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the pinnacle of the rock, but how coloured is not mentioned.

f 24 feet east of rock, colour not mentioned. This rock is named Ashme rock in
former editions. Ibid.



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CHAP. HI.] AMOT HASBOUB. 173

apex of Dock island bears N.E. ^ N., distant 1^ cables, and Monkey island
pagoda N.W. J W. 7 J cables. There is a buoy* 36 feet east of this rock.

XeUett spit is the extreme north of the foul ground extending in a
northerly direction from the north point of Kularigseu. A red buoy is
placed in 5 fathoms on its extreme end, at 1^ cables N. by W. from the
Isere rocks, and from it the north extreme of Dock islet is in line with the
Koman cathedral, E. by S., a little southerly, and Wellingtons Nose is jusl
open west of the highest summit of Kulangseu, S. | E. Great caation
is needed in rounding Kellett spit on the ebb. It has been the scene
of many accidents. The U.S. steamer Fongt Shuey was lost there in a
singular manner whilst shifting berth with a single warp. The flood
was running at the time on the north side of the harbour, but the ebb was
making on the south side, and drifted her on to the rocks.

AsrcBOBAOB. — The outer harbour of Amoy has extensive anchorage
in 7 to 16 fathoms, good holding ground, and unless vessels are badly
found it is not probable that any gale could hurt them. The usual
anchoT&ge is westward of Comwallis Stone ; a good berth is in about
6 fkthoms, muddy bottom, with Comwallis Stone bearing East, and Thumb
rock N.W. \ N. This is almost as near the town as a vessel can approach
without the necessity of mooring. Moorings are laid down for H.M. gun-
boats.

There is also good and safe anchorage in 7 to 17 fathoms in the channel
on the west side of Kulangseu.

Typhoons are scarcely known, but when experienced along the coast
Amoy is visited by heavy north-easterly gales, with hot winds, veering
round east and south. Vessels then in the neighbourhood generally run
for Amoy harbour to repair damages. See page 575.

In August 1864'!' two typhoons passed over Amoy in close succession,
with bad weather continuing for eleven days without intermission.

TXBSS. — ^It is high water, full and change, in Amoy inner harbour at
12h. Om., ordinary springs rise 18^ feet, neaps 14^ feet. During the
N'.E, monsoon, the evening fall is only 15 feet, the previous rise having
been 19 feet. This occurs from September till March, when for a short
time the morning rise and evening fall may be said to be' equals During
the S-W. monsoon this phenomenon is reversed, the evening tide having
the greatest fall, the morning the least. J The greatest velocity at springs
is 4 knots.

^ In the Chinese official list, corrected to August 1874, it is stated that there is a large
iron buoy about 60 fathoms from the Coker rock, and a small iron buoy 30 feet S^W. of
the pinnacles of the rock, but how coloured is not mentioned.

t Reported by Ed. Wilds, Esq., R.N., commanding H.M. surveying vessel SwaUow,

X See Admiralty Manual, Art. iii., on the Tides.



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174 HONG KOKG TO AMOT. Ighif. m.

Owing to a greater rise of tide from Augnst till December than the
other months of the jear^ a yessel may be taken into Amoy dock drawing
18^ feet. In April there are onlj 16 feet on the blocks^ which is the
lowest daring the jear. It gradnallj falls to this level from December
and again increases to the month of Angast.

mAMMOVWL &ZOST.— There is a white^ octagonal lighthouse^ 16 feet
high and about 300 feet above the sea, on Tae-tan island, fitted with
Argand lamps, and exhibiting hjixed light, seen 10 miles in clear weather,
but the light cannot be depended on. The light is visible when bearing
from East round by South and West to N.W.

The Chinese Government has given notice that a lighthouse 30 feet in
height, is to be constructed on Chih-seu, from which will be exhibited a
red light of the fourth order, dioptric, at an elevation of 80 feet above
the sea, and visible 12 miles ; when this light is provided, Tae-tan light
will probably be discontinued.

