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the eastern quarter the remaining period. Deeply laden vessels will find
it more advantageotts to seek shelter in one of the harbours or roadsteads
above mentioned during a strong N.E. wind, than to keep underway,
as ground can seldom be gained in consequence of the depth of water.

COBX 901MT to OBZV-kA. POZiTT.— The coast line from Cork point,
the north-east point of Bed bay, takes a N.IS. ^ N. direction 18^ miles to
Chin-ha point. From Cork point a reef extends half a mile. Halfway
between Cork and Chin-ha points is House hill point, fronting the Qouth
and east sides of which is a ledge of rocks, dry at low water, and extending
a cable from the shore. It was on this ledge that the Peninsular and
Oriental Company's steamer Niphon was wrecked in 1868.

A dangerous reef of rocks extends from the latter point three-quarters
of a mile in a S.S.W. direction, and at low water shows as three distinct
patches of dry rocks, the northern of which is awash at high water.
House hill point is the southern extremity of a small -islet connected
with House hill at low water. House hill is low, with the ruin of a
house on its summit, and bears N.W. by W. J W. from Lamtia island.

A shallow ialet called by the natives Chung-chou runs some distance
inside House hill,, across the entrance of which is a bank of sand dry in
places at low water.*

XJLMTZA AXTD VOTOB Z8&AV98. — ^Lamtia island bearing N.E.,
distant 9 miles from Cork point, is of basaltic formation, and its southern .
Bide rises abruptly from the sea ; a reef extends N.W. by. N. half a mile
from it. Notch island, of similar formation, lies N. by W. 3 miles froni
Lamtia, and has a rocky spur extending S. by E. a quaj'ter of a mile
from it, and also one N.W. by W. 1 J cables.

CBAPBXi zsxdksn, in lat. 24"" W 18" N., long. US'" 13^ £^ i»
47 miles N.E. f N. from the south-east Brother, and 11 J miles S.S.E.
from the Chauchat rocks at the entrance of Amoy. It is of basaltic
formation, with steep sides and grassy top, and perJbrated at its southern

— '■ — ^ 1—

* There are two small inlets here, Kangkow and Chu or Clue bay. Both have barer
across the entrance, and are much frequented by pirates, as from their proximity to
Amoy they can easily dispose of their. plunder. A gunboat can get into Eankow at the
top of high water, but will ground inside at half tJde. In Chu bay there is deep water
aboye some fishing stakes, but there is not more than 12 feet oyer the bar at high water ^
it is a safe but confined anchorage. The passage of these bars ought not to be attempted,
without a local pilot. Lieut, and Com. Geo. Digby Morant, B.N., H.M.S. Grasshopper^
1865.



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€HAP. in.] COBK POINT TO CHAPEL ISLAND. 165

end ; there is also a remarkable mound on either end. With this island
bearing South, and when about midway, between it and the entrance to
Ainoy, Captain Ross, of the Indian Navy, passed over a sand*bank of
6 fathoms water, but no less could be found. See Caution,* page 178.

'MOXk'Ees^K fixed and flcuhing white light, the flashes being shown
every half minute^ is exhibited on Chapel island. It is elevated 227 feet
above the level of high water, visible all round, and in dear weather should
be seen fi*om a distance of 22 miles. The illuminating apparatus
is dioptric, of the first order. The tower, 63 feet high, is round and
painted black ; the keeper's dwelling and wall are painted white.

WKMR09^ SBOA&8 are between Chapel island and the coast.

Sovtb Merbpe has only 5 feet on its shoalest part, at its southern
end, from which Chapel island bears N.E. by E. ^ E. 7| miles, and
Lamtia island N.W. by W. 5 miles ; thence it extends^ with depths of
* 3 and 4 fathoms, nearly 5 miles to the north-east. There are 2^ fathoms
about 1| miles westward of its shoalest part, and probably shoal water
extends to the southward, as its limits in that direction are not defined ;
it is said not to break except in heavy weather, or at very low tide.

