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approached nearer than 2 cables on its western side. To the east-
ward of Breaker island, shoal water extends a great distance from the
northern shore ; its south edge of 3 fathoms bears East 3 miles from the

SBOAX 8AT is a deep indentation in the western part of the north
coast of !Namoa. There are two islets and several rocks in it, and the
land at its head is low, and only a mile across to the southcoast.

VAiraAOV BAT, the next bight eastward of Shoal baj, has at its head
a walled town, the residence of the magistrate of the district. Vessels
drawing less than 18 feet maj stand into this bay until Pagoda island,
on its eastern side, bears £. by N. ; but during the N.E. monsoon there
is a considerable swell in it ; when the entrance to Challum bay, on the
opposite shore, will be found a more eligible anchorage, and vessels will
be in a better position to avail themselves of the land wind, which usually
draws to the northward in the morning.

The North point of Namoa, forming the eastern limit of Nangaou bay,
has a double peak over it, and rocks extend 3 cables from its north-
eastern &ce.

PAGOBA and 801FTB BATS.— From Clipper point the southern
coast of Namoa trends east 5 miles to a small bay with a pagoda upon its
eastern point. South bay, four miles farther eastward, affords good shelter
in the N.E. monsoon ; rocks extend 1| cables southward from its eastern
point. Vessels drawing 18 feet may run into this bay until the extreme
of the point bears S.E. About half a mile* south-east of th^ point is
Crab island, a low flat islet., and in the channel between it and Namoa
the ground is foul. About 1^ miles eastward of South bay is Three
Chimney bluff, a bold bluff with three tall chimneys on it.

SAST BOCX, with 4^ fathoms on it at low water, and 7 cables eastward
of East point, is described in the Appendix, page 575.

TXBBS. — ^It is high water, full and change, in Clipper road, Namoa
island, at llh. 15m., springs rise about 7 feet. The strfanis on the
north side of the island run parallel to it at the rate of one to 3 knots ;
in the neighbourhood of Nangaou bay they are not so strong as at the
western end of the island, where they run 4 knots at springs, the ebb
coming from eastward. The flood tide comes in both on the north and
south sides of the island.

Tlie COAST to the north of Namoa is described on page 158.

&ABIOCX Z8&AirD8 are a group of four islets, and two patches
of rocks occupying an extent of 7^ miles in a N.E. and S.W. direction.
From the Boat rocks at their south-west end, the west point of Namoa
bears N. W. ^ W. 22 miles ; and from North rock at their north-east VjOOglC

166 HONG KONG TO AMOT. [chaf. m.

end, the east point bears N.W. 13^ miles, and the south-eastern Brother
N.E. by E. 25i miles.

aoat rocks are two square rocks, 16 feet above high water, about the
size of boats, with several reefs between them.

Wbite rock, lying N.E. 1^ miles from Boat rocks, is sufficiently large
to afford shelter to boats.

MMgh Aamoekf near the centre of the group, is covered with brush-
wood. The channel between it and White rock is safe, the depths varying
from 8 to 14 fathoms. The distance between High and East Lamock
islands is a mile^ but about the middle of the channel is a rock, with a reef,
which shows at low tide, extending southward 1^ cables from it. The
ihfee northern islets lie close together ; North rock, the northern one,
which has a pyramid on it, is without vegetation.

KiaBTS. — On High Lamock island there are exhibited two fixed lights,
viz. : — a high white light, and a low red light.

Xiffk xaffktis 9. fixed white light, elevated 241 feet above the sea, and in
clear weather should be seen from a distance of 22 miles. The illuminating
apparatus is dioptric, of the first order. The lantern is on a round tower
of cast iron, 25 feet in height (lantern vane 54 feet above base), and
painted black ; the dwellings' and boundary wall are white.

