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follows: **0n the eyening of the 16th November, with Eumi island
bearing E. by S. 3 leagues, saw heavy breakers ahead and on the lee
bow^ apparently on a dangerous shoal, extending E. by S. and W. by N.,
and bearing from Eumiy S.W. by W. 3^ leagues. Having dark cloudy
weather with raiuy and a heavy sea running, it was too late to send a
boat to sound ; but the breakers were seen continually from 4.30 p.m.
until 6 p.m.**

Another shoal, which would lie in lat. 24° dC N., long. 122° 4& E., is
mentioned in Horiburg^s East India Directory^ vol. IL, seventh edition^
p. €05, thus : '^ A dangerous dioal, 3 miles in e^ttent, E. by N. and
W. by S., is reported as lying N.W. by W., distant about 10 miles from
Eumi ;" in a former edition of the same work, page 528, the distance
is stated to be 3 or 3^ leagues.

Respecting these dangers, Navigating-Lieutenant John F. Bams, B.N.,
writes* : — ^*' When about 30 miles E.N.E. of Sawo bay, a tide ripple was
seen extending to the eastward as £sur as the eye could reach. It was £rst
taken for a line of breakers which it much resembled, and I think there is
much probability that the breakers reported in this vicinity have a similar
origin, for when passing within 3 miles of the position assigned to those
which are said to lie N.W. by W. 10 miles from Eumi, nO indication oi a
shoal was seen, although there was a very heavy swell on from S.E. at the
time, and the weather was clear.**

Kvan, the western island of the Meiaco sima group is described on page

8AU-0 BAT,t commonly called Su-ao, in lat. 24° 38' N., long.,
121° 50^ E., will be found an excellent place of shelter for vessels
working up this coast against the N.E. monsoon. The bay is about
three-quarters of a mile wide at entrance, and a mile deep, and in it
are two smaller bays ; that in the southern comer is a sheltered nook
called Lam-hong-ho,J which has shallow water, and is only available for
vessels of light draft (9 feet and under) of which two or three might lie
moored, secure from all winds ; the other, in the N.E. comer is named
Pak-hong-ho, and could afford shelter to one or two vessels in 5 fathoms

* Jan. 1865.

t See Plan of Sau-o bay, scale, m = 4 inches, on Adnuralty Chart of harboms in
Formosa, No. 2,376.

X Sau-o and the villages to .the northward are Chinese, but Lam-hong-ho is inhabited
by Fepos, a semi-ciyilized abonginal tribe.

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from all winds, except those from South to S.E., which seldom blow,
excepting from June to September, when south-ecust winds prevail.

sao-o or JLrijri Rooks, lie off the entrance of Sau*o bay about a mile
from the northern promontory. The westernmost and largest rock, 98 feet
high, lies I^.E. 1^ miles from the south point of Sau-o bay, and E. by Sli
7 cables from the north point ; from it two other rocks bear E.N.E^
2 J cables ; and S.W. by W. of it, 2 cables, is a 15 feet patch.

To the north-west of the Arlyi Rocks, and extending* half a mile east-
ward from the north point of the promontory, is much foul ground, with
rocks awash, generally breaking. Between the Arlyi and this foul ground
is a channel, 3 cables broad of 7 to 12 fathoms, but the nature of the
bottom wliich is rocky and uneven renders this channel dangerous. The
southern face of the promontory is bold and its outlying rocks may be
passed at a cable.

Breakwater Seei; (or Tong-sim-tai) is a reef of coral rocks about
2 cables in extent, N.E. and S.W„ lying a little more than half a mile
from the shore and nearly in the centre of the bay ; parts of it are
uncovered and others awash. At the north-east end of the reef are two
conical rocks, the highest being 31 feet above the sea. This reef breaks
the sea and sweU, and affords the only safe anchorage in the bay for
vessels above 10 feet draft of water, and one where a ship, well found in
ground tackling, would ride out a gale.