When approaching this shoal from the southward do not bring the high
land of Cork point to the southward of W. by S., whilst- Chapel island is
eastward of N.E. Chin-ha point N. by W,, or Nantai Wtishan pagoda
N.N.W. will lead eastward of the shoalest part.

Vortb Merope is formed of pinnacle rocks, the highest of which dries
8 feet at low water; these rocks have deep water between them, and
bear W. by N. 8^ miles from Chapel island ; the eastern edge bears N.E,
from Lamtia island.

TZVOTAB BAT, 4 miles northward of North Merope, afibrds shelter
for small vessels in the NJE. monsoon. Its vicinity may be easily known
by a fiat table head with three chinmeys on it, forming the eastern point
of the bay, and the ruins of a walled town on the hill above it. The
pagoda of Nantai Wdshan, 1,720 feet above the sea, stands on the hills
immediately at the back of this bay. The coast here continues in a north-
easterly direction 3 miles farther to Chin-ha point, when it takes a sudden
turn to thQ N.W., forming Amoy harbour.

■ri xinff siioai of 3 fathoms water, lies S by E. 2| miles from Chin-ha
.point, with Chapel island^ bearing S. E. ^ E. ; and Lamtia island
S.W.^W.*

CAUTZOV. — ^Vessels bound to Amoy from the southward and passing
between the ofi*-lying dangers and the coast should use the utmost caution.

* fieported by the Master of the English steamship Erl King, 18^9. One cast of 5
fathoms was obtained when H.M.S. Hornet passed near this position in October 1870.



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166 HONG KONG TO AMOY. [chap.ih.



k— It is high water, full and change, at the entrance (page 159)
of Chauan bay at llh. Cm., and springs rise 6^ feet ; and at the beach
under Fall peak in Tongsang harbour, and at Chimney island in Eees
pass, at llh. 3Qni., and the rise is 12 feet. The rate of the flood into
Tongsang harbour at the springs is three-quarters of a knot.

Off Jokako point, 4 days before the change of moon, the ebb ran
4ji knots in one tide; the two first hours S.W. by W., and the last
ftrarS.W.

In Bees pass on October 25th, with a gale from the N.E., the ebb
ran S. by W. in all 12| miles ; there was no perceptible flood. Also in
October, Awoota rock bearing S.W. J W. 3 miles, the first hour of flood
ran E.N.E. half a knot ; second hour, N.E. half a knot ; third and fourth
hours, N.E. one knot; fifth hour, E.N.E. half a knot; sixth hour,
N.E. by E. half a knot. The first hour of ebb ran S.W. half a knot ;
second hour, S.S.W. half a knot; third hour, S.S.W. one knot; foui*th
and fifth hours, S.S.W. a quarter of a knot.

Again, with Fall peak bearing W. by N, 7 miles, the first two hours
flood ran N.N.W. IJ knots; and the third N.W. by W. one knot. The
first hour of ebb ran B.W. by S. one knot; second hour, 2 knots; third
hour, S.S.W, li knots; fourth hour, S. by W. 1^ knots; fifth hour.
South one knot

Another observation in Rees pass, the moon's age being 11 days, gave
the set of the ebb S.S.W. ; last hour, South 1| knots : and the flood
NJ). at the rate of half a knot per hour ; wind N.E, force 7.

At Bed bay, in October, the moon being 19 days old, the rise and Ml
was 11 feet. ** Ebb, W. by N. and W.N.W., the whole amount of tide
24 knots. Flood, first hour, W.S.W. one knot; then E.S.E. during
the remainder of the tide, whole amount, 1^ knots. Again with the
moon's age 9 days : Ebb north and then N.W. one knot per hour, and the
fiood E,N.E. half a knot."* These observations show great irregularity
of the tides at Eed bay.

With Lamtia islet, bearing W.S.W. 7 miles ; 6 days after the change
in December, the ebb ran W.S.W., then S.W., and for the last three hours
S.E. ; total amount in the tide, 3| knots. The flood ran N.N.E., then
Norlh ; total amount, 4^ knots.

At Chapel island, at springs in June, the flood set North or N.N.E.
IJ knots per hour. At the time of high water at Amoy it turned and ran*
S.W. by W. about 2 knots per hour.