&OW Kifflit ia 2k fixed red light, elevated 55 feet above the level of the sea,
' {md in clear weather should be seen firom a distance of 7 miles. The illu-
minating apparatus \^ dioptric, of the fourth order. The light is exhibited
from a #indow in a white building erected on the southern slope of the
island, is visible only between the bearings N.E. by N. and N.E. \ E.,
covering the White and Boat rocks, and is intended as a guide for cleartng
these rocks.

Bocx, on which several vessels have struck, is a dangerous
coral pinnacle with only 9 feet at low water. From it, the North rock of
the Lamock 4sU^^^> ^^^"^^ S.W. \ S., distant nearly \\ miles, and 'Dome
island. W. l|y N. ^ N.,. 12 miles.

When on the rock, the eastern bluff" of East Lamock island is just in
sight to the westward- of the western apex of North rock, the extremes of
the island subtending an angle of 13° 11',

High lamiock island, open to the north-west of East Lamock island,
clears the rock on its north-west side ; and when open to the south-east,
clears the rock on its south-east side. To pass outside, or to the north-
east of this danger, the angle subtended by the Lamock islands, should not
exceed 10**, when High Lamock is shut in.

*^X1>1SB. - In the month of April, with High Lamock island bearing E. \ S.
17, mile^' the tides made as follows ; first hour of ebb S.W. \ W, \\ knots ;


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second hour, S.W. by S. . } J knots ; third hour, S.W. by S. 1 J knots
fourth hour, S.S.W. half a knot. Flood, first hour, N.E. by E. one knot ;
second hour, E.N.E. 1^ knots; thii^d hoar, E.N.E. 1^ knots; fourth
hour, E.N.E. IJ knots ; and the fifth hour, E.S.E. half a knot.
And in September, with High Lamock bearing E. by N. 4 miles : — The
ebb, first hour, S. by E. half a knot ; second hour, S. by W. one knot ;
third hour, S.S.W. one knot; and the fourth hour, S.S.W. 1^ knots.
The flood ran to the N.E. the whole tide, the total amount being
10^ knots.

Thus in passing inside the Lamock islands, attention to the tide as well
as to the vessel's course is necessary.

ImAMOV socx8« — ^Between Namoa and Lamock islands are several
islets, the northernmost of which is the highest, and from its appearahee
is called Dome island. The two southern islets, Buff rock and Oeste rock,
lie east and west of each other ; to the southward of the Ruff are the Dot
and Sul rocks. A reef extends one-third of a mile southward of the Sul ;
the east end of the Oeste in line with the east end of Flat*island bearing
N.W., leads to the southward. Flat island is flat topped, and is lower
than the Ruff or the Oeste.

ftOCXf on which the Ellen Rodger struck in 1862, is
a dangerous coral pinnacle, having only 5 feet on it at-^ low water. From
the rock the north-west point of Plat island bears W.S.W., distant three-
quarters of a mile ; the east extremity of Oeste rock, S. by E. ^ E^, 1 J miles ;
ihe summit of Ruff rock, S.E. ^ E., 2 miles^ and^the summit,pf Dome
island, N.E. by E. I E. . • .

^BZSSCTXOirs. — To avoid this danger, vessels entering the channel
from the westward, should not bring Plat island to the westward of
S.W. by S., whilst Dome island is to the northward of an E. by N. bearing ;
when Oeste rock bears S. by W., they will be to the eastward of Mackinnon
rock^ and can haul to the northward. »

Entering the channel from the eastward, after passings Dome island,
steer to the northward until it bears E. by N., and keep jt'onfkhat -bearing
until Plat island bears S.W. by S.

8ZVTJL Rocx, with only 2 feet over it, lies S.E. | S., nearly 5 milea
fipom Dome islet, with the south-west extreme of Ruff rock in line with
summit of Plat island, bearing W.N.W. ; East point of Namoa N. by W. ;
and the highest part of High Lamock E. by S. | S.

■ma socx, awash at low water, is* 5 miles N. | E. from Sinta'rock,
with the north end of Crab islet in one with the south-west extreme of


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158 HONG KONG TO AMOT, [chap. in.