Between the south end of Breakwater reef and the rugged point Si-ho-
mai to the southward, the passage is ftdl of rocks, with only from 4 to 6
feet water over them, and although greater depths of 2, 4, and 6 fathoms
are'^also found, the channel is not safe for any vessel to take.

SiippUes. — The inhabitants of this bay are mostly Chinese fishermen,^
several domesticated aborigines giving ^th them. Fresk supplies were
obtained, at first in small quantiti^^^^ -^^^ demands,

subsequently an abundance was brought off to the ship, at more moderate
prices. The rich and well cultivated plain of Kapchulan, only a few
miles to the northward, must, from its character, be capable of adequately
supplying all wants of shippyig, should the bay become a treaty port and
well frequented.

AJrcBO&A.OB.-7-There is good holding ground in the outer part of
^ - u-o bay in 10 to 13 fathoms, black sand and mud, E. by S. of Break-

ter reef and with the south point of the bay about South, but the

chorage is unsafe with easterly winds. The best anchorage is under
reakwater reef, but in rounding its north end, a berth of two cables must
e given, to avoid the Serpent rock, of 11 feet water, which lies 1^ cables

P 2

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228 BAST COAST OF FORMOSA. [chap. v.

N.W. of the highest rock on the reef, (the clearing mark is the easternmost
rock of the 6aa-o reef in a line with a conspicnons rocky islet off the north
point,) when vessels may haul to the southward, and anchor in 7 fathoms,
with the conical or high rock hearing E.S.E. distant about 2^ cables ; or
if of 12 feet draught with the rock bearing East. The water shoals

I. — ^It is high water, full and change, at 5^ 50°^, and the rise
8 to 6 feet. The tidal streams are weak in the bay ; the flood sets along
the coast south,* and the ebb north, with a Telocity of 1^ knots per hour.

I. — ^Approaching Sau-o bay from the northward, pass half
a mile eastward of the Sau-o or Arlyi rocks, the highest of which may be
seen 8 or 10 miles off in clear weather, and when Breakwater reef bears
W. ^ N. haul up for it. From the south-eastward vessels can boldly
approach the South point, off which reefs extend 2 cables.

The soundings in the outer part of the bay from a depth of 11 and 12
fathoms between the inner points, increase gradually seaward to 17 and
20 fathoms, and decrease gradually towards the beach.

MhiBwmWAM BTWB. — At 6 miles to the northward of Sau-o bay and
10 miles S.W. \ S. of Steep island is the entrance to the Kaleewan river,
the waters of which irrigate a fertile plain about 13 miles long and 6 broad.
At the time of the InflexibW^ visit there were only 3 feet on the bar at
low water, the rise of tide being from 2 to 3 feet. The surf broke heavily
on the beach, and although there was an occasional break across the
entrance, the vessePs gig entered in the wake of a junk without incon-
venience ; in going out, however, with the wind on shore, two seas broke
into and nearly swamped the boat. The junks, with their high bulwarks
and great buoyancy, enter with comparative ease, the crews poling them
across with bamboos.

The general direction of the river is S.W. The entrance is about
a quarter of a mile wide, but just within it narrows to 200 yards. At
4 miles up it is only 50 yards wide, and thus far it has a general depth
of 5 to 6 feet, clear fresh water. At 7 miles from the entrance the
depth is 3 to 4 feet, but the river is scarcely broad enough to allow
the use of a boat's oars.

The banks and country on either side of the river were everywhere
under cultivation, principaUy with rice, Indian corn, and miUet; sugar-

* According to Commander E. W. BrookerR.N., who re-surveyed this bay in 1867.

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cane also in small quantities. The inhabitants, composed of domesticated
abor^ines and Chinese, of the di£ferent villages scattered along the banks,
behaved with great civility. The aborigines are of a clear olive com-
plexion, and in feature resemble the Malay. They are a much finer
looking race than the Chinese, who have largely intermarried with them.
They live in harmony with each other, both having the same dread of the
Chiukwan or savage tribes of the mountains. The population of the
plain is about 10,000.

