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Seatoi, with Tatoi summit N. by W, J W., aad Passage island N.Ei by
E. ^ E. Taheen rock is 2 cables S. by E. of the Lynx^ and shows at low
water ; when upon it, Choho pagoda bears W.^N., «nd Tatoi sninnut
N. by W. ^ W* The bottom between Taheen and He wen rocks, B.W^^of
Seatoi, is rodgr and nneven, and in several pla^ses has only 6 feet atkyw
water ; a ehannel throng^, howeyer, ii^ sometimes used by the opium- vessel'
wheti ihe wind is too far to the eastward to pennittiiem io fetch b^tweeii'
the Lynx and Seatoi. The highest part of the Hewen in line with ' Cheho
pagoda W.|N. will bad one cable sontihof Tahera and north of a mx.f^i'

xid-Obaaaei Beefi— 'Between Seatoi island and the Hewen rocke,
rather more than a cable from the south-west point of the latter, and a
good half cable from the former^ is MidM^hannel ree^ three points of whlcli
show at low water springs ; it is about 2 cables in circumference, and
from its centre the summit of Tatoi is in line with the west summit of
Seatoi. Beefii also eztrad half a cable from the south, soul^^west, and
eastern sides of Seatoi, thus rendering the channel between this island
and Mid-channd reef exceedingly awkward to a stranger.

Ohofto reef. — ^A sandspit extends nearly 1^ miles in an easterly direction
from Choho pagoda, and from a reef lying on its northern edge, Ihe
pagoda bears S.W. f W., distant 6 cables, and the summit of Pisai island

Ota rock« which covers at high water, is East half a mile from Pisai, and
N.W. J N. from Choho pagoda.

-It is high water, frill and change, at Pisai island in Chinnchu
harbour at Oh. 25m., springs rise 17^eet.

BIBBCTZOV8, — Kusan pagoda^ 760 feet above the sea (page 180), is
an excellent mark for recognizing the locality of Chin-chu harbour when
approaching it from the southward.' From a position about 1| miles
eastward of Chungchi point, steer North until Choho pagoda opens
northward of Seatoi inland bearing W. | S., when the pagoda should be
steered for on that bearing, and it will lead along the northern edge of
Seatoi bank. The ship Omegcty drawing 11 feet^ struck on a bank 1^
miles eastward of Seatoi, b\it not less than 2\ fathoms were found upon
the Seatoi bank in March 1844 ; the southerly monsoon may, however,
cause the sand to accumulate at times.

If running for the harbour from the northward, and intending to anchor
southward of the Boot sand, after passing about three-quarters of a mile
south of Passage island steer in with Choho pagoda W. | S., until the.
peak on Tatoi isknd bears N. by W. J*W., ai\d the eastern end of Seatoi

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ialand S.S. W. ^ W.^ then haul to the southward, and paas a cable eastward
of the east point of SeatoL Bound the south side of Seatoi at half a caUe,
and when its western summit is on with the highest part of Tatoi the
vessel will be in the narrowest part of the channel^ which is here barely a
cable aoross.

,. Having p^^ed Seatoi a W.N.W. course will lead to the aochozage
above Pisai island in mid-channel. Bj keeping this island westward of
W. by N« ^ N. the reef off Ghoho pagoda will be avoided; and the
sottihern edge of the Boot will be cleared by not bringing Seatoi to the
southward of E. by S. f S.; the outline of this bank, however, is generally
visible. The opium vessels run in between the Lynx and Taheen rocks
with the south extremes of Seatoi island and Ota rock in line with north
extreme of Pisai. The anchorage is North about 1^ or 2 miles from
Pisai, where the channel is 3 cables wide.