NMnoa, bearing W. by N., northerly ; Dome islet W. by S. J S. ; High
Lamock S.E. f S., and East point of Namoa N.N.W. J W. The north
point of Namoa seen clear of East point, leads north-eastward.

HA&r-Tira maar. — ^There is another patch of rocks which show at
half tide, between Dome islet and Namoa, bearing from the former, from
N. by E. to N.N.E, ^ E. distant one mile. They lie rather more than a
mile from the Namoa shore, S.E. by S. from Three Chimney blnff.

CBB&snnr SOOSS. four in number and 20 feet high,* bear East
nearly 6^ miles from the north point of Namoa. When seen from the
eastward they appear as large boulders lying considerably apart.

BZOTV maar, some heads of which are just awash at ]bigh water, is rather
more than 3 miles N.W. by N. from Chelsieu rocks ; but should high tides
and smooth water prevent its being seen, the south end of Pagoda island in
Nangaou bay, in line with Saddle peak on Namoo^ bearing S.W. by W. ^
W., will lead northward of it.

oaA&&UM BAT is fronted by the north side of Namoa ; and as before
stated in pAge 155, its entrance affords better shelter during the N.E. mon-
soon than Nangao^ay, and it is also a good anchorage when the wind blows
strong from East or -E.S.E. Supplies of wood and water are easily obtainable
from the yillages^ round the bay, and fish and wild fowl are abundant.

To enter this bay, pass within a quarter of a mile eastward of Middle
islet, a barren rock, as shoal water (11 feet) extends 9 cables from Fort
head. The anchorage is between this islet and Entrance island in 6 to 3
fathoms ; the bay north of Entrance island is shoal. When running in,
steer for tie East point of Entrance island, and beware of the starboard
shore, as the water shoals suddenly on that side, and there is a sand bank
which shows at low water, lying nearly half a mile southward of the west
end of Challum island. Under Fort head is a rock nearly covered at high
tide, and also one in the bay between it and Difficult point to the north-
east ; otherwise the coast line here is steep-to.

azmcv&T is&aT, 110 feet above the sea, lies nearly 3 miles
N.E. by E. i E. of Fort head. On the highest part of the hills over
Difficult point (thB point west of the islet) is a square fort.

Taaa^ATB aocx, with only one foot water on it, lies E. by N.
IJ miles from the summit of Difficult islet, which will then be in line with
the third and last sandy hill on the northern part of the range extending
from Fort head. Namoa peak in line with Pagoda island, in Nangaou
bay, S.S.W. | W., leads close eastward of it.

* These rocks are but little more than awash. — W. T. Clifton, Master, RN., H.M.S.
Cormorant^ Jan. 1863. Diflferent estimates probably at high and low water. — Ed,

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»"W SAT. — ^EJ^.E. 6^ miles from Difficult point is the entrance
to a shallow bay with a pagoda on an island within it. The boundary
line of the two provinces, Fu-kyen and Ewang-tung, passes through this

CBAVAsr BAT, the entrance to which is 10 miles N.E. J E. from the
north point of Namoa^ may be useful during the southerly monsoon ;
but in tbe N.E. monsoon it runs far enough back to the north-east to
allow an awkward sea to arise, and a vessel should then endeavour to
reach Owick bay. At the entrance* is a middle ground of 2J and 3
fathoms water, the south end of which bears W. by N. from Chauan head,
and the west end S. by E., and the east end S. by E. | E., from the pagoda
in Shallow bay. On the eastern side of the entrance is Quadra island
having at 3 cables from its south-west point a reef awash at low water ;
when on the reef, Chauan head bears S.E. by E. ^ E,, and the west end
of Quadra, N.E. by N. Shoal water, which may be detected by its
colour, extends upwards of a mile from the north-west side of the bay*

Anchorage in 6 fathoms water will be found with the centre of Quadra
island bearing S.E. ; and farther up the bay in 3 fathoms. ;yrith the south
end of High island in line with Chauan head. BetweeirHigh and Quadra
islands, and between High island and Chauan head, the dumnels are too
narrow for square-rigged vessels. For Tides, see p. 166. *

