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Outer ilTaiiciuA Shoal is a sand-bank 3 miles, in length, and running
parallel to the southern part of the Wanckan bank, with from 2 to 3
fathoms on it ; this in the S.W. monsoon breaks with great violence. The
Swallow and Dove whilst sounding the channel in September 1864, an-
chored in 20 fathoms off this shoal, and as £Btr as the eye could reach,
nothing could be seen but one continuous line of breakers.

VZBBS. — ^It is high water fuU and change at Wanckan at lOh. 10m.,
springs rise 5 to 6 feet. . The tide turns at high and low water by
the shore, the flood running to the N.N.E. at 3^ knots per hour, the ebb
in an opposite direction, and not quite so strong. Between Wanckan and
KakiEiou the tides do not attain a greater velocity than 1^ to 2 knots, and
run parallel to the shore. This high velocity of the northern stream is
attributed to the influence of the Japan current which splits upon the
south part of Formosa.

* Pormerly called the Wanckan reef ; they consist, to all appearance, entirely of sand.

Q 2

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244 WEST COAST 07 POUMOSA. [chap. r.

3AOOBBS cmjkMMWJLm* — ^The Pescadores islands, described on
page 197, lie 20 to 30 miles westward of the Wanckan bank. The Feeca-
dores channel between them is 30 to 60 fathoms in depth, and is narrowed
to a breadth of 9 miles between Outer Wanckan shoal and the Nine-feet
reef which lies S. \ S. from it, and which is 4 miles S.S.E.^^E. of
Three island, the easternmost islet of the Pescadores group. ^Sea page 205.

"WAMOMJkM to qvAVO-VA* — From the hut on the sandy patch of
the South extreme of the Wanckan banks to the northward, the coast is
low and has no distinguishing feature, the bushes and huts being only a
few feet above the land.

This uninteresting seaboard becomes even more dreary at low water^
when the mud and sand flats uncover for miles ; outside of which again
is shallow water with 3, 4, and 5 fathoms^ and again greater depths of
10 to 15 fathoms. Ships should not, however, approach this part of the
coast in less than 10 fathoms, for the currents are very strong.

qvaiag^wA is about 26 miles N.N.E. ^ E. from the Wanckan hut.
Between is the small village of Mon-kiang, which has a river or outlet of
a mountain stream, called Mon-kiang or Ponckan, the mouth of which is
closed by a bar of sand ; abo the villages of Baliah and Sei-kiang, behind
the former of which are two sand hills 80 feet high.

The country at the back appeared to be cultivated, but as many sand
hills were observed, and the coasting villages are inhabited by very poor
X)eople, existing chiefly on shell fish, the produce must be of a limited

Several junks were seen along the coast, which at low water were high
and dry on the flats. These flats, dry at low water, extend from 1 to 3
miles from high- water mark. There is a depth of about 5 fathoms at a
mile outside them.

At Quang-wa there is an inlet in the flats at low water where junks lie
with apparent safety, but as the N.E. monsoon sends a considerable sea
down this coast, it cannot be safe at that time.

QVAiro-'WA to KO-XXAVO is a distance of about 10 miles; the coast
between them still continues low, and the mud and sand flats uncover at
low water a greater distance from the land than at any other part of the
coast north of Wanckan, and are bolder of approach. East 8 miles from
Lo-kiang is a peak 701 feet high, and between them is a sand hill.

* This chaimel was formerly known to navigators as the Formosa channel, that
between the Pescadores and China being called the Pescadores channeL On the later
Admiralty charts the main body of water between China and Formosa is now called
Formosa strait, and the narrow channel between the Pecadores islands and Formosa, the
Pescadores channel.

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To the westward of the town of Lo-kiang, and distant a little more than
4 miles^ is a small outlet marked by two bamboo beacons ; in this creek a
great number of junks find anchorage and shelter, but most of them ground
at low water ; they communicate with Lo-kiang (which is a large straggling
town) by boats and land.

XiO-xiAVO to OOCB^. — From Lo-kiang the coast trends N.N.E., with
extensive mud and sand fiats uncovering at low water, 4 to 2 miles from
the shore; but having passed the village of Goch6 13 miles to the north-
ward deeper water will be found nearer the shore,^ and the fiats uncover
only for a distance of from half diminishing to a quarter of a mile.

The plains and level land about Lo-kiang and to the northward are
densely inhabited by a thriving people, who, by the export of rice, &c.,
apparently give ample employment to the numerous junks which trade
between the Fu-kyen province of China and this coast ; but the Chinese
who inhabit the villages to the southward of Lo-kiang are wretchedly
poor, and seem to live entirely on shell fish.

oocBii is situated at the northern extremity of the great alluvial
plain which extends as far southward as Tai-wan fu, a distance of
80 miles.