If wishing to anchor on the north side of the Boot, steer to pass north-
ward of Tatoi island, and if drawing less than 15 feet a vessel may run up
until Choho pagoda bears S. by W. J W., where she will have smooth
water in any weather, as the Boot forms an excellent breakwater. The
north edge of the Boot will be avoided by keeping the White rocks south-
ward of East. A sunken rock lies 1^ cables from the northern shore,
and N. by W. ^ W. from the summit of Tatoi. There is good anchorage
in north-east or northerly gales in 3^ and 4 fathoms, with the summit of
Tatoi S.E. by S. ; but in a south-west gale the former anchorage is to be
preferred. The Boot may be crossed by a vessel of light draught at high
tide, but it should be sounded first, as the sands are liable to shift.

The entrance of the small river, leading to the town of Chin-chu, is
3 miles W. by N. | N. from Pisai island. On the left bank near the
entrance ia a circular fort, 4 or 5 miles above which is the town standing
on the north bank of the river. The channels to it are shoal and intricate,
and the large junks have to wait in the neighbourhood of Pisai for tide
before they can cross the flats, which are covered with artificial oyster


TOMO-BU BAT.— About 10 miles N.E. by E. of Chung-chi point, is the
town o£ Tong-bu, south-westward of which is a large open bay or road-
stead, affording anchorage in 7 to 4 fathoms, with good shelter in the N.E.
monsoon ; it cannot, however, be recommended, on account of the ex-
ceedingly rocky character of the coast.

Xaao rook. — ^This sunken danger, on which H.M.S. Juno struck, when
standing for an anchorage in Tong-bu bay, is a cluster of rocky heads
covered with coral, with 12 feet at low water, and 5^ to 6 fathoms around*
From the rock, the west corner of tong-bu wall bears N.E. 1 J miles, the

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summit of an islet in the bay N.W. i N., Tahkut island fort W. ^ N., and
Passage island W. by S. ^ S.

FrmAMio POlMTf at 3 miles eastward of Tongbu, is the southerir
point of entrance to port Matheson, and when approaching on a westerly
bearings it. appears a bold black face of land, not in any way representing-
its name ; but on a northerly bearing, or inside the point, it cannot be

Pyramid rock is connected with the point at low water, and to the
S.E. of it is a rock which never covers. To the eastward of the Pyra-
mid are several reefs, from the outermost of which the Pyramid bears
S.W. by W. I W. 6 cables, the highest part of the hmd forming the*
north side of port Matheson N. by E., and a cliff head at the head or
the promontory (extending south-westerly from the above hills) is in<
Une with a remarkable cone in the bay N. by W. \ W.

ABtiiiorMre. — Small vessels will find anchorage in the N.E. mon-
soon in the first bay westward of Pyramid point, where they will be
sheltered to the eastward by the reef of rocks, mostly above water,
extending south-east from the point, and forming a good breakwater;
care must, however, be taken to avoid a sunken rock lying South, a cable
from the first point eastward of the walled city of Tongbu. As, however,
they have to go close in, a better anchorage is said to be westward of the
rocks of Tongbu. Fish is plentiful.

POST BCATBBSOW, called by the Chinese Gulai, is the next inlet to the
north-east of Chin-chu, the isthmus near the city of Tongbu being only a
mile across. The port is 4 miles wide at entrance, and affords tolerable
shelter to vessels of about 12 feet draught if the wind be northward of
East; but it is only a roadstead, and that a bad one in the southerly
monsoon. There are no dangers in if except a rock lying North 4 cables^
from the largest islet on the southern shore.

MBZCBBW sovirB, the next inlet north of port Matheson, is 6 milea
across at the entrance, which may be recognised by the Ninepin rock
lying nearly in the middle of it. A reef extends South from the Ninepin,
and at the distance of a mile in that direction is Square rock, one of a
cluster of rocks, which does not cover at high tide ; thence the reef
extends south-westward 1^ cables, and its outer part dries at low. water.
A large spar* is moored about 1^ miles south-west of Square rock.

East, 6 cables from the Ninepin, is a flat patch of rocks awash at high
water, and between this patch and Rogues point is good anchorage in the
N.E. monsoon. H.M. brig Plover rode out a gale westward of the Nine-

* H.M.S. Pique stood into this Sound in August 1858, hut the spar could not be seen.