OWZCB BAT, 2 miles eastward of Chauan head, is protected to the
eastward by a narrow isthmus, having two rocks off its south extreme.
Vessels seeking shelter from northerly winds will find smooth water in
3^ fathoms, when the extremes of these rocks bear S.E. Immediately
eastward of this Ij^y is a remarkable sand patch, which will help to point
out its position.'l'

jroJEAJCO ponrr. — Jokako peak, 8S0 feet above the sea, and conical
shaped, is the highest part of the land at the back of Owick bay.

Bell island, lying 3 miles eastward of Owick point, is perforated at its
south end, which will be seen on a S.E. or N.W. bearing. There is
an islet between it and Jokako point, having a reef off its northern end,
which contracts the channel between it and the land to half a mile, and
in the middle the depth is only 2^ fathoms.

Cliff and Square islets. — Jokako point is an isolated hill 640 feet
above the sea : off it are two islets ; the nearest. Cliff islet, bearing
S.E. by E. one mile, and the other. Square islet, E.N.E. 1| miles. Square

* Lieat. Morant, R.N., 1865, stated that ** a vessel should not attempt to cross the bar
at less than half tide, when at the deepest part she would have 12 to 14 feet.*'

t See Admiralty Chart:— East Coast of China, Sheet 4, No. 1,760 ; scale, m = 0'24
of an inuh.

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160 HONG KONG TO AMOT. [cHip. in,

islet 18 perforated. A reef extends a cable N.N.W. from Cliff islet,
otherwise the channel between these two islets and the point is safe.

Oone poAlLf elevated 800 feet above the sea, with a peaked rock off its
eastern point, bears N.N.E. ^ E. 5^ miles from Jokako point ; the land
between is a sandy plain verj little above high water level, across which
to Chauan bay the distance is only 2^ miles.

The Bmona&fl are two islets lying S.E. by E. about 12 miles from
Cone peak. They are 180 and 120 feet in height, and 1^ miles apart in
a S.E. ^ E. and N. W. ^ W. direction. The south-eastern islet (the larger
and higher of the two, has a fine bluff at its south extreme, and a reef
extending north-westward from it ; the smaller islet has a remarkable
square top.

TOVOBAVO KABBOUS is one of the best on this coast, and its
position will be readily recognized by Fall peak, a remarkable peak, 930
feet above the sea, which rises on its eastern shore and makes something
like a saddle, but with a deeper indentation ; upon the island at the
entrance is a pagoda which bears from the south-east Brother, N. W. by N.
14^ miles. A mud bank, of 3f fathoms water, lies outside the entrance,
with the pagoda bearing N.W. i N. and Fall peak N.E. | N. ; but by
keeping the Sisters (two islets in the northern portion of the harbour) well
open of the east end of Middle island (the island north-east of Pagoda
island), a vessel will pass eastward of the bank.*

Pagoda island and the eastern shore of the harbour are steep-to, untU
the low isthmus is opened which connects Thunder head with Fall peak ;
the eastern shore then becomes shoal, and the larger Sister must not be
brought westward of N. by W. ^ W. Rocks extend 1^ cables from the
south point of Middle island, and a mud bank projects northward half a
cable from its east point.

H.M. brig Plover when surveying this harbour, first anchored in 4^
fathoms under a long sandy point, with Fall peak bearing E. by N. ^ N.,
and the larger Sister N. by W. | W. Afterwards, for the convenience of
watering, which was readily obtained, and that in the dry season, the
vessel was moved to the southward under Thunder head, with Fall peak
bearing N.E. and the east end of Middle island N.W. | W. Thunder
head by the Chinese is called Kau-li-tau-shan, which means High Fair.
Head hill.