^TBBP ZB&Ajm,* 14 miles northward of Sao-u bay and S.S.W. 11 miles
irom Samtian point, the north-east extreme of Formosa, is iuhabited by
Chinese, and cultivated in terraces to its summit, which is a sharp conical
peak about 1,200 feet above the sea. At its east end there is another
peak, 800 feet high, which falls abruptly and overhangs the sea ; from its
west side extends a large bank of sand or shingle, running out into a point
westward, with deep water very close to. The Inflexible passed between
this island and the coast, and had no soundings with 40 fathoms of line.

S.W. 1^ miles from Steep island is a small islet with a rock to the
south-west of it,

SAJUTXAJr vozvT, the north-east extreme of Formosa, is 10 miles
N. by E. I E. from Steep island. The point itself is low and flat, but a
little inland is a hill range which terminates in a bluff. Here the coast
line turns abruptly to the north-west,»for 30 miles, and midway is the
harbour of Kelung, described on page 253.

»BTOU vozvT, N.W. by N. 7 miles from Samtiau, is a peninsula 400
feet high, and from a distance appears like an island ; the small boat
harbour and fishing village of Petou is dose to the westward of it. The
coast from thence to Kelung harbour is steep-to, aU the off-lying rocks
which are of sandstone, showing above water. The most remarkable
feature on this coast is Dome peak, which makes in that form from the
noxth-east. The mountain ridge extending S.W. from Petou point rises
to the height of 2,800 feet.

At 5 miles westward of Petou point is the entrance to Chimmo bay, in
which a vessel might anchor if in distress, or forced in by a northerly
wind. The depths are 4 to 10 fathoms at entrance, and 5 and 4 fathoms
at head of the bay, under the lee of the point on its eastern side; this
point is foul, and should be given a berth in entering.

xa&inro BLAJUiom jBJTB zsLavB, 4 miles West and N.W«
espectively from Chimmo bay, are described at page 253.

♦ The description from Steep island to Black rock bay (excepting Sau-o bay) is by
Mr. W. Blakeney, B.N., H.M.S. Inflexible.

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M MOWOJ U S for mftking the passage along the East coast are giweu.
in Chapter I, page d6.

South Caps to SLblukg Harboub.

The following description of the west coast* of Formosa embraces the
sootl^ coast from South cap^ ; the west coast with the ports of Ta-kau and
Tamsoi; and the north coast, as far as, and inclusive of, the harboui* of
Kelung and adjacent bays.

Since the last edition of this work our knowledge of the western coasts
has been greatlj improved by recent detailed surveys, now complete from
Tamsui to the South cape. Richards' survey of the coast from Ta-kau to
Kokeikon has been extended southwards and northwards by Messrs. Wilds
and Stanley, of H.M. surveying vessels Swallow and Dove, and Commander
E. Brooker, of H.M.S. Sylviay in 1867, joined the work of the latter with
that of Lieutenant Grordon, of H.M.S. Royalist, at Tong-siau. The descrip-
tion of the coast has been compiled from the directions of those officers
and of Mr. William Blakeney, R.N., who explored part of the coast in
H.M.S. Indexible in ISG?, together with the remarks of various command-
ing and navigating officers of Ships which have been stationed at the
Treaty Ports.

spurs COAST ofPOftMOSJL. — The South cape of Formosa, already
described on page 223, is the southern extremity of a mountain range ex-
tending several miles to the north-west. Westward of the cape is a large
bay, Kwa-liang, which is formed between the cape range and the hilly
promontory of Grooswa, of moderate height, of which Black point is the
southern termination.