Under Wu-seii island, at the entrance. of Amoy, on the fourth day of
the moon, the ebb ran S<E. at* the rate of 1;^ knots: and the Aood

* From China Pilot, first edition. It appears that t^e direction of the tides m the
passage here quoted is that /rom which and not to which it flows.



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e»AP.m.] TIDES — ^SOTTTH ENTEANCE TO AMOY. 167

N.N.W. at half a knot. Between Wu-seu and the main the tides have
mare jstrength, and vessels should not attempt to pass.

CKZV-BA POXVT. — ^A dangerous rocky patch, about a quarter of a mile
in diameter, lies N.E. by E. 6^ cables from Chin-ha point, and S. J W.
2| miles from the south-east part of Wu-seu island ; the highest rock
dries 6 feet at low water, and between the reef and C3iin-ha point are
5 and 6 &thoms water. Vessels should pass well outside the ree£
Notcli island, or Table head, just open of Chin-ha point leads to the
south-east, and the eastern extreme of Wu-seu isUnd bearing N. J W.
leads to the eastward of it.

ivir-SBU i8&iL]n>p 300 feet high, is on the western side of entrance to
Amoy outer harbour, and on its summit are three chimneys (the usual
pirate signal on the coast of China).* The island is 1 J miles long, north
and south, and near the middle only 2 cables broad. Its north-east and
soutli-east faces are steep cliffs, and on its western side are three sandy
bayS; and one on the eastern ; in the northernmost bay on the western
side is a large village and the ruins of an ancient fort.

The opium vessels used to lie between this island and the island of
Wu-an to the westward of it, but the anchorage was found too confined,
and not so convenient of access as that under Tae-tan island ; it will be
prudent not to pass westward of Wu-seu, as the channels inside are only
partially surveyed.t

A rock, which is sometimes covered, lies between Wu-seu and Chin-ha
point, with that point bearing S. i W., and Nantai Wishan pagoda
W.N.W.

Tbe CBAVCBAT are three flat rocks nearly awash at high tide, lying
about half a mile eastward of Wu-seu, with the three chimneys on Wu-seu
in one with Nantai W6shan pagoda W. % S. Should high tides and
smooth water prevent their being seen, a vessel will pass eastward of them
by keeping Tae-pan point open northward of Tsing-seu N.W. by W.
Between these rocks and Wu-seu is a channel, half a mile wide, but in
consequence of the chow-chow water- there, it will be better to keep to
the eastward.

A rocky 8-feet patch lies 4^ cables E. by S. i S. from Chauchat^ with
the extremes of Wu-seu bearing from S.W. by W. J W. to W.N.W., and
the eastern extreme of Tae-tan N. J E.J



* It is reported that the three chimneys have disappeared.

t See Admiralty Plan of Amoy harbour and approaches, No. 1,767, scale, m.

inch.
t Mr. A. F. Boxer, Master, R.N., H.M.S. Heaper, 1862.



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i_



168 HONG KONG TO AMOY. [chap. in.



The CBnr-TSaJLO are two rocks, the eastern of which is 60 feet high,
and the other covered at high water, lying N.W. by N. half a mile from
the north end of Wu-seu ; between them and the main are several islets
and half-tide rocks.

TSZVd-sav is a table-topped island lying three-quarters of a mile
north-west of the Ghin-tseao, and with Chih-seu island 8 cables to the
north-east, forms the entrance to Amoy enter harbour; it rises preci-
pitously from the sea, and forts are built upon its summit, which is 250
feet above high water.

At 6 cables north-west of the Chin-tseao and 2 cables southward of
Tsing-seu, is a rock, which only shows at very low tides. To the west-
ward of Tsing-seu are many sunken rocks, on one of which the ship
Blundell struck in 1850 ; the channel, therefore, between this latter island
and the main cannot be considered safe.

TAS-FAV SKOA&.— rThe westcm side of Amoy outer harbour between
Tsing-seu and Tae-pan point is shoal with several ree& in it ; but they
will be avoided when standing westward by keeping the pagoda on lO-sue
island open north-east of Tae-pan point. To avoid the shoals on the
north-east side of the harbour, do not bring the east end of Seao-tan to
the southward of S.E. by E.