Junks anchoring for the tide bring up between Pagoda and Middle
islands, but in running for this anchorage take care to avoid the rocks
which extend south-eastward 2 cables from the east point of the northern

* See Admiralty Plan of Tongsang harbour and Hutau bay, No. 1,958 ; scale, m « 1

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portion of Pagoda island. The best berth is in 12 bthomSy with the
Sisters seen through the opening in the Middle ishmds ; but these islands
must not be closed nearer than 2 cables, as a mud bank extends firom them
in a southerly direction. This anchorage^ although confined, will be found
handy for a disabled vessel in case the ebb tide should prevent her
reaching the other, and she will be nearer the town of Tongyung, where
spars can be obtuned.

The walled town of Tongyung stands on a peninsula on the western
shore of the entrance abreast Pagoda island^ and although the channel
between it and the island is 3 cables wide, it is not a convenient one to
enter by, as rocks extend from both shores. Tongsang basin runs back
NJ^.W. 11 miles from the Middle islands, and there Is said to be a river
at its head ; 3 fathoms water were obtained at the highest point reached,
but the channel was very narrow. On the western side of the basin is a
boat passage leading into Chauan bay, the entrance to which bears West
from Fall peak. In the north-west portion of the basin is a range of high
mountains, remarkable for their rugged appearance.

The inhabitants of and about Thunder head will bring off supplies of
bullocks, poultry, fish, and vegetables.

CAjrszQM, — ^When running into Tongsang harbour, sail should be
reduced in time, if the wind is fresh outside, for violent squalls come
down from Thunder head.

When proceeding eastward, the coast on the eastern side of Thunder
bead must not be approached within a cable, as there are some rocks along
it ; the south face of the head, however, is steep-to.

RSES SOCK, covered at high water springs, lies S.E. by E. | E. rather
more than 1| miles from Fall peak, with the chimneys on Chimney island,
forming the eastern side of Rees pass, bea^ng N.E. by N, ; a rock, on
which the sea breaks at low water, lies a cable eastward of it.

VaM isietB bear N. | E. 1^ miles from Rees rock, and the ground,
between them and the rock being foul with shoal water, should not be
approached. Junks use a channel 2 cables wide between Pass islets and
the main.*

MBMB PASS is between the Pass islets and Rees islands, and on its
eastern side, W. by S. from the Chimneys and 3 cables from the shore of
Chimney island, is a shoal of only two fathoms water. The Rees islands

e barren, and only inhabited by a few fishermen.

H.M. brig Plover rode out a heavy gale veering from N.E. to E. by N.,
this pass ; she anchored in 6 fathoms, 2 cables westward of the

* See enlarged Admiralty Plan of Rees pass ; scale, m = 2 inches, on Sheet 4, East
oast of China.

80251. Ii

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162 HONG KONG TO AMOY, [chap. m.

black rock at the southern end of the sandy bay under the Chimneys.
There is also anchorage under South-east island in 6 fathoms, with its
south point bearing East It is said that in the northerly monsoon a
Teasel will not gain anything by going through the Pass, for on clearing
the north end of Chimney island as much swell will be experienced as will
be found eastward of the group. For Tides, see p. 166.

•impiieiA w^ok roeka are 6 cables N.E. of South-east island, and at
their eastern end are several rugged rocks, on the outermost of which
ihe ship Simplicia went to pieces, 8th of October 1844, having struck
upon a reef, which shows at low water, lying a cable north-east of the
outer rock.

OAvnov. — ^In the neighbourhood of the Rees islands the sea rises
rapidly after the commencement of a breeze, and overtops, leading to the
supposition that there must be some change in the soundings.

BAavsBOBO mabAVB, Ijing 2 miles N.E. of Simplicia Wreck rocks,
is 6 cables long, N.E. and S.W., a quarter of a mile wide, and on it are
three peaks of nearly equal heights.