\ — ^Blaek point is 6 miles W. by N. from South
cape. From it the western side of the bay runs N.N.E. 2^ miles to its
head, where is a white sandy beach which shows out conspicuously under
the dark land. The eastern shore is- under the cape range, the two highest
parts of which 1,035 and 1,083 feet above the sea, are directly over the
middle part of the bay. Three black rocks, 10 feet high, easily distin-
guished and steep-to, lie within half a mile of the shore, one on the west
the other two or the eastern shore, almost equidistant from each other ; and
2 miles from the cape, projecting from the hill side is the Chess-board
a remarkable mass of limestone, a famous legendary rock of the Chinese.

* See Admiralty Charts :— Formosa island and strait, No. 1,968 ; scale, «?= 6*5
inches ; and Hong Eong to Liau-tnng, No. 1,262.

F<w winds and weather see page 7. Heavy storms <m the south-west coasts, of a
remarkable character, in some respects resembling typhoons, have lately been recorded
in November and March.

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Within the bay at 1^ miles firom the shore, the depth off Black point is
60 &thoms, off the head of the bay 40 &thoms, and off the south cape
28 &thoms.

Aaoiiorasre^ — ^In the N.E. monsoon good anchorage will be found in 10
or 12 fathoms, about half a mile from the shore, anywhere on the north
and north-east sides of the bay. The Dove, during the survey, anchored
on two occasions ; on the fiijst at half a mile from the south cape, where
great caution is necessary in coming to, on account of a strong eddy or
counter current, which sets to the south-east at the rate of 4 knots, and
the tide ripple off the point is very heavy. The other anchorage was off
the middle sandy beach on the east side of the bay, under the highest part
of the cape range, with Black head W.S.W.

Caution. — The natives of the south were formerly hostile to strangers.
During the survey of the coast in 1864, the Dove' a boat was attacked and
the surveying party narrowly escaped being cut off. This state of things
has been put an end to by the Treaty of 1867, see page 222.

80UTB-'WB8T POZVT, one mile west of Black pointy is the angle of
the coast where it turns to the northward. The small bay of Chim-kong-o
north of ity has 23 fathoms at half a mile off shore, and 52 fathoms at a
quarter of a mile off its north point where are strong tide ripples.

€M>08'WA v&OMOVTO&T extends in a W. direction 7 miles
£rom south-west point. It shows little difference of elevation, its two
highest parts at 2^ and 5^ miles northward of the point, being 538 feet and
627 feet high, respectively. The hills about this part of the coast are mostly
bare, their summits only being wooded, and there are no villages, but only a
hut here and there along the shore. The promontory is backed by an inland
range, Banswa, the summit of which, rising to the height of 2,285 feet,
is 8 miles N.N.E. ^ E. of south-west point, and terminates to the southward
in the remarkable craggy peak 1,083 feet high, over Eawa-liang bay.

The bold shore of the promontory consisting of dark rocky cliffs is steep-
to, with 150 &thoms at a mile, and 50 fathoms at half a mile, except in
the bight of the coast, where at the latter distance the depth is only 16
fathoms. Its most conspicuoms feature is the sand beach of Chim-kong-o
bay. When approaching the promontory from the northward it appears as
an island ; its northern point terminates abruptly seaward, but slopes
gradually towards the plain.

AOV-'«rA-»rAB is a nook at the head of the small bay which Ues

* nmediately north of Grooswa promontory, and between it and a point on

rhich is a small isolated hill, Bay hill, 235 feet high.* The reefs from

ther shore meet within a cable, forming the entrance to a basin about 2

sables in diameter, having a depth of 5 to 3 fathoms.

* 100 feet high, Commander B. Box, R.N., 1874.

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232 WEST COAST OP FOBMOSA. [chap. ir.

iVom this, northwards, the coast is inhabited by Chinese who move
aboQt armed for protection against the natives with whom they cany on s
perpetual warfare.

lUUkMU-MXAjr or azvBBXTZOV BAT, (or Lang-kiu), fronts a level
tract of land, 3 miles in extent, and is formed, between Bay hill and Xiang-
kin point, 2 miles north of it, which is the sandy projecting point of the
low grassy flat, stretching from the foot of the hills, and off which the low*
water rocks extend 2 cables with 18 fathoms at 4 cables.* On the bay, a
little removed from the beach, is the walled village of Lang-kin, and north
of Bay hill, where the bushes come down near the shore, is the outlet of a
small river, which is dammed at its mouth.

