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with foul ground inside it. These rocks when covered are conspicuously
marked by the tidal streams stirring up the muddy bottom. Beef island
may be skirted at 1^ miles' distance in 1 1 fathoms. Chim rocks (sometimes
called Chim bank) may be passed on the east at 3 cables in 14 fathonis.

BAZ-TAX' xsz^avB. — This large and irregular shaped island, lying
between the parallels of 25** 24' and 26'' 40' N., is separated from the main-
land by the fine navigable strait bearing the same name. Its northern part
is high, the peak of Kiangshan hills rising 1,420 feet above the level of the
sea, whilst the eastern and western shores are low, and indented by deep
sandy bays. Numerous small islands and rocks occupy Hai-tan strait,
between the island and the coast, and although if is not to be recom-
mended to sailing vessels except with a commanding breeze, being very


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intxicate, jei the ooaating steamers and junks invariably use it; one of
the/ latter was found lying there, haying been detained 27 days waiting
lor an opportoni^y to get out at the norxhem end.*

BaA-taB points the south extreme of Hai-tan island, is a rugged, sandy
headland, with large boulders sticking up here and there* Off it are
several rocks a little above high water ; and a sunken rock lies 7 cables
eastward of them, and nearly 6 cables off shore. The best mark to avoid
this rock is not, to haul into the south-east entrance of Hai-tan strait
until- the rocks off Hai-tan point bear E.N.E. Between the point and
Station isJand, 3^ miles to the north-west, the coast of Hai-tan is shoal,
with detached reefs, and, should not be approached within 1^ miles. The
re^flyifig WiOstward of Station island is covered at high tides.

From Hairtan point the. south-east coast of the island trends N.E. by E.
6^ miles to Hae head, and between is a deep sandy bay, with several
detached rocks, the most remarkable of which. Trite island, forms in
three peaks. See anchorage under Hae head, page 684.

Soutii reef lies S. J E. 2 miles from Trite island, portions of which
are visible unless the tides are very high, and the water smooth ; from it
Chim island bears W. by S. and Turnabout island N.E. by E. | E.

'Bat-tan and Bwinff bayv* — ^Between Hae head and Tan pomt, 7 miles
16 the N. by E., is Hai-tan bay, a deep sandy bight, with numerous rocks
both above anid below water. Tan point, which is a low cliff with a
mound at the back of it. forms the south extreme of Kwing bay, aad at 1^
mSies eastward of it are the Tan i-ocks, some of which are always visible.
Kwing island is a mile northward of Tan point, and reefs extend in a south-
easterly direction a mile from its eastern side. The channel between the
island and the point is much obsti'ucted by reefs at its western end, and
the swell rolls home to the Hai-tan shore. Between Kwing and Hai-tan
is another islet ; but the tide rushes through these channels with sudi
velocity that they ought never to be taken. Kwing bay affords a fair
anchorage during south-easterly winds, but it is much exposed during north-
easterly winds.

YZBS8.— It is high water, full and change, in Haitan strait, at 12h. ;
spring* rise 18 feet, neaps 14 feet. There is no record of the tidal streams,
but the £ood is known to^ome from the southward ; it also enters by the
three tiorth^n channels, though with great irregularity.

Tbe aomu umtiurCB to Haitan strait is gained from the Hungwha
channel. Having passed the dangers off Vangan point, and those projecting
from the western face of Sand island, a vessel will haul to the northward,

* See Admiralty Flan of Hai-tan strait, No. 1,985, scale m =* l inch.

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and work up inside Chim island, to the westward of which are no dangers,
except a rock at the entrance of Yangan inlet, which may be avoided bj
keeping 1^ cables off shore. Here vessels wiU have smooth water pro-
tected from the easterly swell by Chim island. On the south point of
Yangan inlet is a walled town and pagoda.

souTK SAST BVTSAVCB. — A vesscl approaching this entrance
from the northward, after rounding Hae head, will, by passing about half a
mile southward of Trite island, avoid South reef which is 2 miles to the
Bouth of it. Junks occasionally take shelter under Hae head, and it is said
that some vessels have done so in the N.E. monsoon ; it will, however,
be found much exposed should the wind haul to the southward of East.

Entering from the south-eastward pass about a mile eastward of the Chim
rocks, and when the northernmost bears W.S.W. one mile, steer about
N.W. by W. (thereby^assing Chim island at 3 cables) until Junk Sail rock
is N. ^ W., to avoid the shoal ground extending from Station island,* and
then haul up to pass 4 cables westward of Junk Sail, from which a reef
extends half a cable to the southward, and 1^ cables to the westward.

