasions both steamers and sailing vessels have
nearly been lost by mistaking Hai-mun point for the cape of Good Hope

* See enlarged Admiralty plan of Hai-mun point, scale, m » one inch, on Sheet 9,
East Coast of China.

30251. K



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146 HONG KONG TO AMOY. [chap. in.

in thick weather when the island of Namoa was not visible. These points
bear a marked resemblance to each otlier, both having three distinct high
points with sandy beaches between. In such weather, the low white sandj
shore of Hope bay is often not visible.

S09B BAT is between Hai-mun point and the south extreme of the
cape of Good Hope, which bears E. by N. | N. distant about 8^ miles.
Detached rocks lie half a mile off the coast for 3^ miles N.E. of Hai-mun
point, so that vessels should not close this part of the shore nearer than
three-quarters of a mile, until beyond that distance, when the sandy beach
is steep-to.

There is secure anchoi'age in the N.E. monsoon on the southern side of
the cape, to the north-west of Tide point. The smoothest water will be
found in the first little sandy bay westward of the point, near a fort and
a large tree. Sunken rocks extend a cable &om the fort point ; otherwise
this bay is dear and the lead the best guide.^

CookeHaitor rook. — ^At the western extreme of this sandy bay is Peaked
rock, S.W. by S. of which, distant 4 cables, is a small sunken pinnacle
rock on which H.M. gunboat Cockchafer struck in 1868. It has 4 feet on
it at low water, with 5 fathoms close-to on either side.

At 1 J miles N.W. of Peaked rock is the entrance to a creek which com-
municates with the river Han, 3 miles above Swatow. The creek has 7
feet water over the bar, which is barely a cable across, and is defended by
a fort. Reefs extend south-westward 3 cables from this fort to a rock
awash at high water, rendering the straight channel impagsable to large



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