Skead Islet is 1^ miles W.N.W. of this island, and between them, at
the distance of 4 cables from the islet, is another small islet with a reef
extending from its west point ; a reef also projects from the East point of
Skead islet.

ro XQOXf which covers at half tide, is the highest head of a
reef, of some extent, the north-eastern rocks of which break only at low
water, and extend two cables eastward of its highest part. It lies
N. by W. i W. l^ miles from Skead islet, and from it the north-east peak
of Dansborg bears S.E.^E.; the chimneys on Chinmey island S.W. J W.j
Awoota rock, W. by S. ^ S. ; and Black head, N. by E. The eastern
Simplicia, open east of Skead islet, leads eastward of the reef.

CM>o WLOCm covers at a quarter flood. It lies 2 miles S^W. by W. ^ W.

of the Ching, with the chimneys on Chimney island bearing S.W. J S. ;
Awoota rock, W. | S. ; the summit of Simplicia Wreck rocks, SJE. f S. ;
and Skead islet, E. J. S.

Awoota rock is close to the main, N.W. ^ W. 2^ miles from the

BV-TAU-SBAV, or B&ACX BBAB, 5^ miles northward of Dansborg
Island, comprises five separate hills, the southern of which. Black head,
is the most remarkable. The hills are smooth and round, with sandy
valleys between. On the northern hill is a walled town. There is good
anchorage south-westward of Black head, but not much shelter unless the
wind be well to the northward.

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river, disembogues on the i^stem side of the head ; there
is deep water inside its entrance, but is not available for navigation
without being buoyed, as the channels, besides being narrow and intricate,
are liable to continual change.

A spit extends 3 miles in a westerly direction from Black head, and
some parts of it dry at low water ; its eastern edge bears W.S.W. from the

AsrcKOBAGB. — ^Yessels might ride out a strong breeze in 4 fathoms
water at the distance of 3 cables from the shore, under Black head^ par-
ticularly if the wind holds to the northward ; but should a gale come
(m, or the wind draw round to the eastward, the sooner this anchorage is
quitted the better. Under these circumstances refuge will then be found
by running through Rees pass and anchoring dose under Chimney island,
or in Tongsang harbour.

Tbe COAST from Black head to Bed bay, 10 miles to the north-east,
with the exception of one hill and two hillocks, is a sandy plain.

Bn^ Spire, and Cleft islets. — ^At 6 cables eastward of Tagau point is Hut
islet and some rocks, a portion of which are always uncovered. Spire islet,
lying 2 miles north-east of Hut islet, has a remarkable square column on it,
and two low flat rocks to the westward. N. by E. one mile from Spire is
Cleft islet, surrounded by reefe, which render it dangerous to be approached
within the distance of 3 cables. Abreast Cleft islet is Crab point, one of
the few places where the natives showed a disposition to attack the Plover
during the survey of the whole coast.

xnob rock, 150 feet high and steep-to, bears S.E. by E. ^ E. 3^ miles
from Spire islet^ and E. i N. 6| miles from Black head.

Mmn bAt will be found a fair roadstead in the KE. monsoon, and may
be readily recognized by two high Black rocks off its eastern point, as well
as by the low red sand hills behind it. A reef, having 3 fathoms close-to,
extends north-westward from the * southern of the two rocks, leaving a
passage for small boats between it and the main at low tide. N.W. by W.
7 cables from tiie southern Black rock is a reef, covered at high water.
The water shoals gradually after passing Black rocks, and anchorage may
be taken where convenient. At the head of the bay is a village on the
right bank of a creek, the entrance to which is dry at low water.* For
Tides, see p. 166.

sntBCTZOvs. — ^Working up to Red bay from the southward, take
o^re to avoid Shun reef, lying East 6 cables from a low hill on the shore,
and nearly 3 miles S. W. by W. i W. from the eastern Black rock. By

♦ See enlarged Admiralty Plan of Red bay, scale, m = 1 inch, on Sheet 4, East Coast
€f China.

L 2

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164 nONG KONG TO AMOT. [oHAP.ra.

tacking when Black rocks are in one with the point off which thejlie,
a vessel will be a third of a mile eastward of the danger.

In navigating this portion of the coast daring the N.E. monsoon, the
wind will be found to hang to the northward from 2h. to lOh. a.m. and in