TBB PASS. — N.W, by W. a mile from Junk Sail is Pass island, from
which a sand-bank extends one mile S. by E., its extreme end bearing from
the west point of Junk Sail about W.S. W., narrowing the channel here to 4
cables. A reef of rocks shows at half tide at 3 cables N.E. from the summit
of Pass. Low islet, lying 4 cables N.N.E. of Pass, has a mud spit with
rocks extending S.S.E. 3 cables from it ; nor can the islet be approached
within 3 cables of high water mark on its western side owing to the lately
discovered Ashuelot rockf. This rock has 10 feet on it at low water
springs, with 6 fathoms at two boats' lengths from it. This sunken danger
further narrows the channel to 2^ cables at low water and renders it
unsafe about that time of tide, especially if the stream be making atvong.
It would appear by the chart { that the Pass island reefj when uncovered,
kept just touching the point of Junk Sail rock, would lead clear through

Bireotions. — ^After passing Junk Sail steer North for Low islet until
the east end of Junk Sail and the west end of Station island are in line^§

*«6tatioii island is often difficult to make out until close up to it, bat immediately
behind it is a remarkable white patch.

t On which the American steamer Suwonada struck in January 1872. Its position
waa|lBubsequently verified by the officers of the U.S.S. Ashuelot, From the rock, Low
island bears E: i N. 3 cables, and the middle of Pass island S. by W. J W.

t See Admiralty Plan of Hai-tan strait.

§ It appears highly probable that to this good leading mark is due the immunity from
accident to the numerous vessels which have navigated this strait for so many years

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cflAP.iT.] HAI-TAN STRAIT. 193

keeping them so until Pass island bears South; but be careful to shut
the points in some^^hat at the moment of passing the Ashuelot rock,
when Low island will be coming on an East bearing. Then steer N, ^ W.
or N J^.W. as may be desirable to pass east or west of Flat island.

Since the date of Kellett's and CoUinson's survej in 1^43 the channels
north of Fli^ island have materially altered, the old channel on the east
haying decreased in depth to 17 feet at its northern part, and a new
channel, the Wilson, opened out on the western side of the strait carrying
22 feet at low water springs. Between the two a middle ground 3 miles in
length has grown up with only 4 to 6 feet water over it. The banks are
generally discoloured and their edges show, but not invariably. In thick
weather, especially when coming from the northward, the Wilson channel,
is preferable.*

coK&nrsoir CBAnUk — If desiring to pass by this, the old channel,
steer, after passing the Ashuelot rock, a N. ^ W. course which will lead
2 cables east of Flag island. When Flag is two points abaft the beam
steer N.N.W. (or on the flood tide N.W. by N.) to bring the east end of
Flag touching the west end of Pass, S. ^ E., which mark will lead in
mid-channel 4^ miles above Flag. Take care, however, not to open this
mark whilst passing a reef, which shows at low water, one mile N. ^ E.
of Flag, and from which Middle island bears N.E. When Black rocks
are on with Pagoda hill W. by S. ^ S., the east point of Low island
in line with Channel rock will then lead over the best water on a
N. "by W. J W. course into the main channel, and when the soundings
deepen to 7 fathoms steer for the Cow's Horn, the remarkable peak to
the northward.

vm^ov CKAmrsXid — ^For several years this channel has been pre-
ferred by the coasting steamers. Passing one cable west of Flag, the
southern spit of which may be avoided by keeping its west point on a
bearing eastward of North, steer N.N.W., taking care not to shut Junk
Sail in with the west point of Flag till past a 2 fathoms' knoll on the Middle
ground, which may be known by Hill island, 300 feet high, bearing E. i N.
The channel here is very narrow, being only 1^ cables wide between the
tliree fathoms' lines. Then steer N. by W. ^ W., Junk Sail being allowed
gradually to shut in behind Flag, but not to open eastward of it till Middle
island is in line with Town point, E. by N. Then haul up to N. by W.,
and after passing the Flat Rocky islands to North, which course may be
continued passing east of the Black rocks at 2 or 3 cables untU Pillar rock,
a remarkable object on the Hai-tan shore N. by E. 6^ miles from Flag
bears E.N.E;, when steer for the Cow's Horn, passing 3 or 4 cables west
of Tower rock.