. CBIB-SBU is a small islet QO feet high, lying N.E. ^ E. 8 cables from
Tsing-seu. Rocks extend in a southerly and an easterly direction half
a cable from this islet, which is connected to two other small islets,
Hwangkwa and Tao-sao, by a rocky bed which blocks the passage. Foul
ground extends N.W. 4 cables from Tao-sao, and terminates in a reef
which bears North half a mile from Chih-seu, and W. \ S. from the north
extreme of Seao-tan. A vessel will keep north of this reef, by having
the channel open between Seao-tan and Tae-tan.

]LZOST. — A lighthouse is in course of construction on Chihseu, from
which will be exhibited a red light, at an elevation of 80 feet above the
sea, and which should be seen in clear weather a distance of 12 miles.
The illuminating apparatus is dioptric, of the fourth order. The tower
of brick will be 30 feet in height*

SBAO-TAXr is an island 6^ cables long, east and west, 200 feet high
with three chimneys on it, and a sandy bay on its northern side. It lies
E.N.E. of Hwangkwa, and the channel between, 3 cables wide, is fre-
quently used ; but as foul ground extends to the southward of both islands,
and shoal ground runs off 2 cables N.N.W. of the west point of Seao-tan,
a heavy or unhandy vessel had better use the channel between Tsing-seu
and Chih-seu. On Seao-tan is a signal station which communicates with
Amoy.



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CHAP.m.] AMOY HARBOUE. 169



TAS-TAV Z8UL» and MOKT.— Taetan the highest isbwd of thiff
group, and lying north-east of Seao-tan, is about 8 cables long, N.N.W.
and S.S.E., with a low sandy isthmus in ibe centre ; the highest part,
300 feet above the sea, is at its east end, which has a small circular
watcli-house and three chimneys on it ; its western end rises to a conical
peak, on which is a small circular fort. The channel between this island
and Seao-tan is 2 cables wide, but as vessels are likely to have baffling
winds, it would not be prudent for a stranger to use it. The light is
described on page 174. It is to be discontinued as soon as the lighthouse
on Chih-seu is completed.

It is said * that since the survey of this locality in 1843 the soundings
_ on the bank westward of Tae-tan have much decreased, and that a vessel
drawing more than 12 feet must wait for water to run through this chan-
nel, as where the depth of 3^ and 4^ fathoms are marked (in the chart of
1843) at 3 cables northward of Seao-tan, there are now only 2 J fathoms.
The rocks to the northward of Tae-tan also extend much farther out,
and two separate ones are visible at low water springs. Between Tae-tan
and Amoy the channel is under 2 fathoms ; but, as before noticed, the
foul ground on the north-eastern side of Amoy outer harbour will be
avoided by not bringing the north end of Seao-tan to the southward of
S.E. by E.

AMOY HARBOUR.

[VAEiATioir, 0'» SO' W. in 1874.]

AJKOT JBiMAJsm, about 22 miles in circumference, occupies the northern
portion of the great bight between Chin-ha and Hu-i-tau points ; in the
eastern portion is the island of Quemoy and Hu-i-tau bay. The city of
Amoy stands on the south-west part of the island, abreast the island of
Kulangseu, which affords protection to the inner harbour.

Amoy was captured by the British forces on August 26th 1841, and by
the treaty of Nanking, which .followed, was thrown open to foreign trade.
The harbour is one of the best and most easy of access on the coast of
China, so that the services of a pilot, either in entering or departing, are
scarcely necessary. There is good holding ground in the outer harbour,
and vessels can anchor in the inner harbour, within a short distance of the
beach, in perfect security. f

The Chinese city occupies the south-western corner of the island of
Amoy near the mouth of the Lung-kiang, which leads westerly to Chang-

* Commander Lnard, H.M.S. Serpent, and Henry McAusland, Master of H.M.S.
Beynard, 1850.
f See Admiralty Flan of Amoy inner harbour, Ko. 1)764, scale, m » 6 inches.