Bzmacmovs.* — ^When bound to Amoy from the southward, after
rounding the Lamock islands and the Brothers, steer about N.E. by N.
for Chapel island, keeping between 10 and 12 miles off. the coast to avoid
South Merope shoal. The Nantai Wtishan pagoda is a good landmark by
which the entrance of Amoy may be recognised when in the ndlghbourhood
of Chapel island, which may be passed close to on either sidie, thence a
N. by W. ^ W. course will lead towards the entrance of the harbour. As
the 8-feet patch off the Chauchat rocks is approached keep Tae-pan point
well open north of Tsing-seu to pass eastward of it ; thence steer between
Tsing-seu and Chih-seu into Amoy outer harbour.

Approaching the harbour from the eastward give Dodd island a berth
of a mile, and after passing Leeo-lu head, which is steep-to, be careiul
not to shut in the island with the head until Ki-seu island opens south of
Tae-tan island, W. by N. | N. to clear Quemoy spit. Thence steer for
Tsing-seu, keeping Tae-tan point well open north of Tsing-seu as before.

The entrance €b Amoy in dear, weather is easily distinguished by the
high land on the South side, on the summit of which is the Nan-tai pagoda,
an excellent landmark, but often covered with clouds, especially in the south-
west monsoon. After Chapel island is made the six islands forming the
outer harbour soon coAie in sight.

The channel into the inner harbour, between Kulangseu and Amoy, is
so narrow, and sunken rocks lie off both its shores, that a strangier should
not attempt it without a pilot. The best anchorage is between Dock islet
off the city point and Hauseu island. The inner harbour, however, may be
reached without difficulty by passing through the channel westward of
Kulangseu, taking care to give Druid head, the south-west point of the

* Chiefly from the Remarks of George Stanley, Master, B.N., and Assistant Sunreyor.



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CHiJp.in.] DIBEGTI0K8 FOB AJCOY HABBOUB. 175

island, a berth of at least one cable lengthy and recollecting that ahoal
water extends half a mile from tbe main land on the opposite shore* After
paanng Druid head keep wdl over towards Watson and Hansen islandsi
and in! crossing over to the eastward for the city beware of Kellett spit
extending from the north point of Knlangseo^ espedallj if the ebb tide is
ranning strong.

FUots^ — Chinese pilots are generally to be met with inside Chapel island
who are licensed to pilot vessels (1869) as far as Comwallis Stone^ the limit
of the inner harbour, whence Earopean pilots take charge. Their boats
maj be recognised by their carrying a &ig and having ** Licensed Pilot ''
painted on the bows.*

antaring' tbe luah^mr, — ^It is always advisable to enter the eastern or
Blonde channel into Amoy harbour on the ebb. In entering steer for Com*
wallis Stone, and after passing it keep the Amoy shore abroad on the ebb
and during the NJB. monsoon. The Coker and Brown rock buoys watch
Weill ; leave them at half a cable on the port hand. The South Chalk
island jost open northward of Hansen island, N.W. f N.^ clears the Alibi
rock, the Jsere rocks, and all the dangers on the east side of Xnlangseu.

The wider channel on the "west side of Kulangseu may be used without
difficulty, but a vessel of large draught in entering should keep Druid
head a little eastward of North to avoid a 3-fathoms spit, which extends off
Anson bluff, on the eastern side of the channel. Cass spit, extending from
the south-east point of Sung-seu island, has only 8 feet at low water on its
extreme, which isone^third of a mile from the point ; to clear it, do not shut
in the white tower, which is on the low wooded point west of the Chalk
islands, with the north-east point of Sung-seu, N. by W.

In working through this channel, standing westward towards Cass spit,
keep the white tower open of the north-east point of Sung-seu. Standing
eastward, Druid head and the small joss house may be approached to three-
quarters of a cable. If obliged to tack between the small joss house and
Modcste point, keep Druid head well in sight. Kiu-sung-seu is fringed
with low- water rocks, and may. be approached to about a cable. In making
the eastern board towards the Is^re rocks, tack when the small joss house
is midway between First rock and Modesto point. When northward of the
buoy on Kellett spit, or when the cathedral cross is in line with Dock islet,
steer to the eastward for the anchorage off the dty, keeping the South
Chalk island open north of Hansen to clear the Isere rocks.