* Ke-survcjed by Commander Chas. Bullock, R.N., of H.M.S. Serpent in 1866.
90251. K

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-The Cow's Horn, a remarkable peak on the main to
the northward of the Btndt, kept in line with the summit of Slut island
N. i W., leads clear of all dangers to within a mile of the northern

On either side the channel are irregular shallow banks, on which lie
seyeral ree&. On the eastern side, on the shoal ground which extends
Bonth-westward from Tatong, are Tower rock and a mile farther north the
Three rocks. Both these lie on the border of the channel. Tower rock
makes low and flat, with the appearance of an embrasure in it ; a reef
extends 1^ cables west of it. Parts of Three-rocks reef always show.
There is also Dory reef, which lies at the extremity of foul ground extend-
ing one mile west-south-west of Dory isluid, and which bears &om Tower
rock N. by W. 2^ mUes.

The channel is narrowed to half a mile between the Dory reef and
Black-peaked reef which lies 8 cables W.N.W. of it, and a mile south of
Slat. Bocks visible at low water lie inside Black-peaked rock, and there
is a reef Half a mile South of it. When Black-peaked rock bears W.N. W.,
steer N. by E. ^ E. for the entrance.

The best channel out of Hai-tan strait is eastward of Slut, between Slut
and Shhigan islands. The course is N.E. | N. Beefs extend from both
shores, narrowing the channel to 4 cables. Between Slut and Shingan
there are often strong tide rips and overfalls which render Hie steerage
very difficult. When working through the narrows, the summit of Slut
must not be brought southward of S.W. ^ S., as a rocky 9-feet patch lies 7
cables north-east of the island. N.N.E. ^ E. 2| miles irom the summit
of Slut is a sunken rock on which the sea breaks at low water ; when
upon it the Cow's Horn bears N.W.f N. Shingan island, on the eastern
side of the narrows, trends away to the N.E., breaking into detached
fragments and giving a little more room for a board, but iho main difficulty
is the tide, which, after a vessel is through the channel, affords little or no
help, so that unless there is a slant of wind she is liable to be driven among
the small islets north of Hai-tan, and if a dull sailer, and unable to clear
the dangers in one tide, she will be compelled to bear up before dark.

There are three other channels between Slut and Hai-tan, none of
which, owing to the height of the islands and consequent liability to be
beftalmed, are so good as the one described. The flood tide enters through
all these, but with great irregularity; it should, however, be observed,
that while the Plover was employed on this portion of the survey, a severe
typhoon occurred to the north, which may in some measure have caused
the difficulty experienced by her getting out at this end.

TfiSSAXUL xsXiAirBS are a group of four islets lying N.N.E. 6 miles
from Slut island ; between them and the Cow's Horn the depth is 6

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fathoms. The long swell which set into the bay prevented the Phver
anchoring, and giving these idands as well as the islets to the eastward
that close investigation that could have been wished. The only conclusion
arrived at was that there was nothing here sufficiently extensive to shelter
a vessel in the N.E. monsoon. A reef extends S.S.E. 3 cables from the
easternmost islet. Brown rock, north-westward of Tessara, is 90 feet high
and cl«^ in two. •

Caution. — ^It cannot be considered safe for large vessels to pass by any
of the channels inside the Tessara islands. That between Cow's Horn
point and Fairway island/is not reputed safe by the pilots, and in that
between Fairway and Tessara^ which they always use, H.M.S. Hornet
struck* on a rock 500 yards off the west end of the latter island, the
soundings being 5 to 6 fathoms. Whenever small craft do pass this way,
mid-channel courses between the islands and reefs should be carefully kept.

&SB SOCK is a small islet with reefs about it, lying S.E. by S. 3 miles
from Tessara islands. Vessels should not close the Hai-tan shore to the
eastward of this rock, as the intervening space between it and the Warning
rocks (which are about 80 feet high and lie 7 miles to the eastward) is
strewn with reefs.

irosTOir SOCK, about 50 feet high with a rock awash half a mile
westward of it, lies East 6^ miles from Tessara islands.

"WSXTS zsabAWS^ — At 7^ miles northward of the Tessara is the south-
ernmost of a group of rocks and shoals, which extend all the way to Sand
peak point. Junks anchor under the largest, White island, but there is
almost always a heavy ground swell setting into this bay. A sandy beach
extends from the Cow's Horn to Sand peak, a distance of 16 miles, and a
vessel may stand towards it until the group just described is reached,
which it will be advisable to keep outside of, taking care to avoid a rock
lying 9 cables eastward of White island.

SAiTB P&ax. — Under Sand peak the banks at the entrance of the
river Min commence ; 3 fathoms will be found at 2 miles off shore, and
boats may find their way into the Min by the channel between Sand peak
and Woufou island, but the navigation even for them is difficult, find
entirely impracticable (if the channel described on page 275 be not known)
to any but of such light draught as can go over sands that dry at low
water. This^ however, when the tide will admit, will be found the best
channel for a vessel lying at the White Dogs to communicate with
Fu-chau fii. There is a large fishing establishment under Sand peak.