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170 HONG KONG TO AMOT, , [ohat.ixi.

cbau-fu. The population is estimated to exceed 200/)00, and, unlike flie
turbulent Cantonese, is quiet and inoffensive. There is a seamen's hospital
qa this side at which the charges are IJ doHara a day for seamen and 3
dollars for officers*

The. British Consul and staff, together with the medical q&cgt and
chaplain attached to the Consulate, reside on Kuhuig-seu, the chief con-
sular building being situated on a cliff commanding an extensive vfew
seaward and of the harbour, while the Vice-Consulate is built at its

foot.

The trade had abready become considerable in 1858. In that year 831
British vessels of 99,331 registered tonnage, with goods . amounting to
925,944/., entered inwards, and 329 of 97,897 tons, with goods amounting
to 699,857t cleared outwards. The articles imported were cotton and
woollen manufactures of all kinds, metals, opium, rattans, rice, wheat, peas,
stockfish, treasure, wood of all kinds, and mangrove bark, &c., and those
exported were alum, buUding materials, gdd leaf, camphor, china ware,
kittysols, paper, sugar and sugar candy, tea, tobacco, treasure, rice, wheat,
peasy &c. The principal exports were, crockery ware, umbrellas, tea> sugar,
sugar-candy, paper, tobacco, camphor, and grass-doth.

Since that it has been steadily progressive. In 1863, 802 vessels
entered the port, registering 278,319 tons, including 265 steamers. Of
these, besides the casual arrivals from the various Chinese ports, there are
six which form a regular line between Hongkong, Swatow, Amoy, and
Fuchau. These steamers almost entirely monopolise the coasting trade
and conveyance of treasure, as well as passengers. The entire trade of
Amoy now represents 3,500,000/. sterling.

The south point of Amoy is sandy, with several black rocks extending
2 cables off shore. On the slope of the hill which forms the point
is a circular battery ; W. f N. 7 cables is a second battery, and between
the two at 3 cables from the shore, a half tide rock, which will be avoided
by a vessel of light draught by tacking before Cliff point, with a battery
and three chimneys on it, comes in one with a sandy point vrith a large
stone (Comwallis Stone) at its south extreme, three-quarters of a mile
to the north-west. From Cliff point the three fathoms line of sound-
ings extends 2 cables off shore, otherwise the shpre to the westward,
which is a continuous sandy beach, is steep-to, and the lead a good
guide.

From Cornwallis Stone the shore trends rather more to the northward
for a quarter of a mile, where there is a creek dry at low water, and
at the back of the creek an extensive suburb, and an isolated hill, the
summit of which is a large mass of granite. N.W. J N. three-quarters of
a mile from the Stone are several rocks which cover at half tide, the



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OHAp.m.] AMOT HABBOTJB. 171

outearmost lying 1^ cables off Bhore ; on the point fifom whick thej ecctend
i3 a mass of granite. The city oommeooes at this point and stands
yery little above the sea level ; the houses coming down dose to the
beachy on which the trading junks lie aground. The ridge of hills upon
this &ce of the island do not rise above 600 feet They are abrupt
and barren, with numerous large boulders of granite, a square upright masa
of which, on the highest part of the western extreme of the ridge^ rises
1^28 feet above the sea, which is about the average height of the chain.

3>oeks. — ^The docking accommodation is very good, and ably maoaged
by the Amoy Dock Company. There are three docks. The chief esta-
blishment is situated on the Amoy side, nearly abreast Dock islet. The
dock is of granite, fitted with a caisson gate and with a centrifugal steam
pump of great power, ensuring despatch in all states of the tide. For
repairs an ample stock is kept on hand of timber, spars, metal for sheath-
ing and every description of material required for dockyard use. The
premises comprise a large smithy and carpenters' workshop, sail lofls,
aiast sheds, boat houses, and dry godowns for the reception of vesseli^
stores when requiring to disdbarge them ; and every facility for repairing
and sparring vessels, and for cleaning and painting iron and steam ships.
There is also a whari^ with 18 feet water alongside at springs, fitted with
masting shears. The dock, which is capable of taking a vessel 800 feet
long, is 316 feet in length at coping, and 304 feet on floor ; depth from
coping to sill 20 feet; length of caisson on deck 64 feet; on floor 64 feet}
width of dock at entrance gate 60 feet, on floor 34 feet; there are
18^ feet water at entrance at springs, and the rise and fall is 17 to
18 feet *

The second dock is on the Kulangseu side, near the Lintau landing
place ; it is 240 feet in length. The third and smallest, called the Bellamy
dock, is near the entrance of the inner harbour, abreast the Brown rock ;
it is 186 feet long.