The bay is open to all westerly winds, but affords good anchorage in
the 19 .E. monsoon from the depth of 9 &thoms, sand, between the outer
points, decreasing gradually towards the long sandy beach. The approach
to the bay is quite clear, and the soundings deepen outside rapidly to 20
fathoms at 1^ miles, and 40 fiithoms at 2 miles firom the beach.

Lang-kiu is the principal town or village of the district, and the most
southern settlement in which Chinese authority is recognised^ practically
at least. It contains about 1,000 Chinese, is walled, and has a ditch round
it, with plank bridges crossing to the two gates. A practicable military
road which now connects Lang-kiu and the entire south with the capital
owes its construction to the &ct of the S.W. monsoon closing the commu-
nications by sea, in July 1867, when the expedition was being fitted out
against the hostile natives of the south.f

SAir-KUkU BAT is north of Liang-kiau point, and between it and a
sugar loaf hill, 411 feet high, which lies under the Le-liang-swa mountain.
This bay, which affords anchorage in 3 fathoms at 3 cables from the shore,
was the rendezvous of the junk squadron, which brought supplies to the
expedition against the natives, when all the other landing places south of
Ta-kau were rendered inaccessible by the monsoon. All the low shore of
Liang-kiau point is bordered by an extensive reef; and on the north shore
of the bay are some villages of Chinese squatters who are not under

♦According to the survey of Messrs. Wilds and Stanley in 1865.

In the Bemark Book of Nav. Lieut. NeviUe of H.M.S. Cormorant, 1869, there is a
statement that a shallow sandy spit runs out three-quaiteis of a mile from the north point
of the hay, on which account vessels are recommended not to hug the shore too eloaefy^

f Ahout 5 miles N. hy W. from Liang-kiau bay, when not in soundings, the leadsman
struck what must have been a peaked rock at 9 fathoms, which caught the lead line and
nearly pulled the leadsman out of the chains. Remark Book of Lieutenant Eaton, B.K,
Commanding H.M.S. Flamer, 1865.

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w^VTA. is a moantain range on the coast north of Liang-kiaU|
extending 6 miles north and south. The two southern summits of it rise
to the height of 2,263 and 2,437 feet, and the northern one which when
seen from the north and west makes like a pap, to 3,365 feet.

sova xovot or Kan, 6 miles north of Liang-kiau point, is a large
Chinese village of Chang-chow men who have a few boats, but fish little*
The hills around are densely wooded. The villagers are permitted bj the
savages to cultivate a vaUej among the hills, on payment of a tribute of
one bag of rice out of every forty-five.

cnm^TOVO'-mJkf or Chitong kiau hong, N. by W. 13 miles from Grooswa
promontory, and 4^ from Hong-kong, is on a point, bordered by a reef»
which projects half a mile from the foot of the high land ; the coast is bold
and steep-to, the hills in eome places descending almost to the water's
edge. Vessels can anchor anywhere along the coast in 8 or 9 fathoms,
finding good shelter from winds ranging from North round to S.S.E.
Two miles north of Che-tong-ka the bold land terminates at the foot of a
hill 1,340 feet high, whence the mountain range trends to the northward
and the shore, which is low and level, to the N.W.

POVO-KZ, or Pong-liau, is a small Chinese town 7 miles N.N. W. ^ W.
of Che-tong-ka, and a short distance inland, about a mile northward of
a remarkable square clump of trees on the beach, called Kay-a-kaou.
BLM.S. Indexible anchored abreast the town in five fetthoms, about 3 cables
from the beach. Landing was effected in Chinese catamarans, the surf
being too high for the vessel's boats, although there had been but little
wind the three previous days.