On entering Amoy,t if foggy, after passing between Tsing-seu and Chih-
seu and unable to see Kulangseu, care should be taken to ascertain the
direction of the tide as it runs here very strong, and vessels are often so
drifted out of their course as*to be compelled to anchor. As a rale, the

• mchard W. E. Middleton, Nav. Sub-Lieut,R.N., HJ1.S. Cockchafir, f -^**^«



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176 HONG KONG TO AMOT. [chap.hi,

ebb tide for the first three hours will be found setting strongest througli
the narrow chftonel north of Kulangseu and obliquely across the outer
harbour, about south-east ; and the hist of the tide, making stronger through
the broad channel south of Kulangseu, will generallj be found setting more
easterly and dirisctlj through the fiurway.

In working out with the ebb tide it is not advisable to stand in close to
Tsing-seu or Chih-seu on account of the eddies and chow-chow water; the
tides at springs run very swiftly between the islands and set obliquely,
N.E. and S.W., across the outer harbour.*

Vessels of large draught should pass northward of Kellett spit buoy, as
immediately inside it are only 18 feet at low water. Many vessels have
passed over the Is^re rocks with impunity, owing to the great rise of tide,
but some in doing so have been greatly injured, and in the case of the
Iseiee a total shipwreck was the consequence.

The formation of the bottom in Amoy harbour appears as irregular as
the sudden and abrupt fidls on Kulangseu. The residents are of opinion
that the patches are mushroom shaped, and consequently when cables
wind round them they are irrecoverable.

•When there is much shipping in the inner harbour, the easiest way often
to get out is to go round to the westward of Kulangseu.

The channel around Amoy island is so narrow and winding that
directions would be useless ; th6 chart is 4he best guide. The bay of
Sungseu, on the north side of which the city of that name is built, runs
back 7 miles to the westward from Kulangseu; it is, however, shoal, and
oqly navigable for small craft.

SuppUes. — Coal is supplied from Hong Kong for H.M. ships, and stored,
and is put on board by contractors at any hour of the day or night, weather
permitting. Fresh beef, vegetables, and water are readily procured.

♦ A sailing vessel beating out of Amoy on the ebb, should be careful not to be
becalmed under Tsing-eeu, as the tide runs strong towardsit— J. W, King^ Mastery R,N.
H.M,S, Vernon, 1847.



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177



CHAPTER IV.

35AST COAST OP CHINA— AMOT TO THE WHITE DOO
ISLANDS, AND PESCADOBES.

IKCLUDING CHIN-CHU HARBOUR, HUNG-WHA SOUND, HAITAN
STRAIT, AND FORMOSA BANKS.

Vabiation 0° 15' to 1° 0' West io 1874.



QVBMOY X8&AVB is separated from Amoy by a channel 5 to 7 miles
wide, in tlie middle of which is Little Quemoy island. Between Tae-tan
island and Xiittle Qaemoy the channel is deep, but narrowed by reefs.

The channel between Little Quemoy and Quemoy is half a mile wide.
To enter, bring the north-east point of Little Quemoy on a N. ^ E. bearing,
and steer for it until the pagoda on Quemoy bears East, then haul to
1J.E. by N. for a mile and anchor in about 9 fathoms secure from all
winds. Vessels drawing less than 15 feet may borrow over on the Little
Quemoy shore.

Qaemoy banH extends 3 miles southward from the west point of Quemoy,
and several patches, on which the sea breaks heavily, dry on it at low
water. It is steep-to, and the lead will give no warning. Its western
edge bears S.S.W. i W. from the west point of Quemoy ; its southern end,
tjuemoy spit, bears S. by W. i W. from Quemoy pagoda, and W. by S. ^ S.
from Leeo-lu head.