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pin, without much strain upon the cable, but with an uneasy sea ; anchorage
was theiefore preferred under Rogues point ; but since that period H.M.S.
Scout found a rock here which renders this anchorage more difficult of
approach. It lies midway between the Ninepin and the extreme of Rogues
point, \>earing from the former E. by S. | S., and South from the mound at
the end of the sandy isthmus connected with Rogues point. H.M.S.
Comus^ August 1856, anchored in 8^ fathoms with the Ninepin bearing
South, Rogues point S.E. | E., and a small white rock off Meichen village
1^. ^ N. ; but it was considered an unsafe anchorage during the southerly
monsoon and many rocks were seen in the sound, which are not noticed in
the chart.

N. hj E. I E., one nule from the Ninepin, is a rock which shows at low
water, and from it the highest part of Rogues point bears S.E. by E. \ E.
There is a passage between this rock and the Ninepin, but rocks extend a
cable from the latter. Rogues point may be approached without fear
except on its east side, where there is a reef rather less than a cable from
the shore ; 3^ and 4 fathoms will be found at the distance of 3 cables from
the sandy spit west of it. South 1^ miles of Rogues point is a patch of
4| fathoms water.

Ximer Barbonr. — In the southerly monsoon vessels will find a good
harbour to the north-west of Saddle island, which bears N.W. by N-
3^ miles from the Ninepin. In approaching it, pass southward of the south
islet off Saddle island, and haul to the northward round the western islet,
giving it a berth of a cable at high water to avoid a ledge. The ground
is very uneven hereabouts, and there are only 2\ fathoms water at a mile
W.N.W. of the western islet.*

N. by E., one mile from Saddle island, is a low Cliff islet, from the west
point of which a sand bank extends 1| miles to the north-west; the south
peak o£ Saddle island kept eastward of S.E. by S. will lead westward of it.
When Mound peak (which is on the mainland, and 3 miles northward
of Saddle island, with a walled town and pagoda near it) bears East, a
vessel will be northward of this bank and can haul in towards the town.
W. by N. i N., 2\ miles from Mound peak, is a knoll with only 6 feet
over it.

The junks use the channel between Mound peak and Cliff islet, and also
pass between Mound peak and Meichen island. The former channel is
'deep, but requires personal knowledge ; the latter is strewn with rocks,
and in some places has not a greater depth than 9 feet. The sound runs
back 10 miles to the northward of Mound peak, forming narrow isthmuses
across to Pinghai bay and Hungwha sound.

* See Admiralty Chart, East Coast of China, Sheet 5, No. X761, ; scale, m » 6*24 of
an inch.

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TSBBS. — It 10 high water, full and change, in Meichen sound, at
Oh. dOm., springs rise 17 feet.

m^^^'mv. BOCX, bearing £. by N. 3} miles from Bognes point, is 60
feet high, and has a detached rock three-quarters of a cable south of it.
. vnraaui bat, the next Inlet north-east of Meichen sound, is 6^ mUes
wide at entrance, between the Rowan islands on the west and Ping point
<m the east^ and shoals gradually from 5 to 3 fethoms. Ping rock, 90 feet
high aod conical shaped, lies 4 tables southward of the latter point,
•ad 9 miles NJB* by N. from the Sorrel rock ; there is a sunken rock
S. W. by W. a quarter of a mile from it.

The anchorage in this bay is in 3 fathoms off the town of Pinghai, with
the Ping rook bearing S.E. by E. At 5 miles north-westward of the
anchorage is a high range of hills, one of the peaks of which, Marlin Spike;
is a good guide for this part of the coast. The bay runs back past the foot
of the Marhn Spike range, but is shoal, there being seldom more than
2 &thoms westward of the range.