* The vessel glanced oflf the rock, and the following bearings were taken immediately
after: —Brown rock, N. 84*^ W..; Fairway reef, S. 13° W. j CoVs Horn, S. 62=* W.

-^ 2

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ioUT ZMUijn« lying E.S.K about 4 miles &om Hae head in
lat. 25° 26' N^ long. 119^ 58' 42" E., has two small islets off it, and there
is said to be * a sunken rock, on which the sea breaks occasionally, lying
2 cables off its north point.

&IOBT.— A fixed white light is exhibited from a lighthouse, 54 feet
in height, on the summit of Turnabout island, visible all round. It is
elevated 256 feet above the sea, and should be seen, in dear weather, a
distance of 23 miles. The ill|;iminating apparatus is dioptric, of the first
order. The tower, which is of stone, is painted black, and the keepers'
dwellings and surrounding walls white. •

WMATM »oa 3Ui&AVB8« Called by the Chinese Pih-keun, are 22 miles
N.t^.E. \ E. from the peak of the Kiangshan hills on Hai-tan island, and
8^ miles S.E. of the entrance of the river Min. They consist of two large
and one smaller islet, named Middle Dog, South Dog, and Tong-sha ialand.'l'

Toar-BiWf the western island, and the largest of the group, has a reef
of rocks runm'ng off its west extreme, terminated by a square islet called
the Breakwater ; and a half tide rock lies a cable from the western point
of Village bay, on the south side of the island. The highest part of the
island is flat topped, and 590 feet above the sea. Fresh water may be
obtained in small quantities^

Beaoon* on the southern end of the Middle Dog island is a beacon built
of brick, which in the distance resembles a pagoda.

Bocks and reefs extend both northerly and westerly from the Middle
Dog, but the outer ones always show ; a rock on which the sea generally
breaks lies N.E. by E. \ E. 1^ miles from its north-east point. The
channel between Middle Dog and Tong-sha is safe. The islands are in-
habited by a few fishermen, and were, at the time of the survey, occasionally
visited by pirates.

KZOBTd — ^A light is exhibited from a tower recently erected on the
north-east end of Middle Dog Island. It is a fixed white light, varied by
a bright flash every half minute^ visible all round, except to the westward,
where it is intercepted by the higher ridges of the White Dogs. It is
obscured by Tong-sha when bearing between E. by S. f S. and East ; by
the northern hill of Middle Dog when between E. J N. and NJS. by E. ^ E ;
and by the southern hill of the same when between N.E. by E. and
N.E. \ N. It is elevated 257 feet above the sea and in clear weather should
be seen from* a distance of 23 miles. The tower is round, built of stone
35 feet high, and painted white, the light-keepers' dwellings and boundary
walls are white also.

The illuminating apparatus is of the first order, dioptric.

* Commander J. S. Ellman, 'KM..S, Salamander, 1851.

t See Admiralty Chart of rirer Min, with riews, No. 2,400^ scale, m a 1 * 2 iaohef.

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tas in the N.E. monsoon, for vessels of anj draught, i;?ill be
found nnder Tong-sha island. Small vessels will be well sheltered in
18 feet, dose under the Breakwater, and here whole fleets of Chinese junks
remain during foul weather. As the water decreases gradually towards
Tong-sha, large vessels may approach as convenient, bearing in mind that
the rise and fall is J 8 feet. H.M.S. Cornwallis anchored here for five
days, with strong north-easterly winds, and rode easy, with the Break-
water bearing N. \ W., the village N.N.E., and the Middle Dog E. \ S.

]>xascTZOV8d — ^The passage from Lam-yit to White Dog islands may
be considered as the most difficult portion of the coast that a vessel has
to contend with in the N.E. monsoon, and it is believed there are few
men who know the coast of China but will allow that Turnabout island
(page 196) is well named. The attempt of the flood to force its way
through Hai-tan strait forces the water back, and occasions a strong
current off Kwin^ bay, at the north-east end of Hai-tan. It is a great
misfortune that this bay does not afford shelter, as it would prove an un-
conmionly good half-way house ; it is, however, one of the worst places on
the. coast of China the Plover dropt anchor in, being full of rocks, with a
heavy swelL Sailing vessels have, therefore, no alternative* but to stand
boldly off and trust to a slant on the Formosa side (pages 204 and 248)^
or take the Hai-tan strait. The open sea is, however, preferable, notwith-
standing that some vessels have got successfully through the strait ; yet it
requires local knowledge and a handy vessel to prevent great detention.