A good mark to lead southward of this spit, is to keep Ki-seu island
pagoda open south of Tae-tan island bearing W. by N. f N. ; take care,
liowever, not to mistake the northern division of Tae-tan for the island
itself, for the pagoda seen over the low sandy isthmus betw^n the north.
and south division of th^ island will lead across the bank ; a mistake easily
made.

&aso.-Zin BAT.— From the west point of Quemoy the coasts trends
S.E. i E., 3 miles to the south-west point, and is composed of low sand
hiUs ; thence it runs N.E. by E. 5 miles to Leeo-lu bay. Detached rocks
extend 8 cables eastward of the south-west point, and great care must be
taken to avoid them in foggy weather, as the tides here are uncertain in

their direction.

This bay is said to afford good shelter from N.W., round northward,
to East. Leeo-la head (a low peninsula) will be known by the peak of

30251. ^



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178 AMOT TO WHITE DOG ISL-iCKDS. [chap. iv.

Leeo-lu hill rising 856 feet above the level of the sea immediately north-
ward of it. The head maj be romided at the distance of a cable, and a
berth taken in the baj according to the vessel's draught, taking care to
avoid a coral shoal on which the Dutch bark JusHna grounded in 1856.
It is said to be about one cable in extent, with onlj 9 feet on it at
low- water, and to lie with Leeo-lu head bearing E. bj S. \ S., aad
Leeo-lu hill N. by E. I E.

SV-I-TA.V BAT, formed between the eastern side of Quemoj and the
mainland, affords good shelter in the N.E. monsoon. Hu-i-tau point,* the
eastern point of entrance, is 80 feet high, and on the hills north of it is a
small fort, and to the northward of the fort a remarkable knob, 215 feet
high. On the north-west side of llie bay are two remarkable hills, which
serve to establish a vessel's position when in this vicinity. West peak, the
highest of the two, is 1,714, and East peak, 1,390 feet above the sea.

At 1^ miles south-eastward of Hu-i-tau point is a sunken rock, on which
2| fathoms were found, but as in all probability there is less water its
locality should be avoided. From the shoalest water obtained, the obelisk
on Hu-i-tau point bore N.W. by W. ; Dodd island S.W. \ W.; and Scrag
point N.E. Beefs, which break heavily in bad weather, project 3 cf^bles
in a southerly direction from the point, and westward a quarter of a mile
from the first point inside the bay. -
iVater may be obtained under the fort northward of Hu-i-tau point.

OAunoVr— In the N.E. monsoon, if outside the limits of the regular
tides, vessels must calculate cm a southerly or south-westerly set, and fre-
quently in the other season of the year, though. not invariably at this part

' of the coast, on a set in the contrary direction. This circumstance may in
some instances probably account for Hu-i-tau bay having been mistaken
for the entrance of Amoy harbour. This has occurred on several occasions,
and Dodd island has been also mistaken for Chapel island ; it therefore
becomes necessary to point out descriptively the dissimilarities of the two
approaches. See also page 164.

Dodd island, in lat* 24° 26' N., long. 118° 29' E., may be distinguished
from Chapel island by a reef extending 3 cables N.N.E. of it, and on
which the sea always breaks ; its outline is uneven, and gradually sloping
to the eastward. Chapel island rises suddenly, and there is a difficulty in

' saying which is the highest pai-t of its smooth top ; it is, moreover, 8 miles
from the nearest' land, whereas Dodd island is but 3 miles. The distance
from Chapel island to the south point of Quemoy is 11 miles, but from
Dodd island to Hu-i-tau point is only 5 miles. Off the south end of

* It has been both affirmed and denied that there is an bbelisk on Hu-i-tau point.
See Admiralty plan of Hn-i-taa and Chimmo bays, Ko. 1,959 ; scale; tn^l inch.