Beefs extend nearly a mile from the coast to the northward of Ping

&OVTX BOOK is about &]^ miles E.S.E. from Ping rock, and between
them, 1| miles from Loutz, are two sunken rocks, named Loutz shoal, from
which the Ping is in line with Marlin Spike peak N.W. by W. J W. ; and
the islet lying north-east of the Loutz in one with the South Yit, E. | N.
N.N.W. 2 cables from the above islet is a half tide rock, and another
S. f W. 8 cables from the islet and East from the highest part of the

ocxsBn Z8&AVB8. — ^The Ockseu or Wokeu group consists of two
islands, with a barren rock in the centre joining the eastern island. The
north-western island, the largest, is 260 feet above the sea, round-topped,
with smooth sides, and bears from the Sorrel rock E. by S. ^ S. 15^ miles,
and from the South Tit S. by W. \ W, lOJ miles.* The steam vessel
Nemesis, drawing 5 feet, anchored under the south side of the eastern
island, which is 150 feet high, rather hunmiocky and sandy, with a large
fishing village on it, and detached rocks off its east and west points. It
is doubted, however, if there is shelter sufficient in a strong breeze for a
vessel of greater draught. Temporary light See Appendii:, page 676.

KAM-TIT zsXiAVB, the southern and largest of the archipelago called
the Eighteen Tits', is 7 miles long E.S.E. -and W.N.W., and fronts the
deep and extensive inlet, Hungwha sound. The eastern peak. High

* A strong tide ripple, or reef, appeared to break about 1 J miles W.N.W. of the
wastem Ockseu island.— Owwwander J, C, D, Hay, HM.S. CdumUne, 1848.


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coD/&y 565 feet above the sea, and the highest poist of the island, la in
lat. 55° 12' N., long. 119^ 35' E.

. The south point of the island is a bold table land» and off it, and con-
nected at low water, is South Yit islet, to the north^^west^ which will be
found a snug and excellent anchorage, in 7 to 10 fathoms, in the 'N.E.
9ion80<Hi. On rounding give the South Yit (which appears like a ihass of
bJaetk stones heaped up against the side of a sandhill), a berth of a qjdarter
of a mil^ and then haul up into the bay, being prepared to anchor dirMIj
the water shoals. I^. W., 2 miles from the South Yi^ is a flat rock whidik is
always about water ; and S. by E. 4 cables from this roek, is a reef awash
at low. tide. This is the only danger in thie bay on the South shOT0 of
Lamyit island, and it will be avoided by keeping within 1^ miles of the South
Yit, should the vessel not.fetch up into smooth-water after rounding it

KAM-ii'iT CHAWiraK is ou the west gfide of Lam-yit island, and a
vessel proceeding through it towards Hungwha sound from the anchorage
on the south side of Lam-yit, must be careful on the flood to steer well to
the south-west to avoid a sand-bank extending 2^ miles in a southerly
direction from the west point of Ltun-yit. From its southernmost edge^ *
in 2^ fathoms, the South Yit bore E | S. ; its western edge will be avoided
by keeping Lam point (the west point of the island, which will be known
by its three chimneys) to the eastward of Norths

H.M. brig Plover examined this bank three diflerent times, and on eadi
occasion found a change. On one occasion a passage was discovered
between it and the point; the outline of the bank, however, may be
detected by discoloured water. On the western side of the channel ihece
is also a rocky patch of 1| fathoms, the eastern edge of which be^trs
S. by W. 2 miles from Clam islet (the largest islet between Lam-yit
and the main); from its southern edge, Lam point bore E. by N,

AVC«oBJLOB. — The Plover rode out a strong N.E. gale between Lam
point and Clam islet ; but better shelter will be found southward of Lam
point, where the junks anchor. The outer rock off the point always shows,,
and may be rounded close-to ; but it must not be brought westward of
N.N.W., as the water shoals suddenly, and there is a sunken rock in
the bay at 6 cables southward of it. The best position is as close up
under the point as the vessel's draught will permit. For vessels of large
draught there is anchorage in 4 or 5 fathoms, at 1^ miles northward of the

MmavirHA. momm* — ^Besides Lam-yit- island, there are many islands
and rocks within Hungwha sound, bordering its shores, the principal
ones being near the entrance points. The only passages that must be
used to ^nter it are, the Lam-yit and Hungwha channels, and Hai-taa

araota can be obtained at Chin-chu, see page 181.