■m COAST to the northward is described, and directions for the river
Min are given, in chapter YI. page 268.

The Pescadores or Ponghou archipelago consists of twenty-one inha-
bited islands, besides several rocks, and extends from lat. 23® 11 J' to
23® 47' N., and from long. 119° 16' to 119® 40' E. From their basaltic
formation the land is generally flat, and no part of the group is 300 feet
above the level of the sea. Ponghou and Fisher, the two largest islands,
lie near the centre of the archipelago, and between them is .an extensive
and excellent harbour. The general depth 6f water on the western side
of the archipelago is 30 and 35 fathoms ; there are, however, some places
with 60 fathoms. To the eastward of the group the depth is 40 fethoms,
and the current strong, j

Most of the islands have green tops, being terraced for cultivation on
every available side. Potatoes, maize, millet, and ground nuts are produced

* See recently discovered anchorage under Hai head, page 684.

t SteAdmiralty Chart of Pescadores islands, No. 1,961; scale, m « O'S ofaniach.

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in oonsiderable quantities, as well as a few other vegetables, but the soil is
not good, being chiefly light sand mixed with the debris of coral. Owing to
the violence of the north-east winds, prevalent more than half the year, there
are no trees, but the blands are well supplied with fruits and vegetables
from Formosa. Bullocks are numerous, being used to till the ground.
Fresh water was abundant in the months of June and July, but it was
stated that at some seasons it was scarce. H.M. brig Plover watered from
a well at Ponghon that yielded 3 tons daily. Dried fish forms the only
article Qf export, and the imports are rice, sugar, fruits and vegetables
from Formosa, tea, &c., from Amoy.

The inhabitants, who are poor and ill-fed, support themselves by fishing,
and seem to live chiefiy on fish and sweet potatoes ; they are a harmless,
inoffensive race.*

juvm xsUkVB, the most southern of the Pescadores, is 2 miles long,
6a8t and west, and 1^ miles wide, and the soundings in its vicinity are
15 and' 16 fathoms. The highest part of the island is 260 feet above the
sea, and from it, High island bears N.W. ^ N. 8 | miles. Reef island
N.E. by £. S^ miles, and East island E. by N. 13 miles. A reef of rocks
extends 6 cables from its south-west side, and within them is a small
artificial harbour for junks. Its eastern face is fronted by bold dif^ ; and
its western extreme is a long shelving point.

mMMT n&AVBS are three in number, one of which. Steeple island, is a
remarkable pyramid. The other two are rather more than a mile each in
circumference, and are connected at low water by a stony ledge ; reefs
extend half a mile to the southward of them, and one mile and a third
8. by E. \ E. from the south-east end of the eastern island is a pyramidal
rock 80 feet above the sea. There is also Low flat rock, nearly level with
the water's edge, lying S.W. by S. If miles, and a small flat-topped rock
about 9 feet high, with a reef northward of it lying S J3. 2 miles from the
east end of this island.

MjCLBT Xsulvb is 8 miles eastward of the Reef islands, and between
them and distant 6 miles from the latter is a smaller island, Pe-ting, 1^
miles in circumference, with a reef extending in an easterly direction, not
quite a mile from its north point. East island is 2^ miles in circumferexice,
and a small islet lies half a mile from its north-western shore.

wnrs vasT nmmr lies N. by E. | E. 12} miles from the north end of
East island, and from it Dome hill on Ponghou island bears W. by N. \ N.
lOf miles, and Three island N.N.W. J W. 4 miles. The lead gives no
warning, but if there be any tide running, the ripple will be sufi&clent to
point out its position.

* Vice-Admiral Sir Chas. F. A. ShadweU, K.C.B., F.R.S., 1873.

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, consisting of two large islands, Pa-chan and Tsiang,
and several rocks, are sufficiently extensive to afford shelter under their lee
in either monsoon. The general depth is 7 and 8 fathoms on the southern,
and 18 and 14 fathoms on the northern shore.

Pa^dian, the western island, is 2^ miles long, north and south, and one
mile broad, and its summit rises like a dome with a large pile upon it.
A reef extends 1§ miles in a westerly direction from the south-west point
of the island, and its extreme shows at all times of tide. There is also
a re^ which covers at high water, bearing W. by S. J S. from the summit,
and lying 2 cables from the shore. The north-west point of the island is
not steep-to ; and a rock, which always shows^ lies off the north-east point,