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CHAP. IV.] HTJ-I-TAU BAT — ^DODB ISLAND. 179

Qfiexnoj ibe rocks are peaked ; but the reef off Hn-i-tan pdnt is flat.
There are two pagodas on Qaemoy point» which bear N.W. by W. and
S*E, by £» of each oth«r; on Ha-i-tau point is a small obelisk; and the
land tarns suddenlj to the northward.

i>oad ledflre, bearing from E. by N. to E.N.E. nearly 1;^ miles from
I>odd island, has on it two patches of rock, one of which breaks and the
other has 6 feet over it at low water ; from the eastern edge of the ledge,
Scrag point (the east extreme of the land to the northward) bears N.E. ^ N.
Two rocks, one with 3 feet, the other with 6 feet on it, lie North three-
quarters of a mile and a mile respectively from Dodd island ; and at half
a mile if.W. by W. ^ W. from the island, is a reef showing at half ticle.

ojvtor Islet luid raok« — Oyster islet is a low flat rock bearing
N.N.W. f- W. 2 miles from Hu-i*taa point. Oyster rock, awash, at low
wat^, lies S. ^ W. 9 cables. from the islet, with the obelisk on Hn-i-tau
point bearing S.E. by E. f E., the fort E.N.E., and the summit of Flak
islaiid in line with the left slope of a conical hill at the head of the bay,

xisaiia hmnML occupies a central position in Hu-i-tau bay, and its east
end l^eaxs W. ^ S. about 2 miles frx^m Hu-i-tau point, and N. by E. ^ E.
from. Bodd island ; thence it extends to the north-westward beyond the
White rocks. The eastern end has 1} fathoms on it; the western end
.dries. The. north-east part of the bank is steep-to, the lead giving no
.<wairtung.

VXBB8. — It is high water, frill and change, in Hu-i-tau bay, at Oh. 15m.,
• springs rise 16 feet.

nntscTZOirs. — ^Vessels requiring shelter during the N.E. monsoon in
this baj^ will find good anchorage on its eastern side between Oyster islet
and Oyster rock, taking care to avoid the latter which only shows at low
water springs. There is also anchorage westward of Oyster islet in 5
fritlioms, but the islet should not be brought to the southward of East, as
a rocky ledge of only 6 feet water lies 6 cables W.N.W. of the islet.

Vessels seeding shelter in a southerly wind, can run up the bay to the
northward of White rocks and Thalia bank, and find anchorage in 5 J fathoms
at half a mile north-east of Flak island. To avoid the northern edge of
Thalia bank, do not bring Flak island to the northward of W. by N. | N. ;
and by keeping Oyster islet open northward of the fort, the bank will be
avoided which extends from the north side of the bay.

The channel between Thalia bank and Quemoy is foul with several reefs,

and should not be attempted without some previous knowledge. To clear

•the south end of Thalia bank, keep the chimney on the north end of

Quemoy on a. W. by N. | N. bearing until White rock bears North, then

M 2



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180 -AMOY TO WHITE DOG ISLANDS. [chap. iv.

steer N. W. until the rock is N.E. by £., when shape a course to pass half
a mile from the points of the bajs on the Qaemoj shore.

The channel north of Quemoj having 8 feet in it at low water, might
be used at high tide ; but no vessels should attempt it without a pilot.

osmMO BAT. — The coast from Hu-i-tau point trends 9 miles to the
north-east to Chimmo point, and is low, the sand hills rising about 300
feet. Near the coast are two walled towns, the southernmost of which
has a small pagoda near it. None of the bays afford shelter. H.M.S.
Reynard tried that under Scrag point, but was compelled to use her screw
to set out of it

Chimmo baj is between Chimmo point on the south, and Yungning
point on the north, and its locality will be easily recognised when ap-
proaching from the eastward, by Mount Kusan and its pagoda, which is
760 feet above the sea, and 1| miles from the beach on the north side of
the bay. The mount is the most conspicuous land on this part of the
coast, and a fine land-mark from the offing in hazy weather ; to the north-
eastward and separated from it by a deep gap or valley, is a double topped
hill of nearly the same elevation. The shores of the bay, although barren,
are populous ; the inhabitants bear a bad characte;*, and it was here that
the crews of the opium vessels were attacked in 1847. The walled town
of Yungning stands on the northern shore.