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Mr«ottoas.«— Before prooeeding to the eastward, directions will be given
for Hanghwa Bay Sound, which will render the remarks on the passage to
the northward more compact* Bound through the Lam-yit channel for the
entrance of Hungwha river, which flows into the western part of Hungwha
sound, steer northerly 7 miles from Lam point, when the vessel will be
one mile northward of Knob island, and may then proceed for Pitew point,
which bears N- W. 7 miles from Knob. A patch of rocks lies north-w6st of
Knob island, the eastern one of which bears N. by W. 8 cables from the
island, and the north-westernmost N.W. i W. If miles ; some of them are
always above water. There is another patch off Pitew point, the south-
east end bearing E.S.E. 2 miles from the south-east comer of the fort on
the point. Good anchorage in 6 fathoms will be found with this comer of
the fort E.N.E. The entrance to Hungwha river, leading to the town,
bears W. by S. frt>m Pitew point ; the depth shoals to 6 feet at low water
at 5 miles from the fort. In 1844 there was a piratical establishment on
the mun, S.W. from Pitew point.

PASAA.aB WOSTX Of tlao KAM-TITS.— Intending to pass northward of
» Lam-yit island the best passage is the channel north of the Passage islands
which are three in number, and bear N.N.E. o miles from Lam point.
Between Lam point and the Passage islands is Cliff island, in the vicinity
of which* are several reefs, rendering the channel between it and Lam-yit,
and also that and between it and the Passage islands, precarious. A ledge
extends 2 cables in a westerly direction from the south-west point of West
Passage island, having passed which, vessels may haul to the eastward
round the group.

This channel north of the Passage islandst is 4 cables wide, and is
bounded on its northern side by a rock, and a reef which shows at low
water, lying 1 J cables westward of it. North of the rock, 1 J cables, is a
small islet ; and 4 cables north of the islet is Bugged island.

The north-east Passage island is a bold bluff, steep-to on its north
side ; from which a vessel may steer to pass either north or south of
White islet, which beai-s East 4^ miles from the Passage islands. If
passing south of this islet take care to avoid the three Hung rocks,

* There are also many dangers between Hungwha sound and Hungwha channel, and
the chart of this part is not strictly to be relied on ; for instance, the Cliffy islands and
North Yit do not exist ; there is but one OJffy island with rocks detached off its south-
•east part, which may be the south-west Cli% island marked on the chart. .There are
two dangerous rocks, awash at half tide, between Clifiy island and Red Yit, in line
with the former and a little northward of the latter, and directly in the way of nayiga-
tion. The Hung rocks are somewhat out of position, being more to the eastward of Red
Yit— Remarks by Charles G, Johnston, Master, B,N., ff.M.S, Bittern, 1856.

f H.M.S. Salamander encountered a heavy race and chow-chow water in this
channel, November 1851,

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which cover at first quarter flood and beai- S. hy W. a mile from it.
These rocks have heen reported to he out of position.

THe szaBTBSir TZT8 are a scattered group of small islands lying north-
east and eastward of Lamyit island, and extending over a space of 10 miles.
On no account ought vessels to stand in among the Yits, as the ground
is very uneven. Triangle Yit, with a reef off its east side, is IJ miles
S.E. of High Cone peak on Lam-yit island. Cap Yit, the south-eastern-
most of the group, is 4 miles E.N.E. from High Cone peak ; and nearly
2 miles S.E. from Cap Yit is a group of low rocks named Scattered Yits,
some of which are always above water. Double Yit is 1 J miles N.E. from
Cap Yit, and bounds the Hungwha channel, which, between it and Sentry
island to the north-east, is 3 miles tv^ide. The above-named are the eastern-
most of the group ; those on the north-east are Long Yit, west of Double
Yit, and N.E. Yit W.N.W. of the same, both of which are steep-to, and on
the border of the Hungwha channel ; and lastly. North Yit rock (if it exist)
which bounds the group on the north, lying south-east of the Passage
islands at ihe eastern entrance of Hungwha sound.