Cantton. — ^A sunken rock, on which there are only 6 feet at low water^
lies N.W. I N. 1^ cables from the entrance of Amoy Dock.t

JcmbAVOBBV zfl&Ajn> is separated from the south-west shore of Amoy
island by a channel from 2 to 3^ cables in breadth and 1^ miles in length,
which forms Amoy harbour. Kulangseu is one mile in length, north and
south, and the same in breadth, having a circumference of nearly 4 miles.
There are two ^tinct ridges on it. Its highest summit, 302 feet high,
when viewed from the entrance of the outer harbour, appears as one
huge boulder. The island is principally of granite, and fresh water from
wells is plentiful. The British consulate standing on the south-east part of

♦ Sapping Gazette, July 1862 ; also " The Treaty Ports of China and Japan."
t Mr. J. Cass, Manager of Amoy Dock, 1865.



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172 HONG KONG TO AMOY. [chap. m.

tLe island^ on a prominent position, is very conspicuous. Over th^ consulate^
N. bj £. one-sixth of a mile, is the eastern peak, 174 feet high, separated
from the highest summit bj a vallej. On this hill is the signal station.

Druid head, the western point of the island, has detached low-water
rocks at half a cable's distance off it ; on the next point north of the head
18 a small joss house. On the summit of the northern point of the island
18 a conspicuous stone, called Wellingtons Nose ; and W. ^ N. a third of a
mile from the Nose, and one cable in the same direction from Modesto
point, is First rock, 8 feet above high water.

The northern and eastern sides of the island are studded with numerous
rocks, all covered at high tide, but seven of those farthest out are marked
with a tokite pole and cage ; and there is a beacon on the Alibi rock, If
cables N.E. of its northern extremity. There is also a stone beacon on
Kang-sim-tah rock. Foul ground extends half a mile from its south-
eastern shore, and detached rocks lie off all its points.

Kiu-snng-seu, or Watson island, 199 feet high, lying two-thirds of a
mile north-west of Modesto point, is nearly connected to Sung-seu island
by low-water rocks. Hauseu, or Monkey island, may be said to be the
northern boundary of the harbour. It is 61 feet high, and on its summit
is a pagoda. The Chalk islands, the southern of which is about 50 feet
high, and bears N.N.W. J W. nearly one mile from Hansen, are easily dis-
tinguished by their white bases ; the fourth island, in a N.N.E. direction
from the southern, is 125 feet high.

BVOTS. — Coker rook, the outer danger at the entrance of the eastern
channel into Amoy inner harbour, has 2 feet water on it, and is marked
by a red and white vertical* striped buoy, from which Comwallis Stone
bears E. by S. J S., and is distant a little more than half a mile ; the west
extreme of Thumb rock is just touching the white staff on the point north
of it, N.W. \ N., and the high-water rock (6 feet high) off Beveridge
point is just open south of two small rocks of the same height lying off the
English consulate, nearly West Coker rock lies in mid-channel.

Brown rock of 13 feet is marked by a buoy in red and white horizontal t
stripes, from which Coker rock bears S. by E. f E. one-third of a mile, and
the south extreme of the easternmost house on Kulangseu is just on with
the top of Thumb rock W. by S., which latter is distant 1^ cables.

Karbour rook lies in the anchorage, having only 9 feet water at low-
tides, and 6 and 7 fathoms between it and the shore ; from the rock the

* In the Chinese official list, corrected to August 1874, it is stated that there is a laige
iron buoy about 60 fiithoms from the Coker rock, and a smaU iron buoy 30 feet S.W. of