Pong-liau, situate on the vei^e of the great western plain of Formosa^ is
isolated from the south by a chain of mountains which terminate almost
perpendicularly towards the sea, and whose plateaux are occupied by
savages of the Bootan tribe.

The shore between Pong-li and Tang-kang, north-westward, is a low
sandy beach ; but a short distance inland are numerous clusters of bamboos
and Chinese houses, and a country highly cultivated. The depths are
8 to 9 fathoms at 1 mile from the beach, except in the bight into which
the river TaDg-kang flows, where the depth at half a mile is 60 fathoms,
and at 2 miles off shore, 140 fathoms.

UkMMArr ZBLavB, or Lammay, or Seo-liu-kiu, in lat. 22^ 20^' N.,
long. 120° 22J' E., the only island off the west coast of Formosa, is visible
18 miles, and in formation is very similar in appearance to Ape hill over
Takau. Its summit is flat, the most elevated part being 258 feet. The
island is 2^ miles long in a N.E. direction with an average breadth of a
mile, and its shores are fringed with coral ; the northern shore is rugged

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with a few small sand beaches; the south-eaatem has a sand bay half a

mile in extent near the middle ; and it has high yellow difi on its western

side* The most conspicnous point is the north-eastern which is round,-

and composed of fine white sand. Houses, inhabited by Chinese fishermen,

are scattered over the island. No anchorage can be obtained near this

island, as within a quarter of a mile there are 30 and 40 &thoms water.* <

^M TAVO«XAar«h a comparatively large and rapid river, has its

entrance N.N.E. 7 miles from Lambay island and 11 from Pong-li ; at low

water there are only 4 feet on the bar, which shoals suddenly from SO

and 30 fathoms.t The entrance can generally be distinguished by the

junks which are moored on the north bank of the river, as also hy a dump

of trees about 2 miles inland, which stands a little distance to the northward.

The town of the same name stands on the south side of the river near the

entrance, and has about 20,000 inhabitants. The pruicipal export is rice,

which is carried in junks of small size. Between Tang-kang and Lambay

is a remarkable depression in the sea bed, which in some places is nearly 200

fathoms in depth. This is probably the submei'ged crater of a volcano, six

miles in diameter, and Lambay island would appear to be an elevation on

the southern part of the lip. Abreast of the river is the only place

between Ta-kau-kon and Liang-kiau bay where a ship cannot find good

anchorage in the N.E. monsoon. .

XO]rcK-rm»TAOir» a rocky point between Tang-kang and Ta-kau*kon, is
the termination of the smooth and slightly-rounded Hong-swa hill, wMch
is 468 feet high. Between the hill and point is a well marked saddle
hill 259 feet high ; which, when seen fit)m the north or south, appears
as two chimneys. Towards Ta-kau-kon, 13 miles to the north- w^tward
the ooast is low and bushy, and is inhabited by fishermen who live in
tldktlered' houses^ The large lagoon which terminates the harbour of
Ta-kau-kon, stretches up to within 2 miles of Hong^swa hill, leaving only a
narrow strip between it and the coast.

AVB BXZiZi and BA&Acn BBAB. — Ape hill, 1,110 feet high, called
by the natives Ta-kau, is N. by W. ^ W., 18 miles from Lambay island. It
appears like a truncated cone, on a North bearing, sloping towards the land
side, making at a distance like an island, and can be seen in dear weather

* Captain Boss, I.N., wko examined this island in tlie Discovery, states that about
3 nules eastward of the island a bank of soft mnd oommenoes, which, extending 7 -miles
off Formosa, has soundings on it of 15 to 26 fathoms. A reef runs off about a mile
between the south-east and north-east points of the island, with 25 and 30 &thoms water
olose to its edge.

t The singular depth of water at the entrance of this river marks it as capable of great
improvement, should the extension of commerce in the future render it necessary.

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