Si^vosRS off VAiraAir pozitt. — ^E. by N. | N. 4^ miles from
White islet is Vangan point, the west point of entrance to Haitan strait,
and which may be recognised by a pagoda. Halfway between the two is
Kerr island, close off the land, from which a reef extends southward more
than half a mile, the extremity of which is E. ^ N. 2J miles from White
islet.* Off Yangan point are two islets, south and east, and the shore
between the point and Kerr island is of such a character as to give indica-
tions of uneven, rocky ground, which is also shown by the irregular sound-
ings existing over the triangular space included between these and the be-
fore-mentioned rock in the centre of Hungwha channel. Until thoroughly
surveyed, it would therefore be prudent to avoid this space entirely.

vo&OA BAiTKif of clay with coral heads, of very small extent, and
with only 9 feet on its shoalest part, lies 6 cables S. | W. from the islet
south of Yangan point. From the shoal spot. White islet is in line with
the middle of one of the Passage islands, and the south point of the rocks,
at the southern extremity of Kerr island in one with the southern point
of Rugged island, W. ^ N. northerly.

wnnravsmjL cmAxmi» is that which leads out to seaward north of
the Eighteen Yits, and the northern side of which is bounded by the

* The reef temng E. by N. from White island, is very dangerous, and extends nearly
2 miles off shore ; it is covered an hour after low water. There is good anchorage in
the bay N.E. of the reef. — Commander J. D. Hay, HM.S, Columbine, 1 848.

t On which the mail steamer Volga stnick. Reported by the Admiral commanding
the French naval forces in China, 1873.

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jila»dn and leefii oC YADg«n pointy and the other group more to the eaat-
ward, consisting of Sentrj, Beef, Sand, and Chim islands. Between the
.two latter gronps the channel which branches to the northward is the south
entrance of Haitan strait.

. OMrtlMi* — ^A rode, small and steep-to^ with only a few feet water oyer
Of, is said to lie-in Hongwha channel^ nearly midway between Yangan
4point and the N.E. Yit, with Yangan pagoda bearing N.byE.^and White
island W. f . N. The Master of the opium vessel who diaicoYered this
danger, sounded with a boathook.

mmutry laiaadf when bearing West, appears as two small islands. N.N.E.
4 mUes from Double Yit is Sand island, a remarkable white island, with
sandy beaohes and detached hills.

Otalm, the highest island in this locality, rises with sloping sides into
two peaks, one of which 640 feet above the sea, has on it three chimneys,
the usual pirate signal along the coast of the Fu^yen province. > At 2^
miles S.E. of Chim and 2 miles northward of Beef island are some rocks,
with reefs interspersed, .called Chim bank.

BimacTzoirs. — ^Entering Hungwha channel from the eastward, pass
(taking care to avoid the Comet rock lying, about 2 miles S.E. by E.
of Sentry) between Double Yit and Sentry Island^ and westward of Sai^^d
island and the rodky islets on its north-west face, off whjlch th^re is
anchorage, should dayl^ht or the tide fail ; but the best shelter is off
Station island, to tiie north of Cbfm Island.

On no account whatever pass between Sand, Sentry, Beef, and Chim
islands, as this locality has not been suftciently examined, and beware of
the reefs eastward and southward of Beef island. Some of these have
been accurately placed. The Comet rock, with 9 feet water, lies 1 J miles
S. by W. } W. from the summit of Beef island. Another, Breaker rock,
which uncovers at three-quartws ebb, lies 1 J miles South of the same,

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