On the south ^ide of the bay, off Chimmo point, are Sour and Pagoda
islets, the channels between which, and between Pagoda and Chimmo
point are full of rocks. N. ^ W. 6 and 7 cables respectively from Sour
islet, are the two Chimmo rocks, which show at low water; when on
'them the east end of Pagoda islet is on with Flat reef, bearing S. \ W,
To pass northward of these rocks bring a large tree,* which stands half
a mile from the beach in the north-west part of the bay, open westward
of a remarkable shoulder peak 3^ miles at the back of it, bearing N.W.,
and when Yungning islet (off Yungning point) is on with Junk head (the
first point to the north-east of it), the vessel will be north-westward of
them ; from these rocks to Yungning islet the distance is 1^ miles.

This bay can only be termed a roadstead, and is dangerous in the
southerly monsoon. Yungning islet is steep-to, but the reef lying W. f S.
3 cables from it, covers^ at high water. Within the bay the depths shoal
gradually, but vessels drawing 15 feet and upwards must not bring
Yungning islet to the southward of E. | S.

Txnxss. — ^It is high water, full and change, in Chimmo bay at lOh. 20m.;
springs rise 16 feet. The tide sets with considerable strength along the

♦ This tree could not be made ouU-^Henry McAusland, Master, B.N,, H,M,S.
Bernard, 1S50.



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chap.it.] CHIMMO bay — CHIN-CHU HARBOUR. 181

coast, between Hoi-i-tau and Chimmo bays ; but both the period and the
rate ybij considerably with the monsoon : the state of the tide will be
known by the numerous fishing nets moored off the coast.

<»nr-csir basbouk. — The coast from Chimmo bay trends N.E. by N.
8 miles to Chungchi point, the southern point of entrance to Chin-chu
harbour. The several sandy bays between these points afford shelter to
junk's, but from the number of rocks in and about them they cannot be
recommended for square-rigged vessels. At 1^ miles southward of
Chungchi point is Bell islet with a buildii^ on it something like a bell.*

Chungchi point, about 400 feet high, has sunken rocks extending 2.
cables from it to the south-eastward. The entrance to the harbour is
about 10 miles wide between this point and the town of Tongbu to the
north-east, but the shores rapidly approach each other, so that its proper
entrance may be considered to be not more than 4^ miles wide between
Chungchi point and the point north of it.

PZ&OT8. — Clun-chu harbour is the only place where pilots can be
obtained for Hai-tan strait or Hungwha sound, and it is advisable that
all vessels bound there should take one, as the navigation is very intricate.

PA88AOS jb1bAW9 is 4^^ miles N.E. | N. from Chungchi point, and
to the eastward of it are three rocks, which cover at high water : the
outermost rock bears E. | S., half a mile from the island. A ledge also
extends from the south-west point of the island, the outer rock of which
is 1^ cables from high water mark.

-wmte rocks lie N.E. ^ N. about half a mile from Passage island, and
are always partly uncovered ; the channel between them is not safe. At
three-quarters of a mile northward of thege rocks is Tahkut, an island (a£
high water) with a large town on it and a fort on its south end, and in the
space between is a sunken rock, from which the highest part of the
northern White rock bears S. by W. \ W. half a mile, and the summit of
Tatoi W. by S. j S.

TA.TOZ and saATOl is&AVBS lie between these points, with the
Hewen rocks above water, lying half a mile S.W. of Seatoi; these all
lie in a N.N.E. and S.S.W. direction, and between them are the navigable
channels to the Lockyung river entrance. Seatoi is a low barren islet ;
Tatoi, 358 feet high, is the highest land in this neighbourhood. Seatoi
bank, with 2^ fSathoms on it, extends about 2 miles eastward of Seatoi
island ; and the Boot, an extensive sand, runs westward from Tatoi island
to the entrance of the river.

&71IZ, TaHeen and Bewen rooks. — ^Lynx rock, with only 6 feet water
over it, lies E. by S. southerly, not quite half a mQe from the highest part

♦ See Admiralty Plan of Chin-chu harbour, No. 1,7.69 ; scale, m =» IJ inches.



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182 AMOY TO WHITB DOa ISLANDS. [catp. rr.