When approaching this low coast a vessel ought not to stand in within
^ or 6 miles of the shore ; consequently, land will be seldom visible except
at sunrise, when the bold outline of the central range of Formosa will be
seen from a great distance, the highest peak of which, mount Morrison, is
12,800 feet above the sea; this mountain is in latitude 23** 27' 15" N. ;
longitude (assumed) 120** 58' E, The general height of the mountain
range varies from 9,000 to 12,000 feet, and at its north extreme is a
remarkable hat-shaped peak of 11,300 feet, to which the name of Mount
Sylvia has been given. Dense forests cover the whole, and where the
lesser ranges, with spurs, approach the coast about Goch6 and to the
northward, the plains are so abundantly watered with streams that little
or no difficulty is experienced in producing rich crops of rice, maize,
sweet potatoes, &c.

About 5 miles south of Goch6 commences the first range of hills, running
parallel to the coast at 3 miles' distance, and the ridge which in general is
quite barren, and 850 feet high, east of Goche, becomes one of the spurs of
the higher ranges to the northward.

TIBB8. — It- is high water, full and change, at the Wanckan at
^h. 45m., springs rise 10 to 12 feet ; and at Tongsiau lOh. Om., rise 8 to

iubbctzovs* — Off Wanckan and as far as Goch6, ^a distance of
^0 miles, the soundings off the low coast being shallow and irregular, ships


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246 WEST COAST OF POB.MOSA. [chap.v.

ahould not stand in to [a depth of less than 10 fathoms ; and the strong
tides which mn ronnd the Wandcan banks and reefs should also be borne
in mind. From about 3 miles north of Goch^ to Tongsiau the coast can
be approached to a mile, when soimdings of not less than 10 and 12
fathoms will be found. The tides along this coast are less strong than ofT

TTXA or TAI-XXA is the principal town of the first hilly district north
of the plain. It is comparatively large, with a well built wall surrounding
it, and stands 3 miles from the sea on the banks of the Tyan-kiang^ a
small stream, the entrance of which, with a village of the same name on
its south side, is 8 miles northward of Goch^. Here the water is veiy
shoal, with onlj 3 feet for the distance of a quarter of a mile, but it
deepens to 10 fathoms at half a mile from the beach. The entrance is
marked by beacons.

Tyka stands between two detached hills northward of the Goche range,
and which are described as the most striking features of the coast ; the
southern hill, Stone peak, is 501 feet high ; the northern is a remarkable
square topped hill, 743 feet high, seen from the sea in all directions.

TOiro-siAU* — The Mow-lung-sui, a considerable stream, on which, a
mile above its entrance, is the large village of Tong-siau, is 8 miles north-
eastward of the Tyan-kiang. Between the two is a plain, at the back of
which, and 7 miles inland, a rocky-topped range rises to the height of
2,227 feet, from which a long ridge stretches down to the sea, terminating
in a hill 236 feet high, a mile south of the entrance of the Mow-iung-suL

One mile north-east of the entrance, and about half a mile inland, is
Single peak,* a remarkable, round, isolated hill, 239 feet high, overlooking
a picturesque valley through which the Mow-lung-sui winds, passing
several villages. This stream has, at high water, an entrance capable of
allowing junks to enter easily. On the north side of the entrance is a
large bamboo plantation.

Mount Sylvia, before mentioned, is E. ^ S. 35 miles from Tong-siau, and
15 miles nearer in the same direction is mount Royalist, 9,000 feet high,
the north-western angle of the same high range overlooking the northern
plains. Petroleum springs have been discoveredf 15 or 20 miles inland,
a few miles beyond the first flat-topped ridge.

Tovo-BXAV to PO&T Bsovo-BAIT. — Three miles north-east of Single
peak is the highest part of a low coast range, 400 feet high, which extends

* Here Lieutenant Gordon's survey of the north-west coast, in 1850, terminates, and
that of Commander E. Brooker, southward in 1867, commences.

•f By Ifr. Dodd, merchant, resident atTamsoL These springs lie in a distriist peopled
by the aborigines.

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7 or 8 miles from Tong-siau, v^hence the coast falls back one mile to the
entrance of another stream called the Oolan, which is apparently barred
with sand-banks skirted by reefs. Lieutenant Gordan's description is as
follows : ** This part of the coast appears shoal. With the exception of the
ridges, &e land in the neighbourhood is low, the hills are all sandy and
sbow little vegetation. A range of hills/' (probably that extending north*
eastward of Tong-siau) <* having a low but remarkable peak* at the point,
fonns the southern part of the bay, off which it is shoal j from thence the
coast range extends about 5 miles. The coast appeared to be steep-to, but
as in other places along it, the holding ground is bad/'

Northward of the Oulan river is a low serrated sandy ridge, with low
projecting sandy point on which is a large fishing village. This village
point, off which the water is deep well in, is the southern termination of
a bay 9 miles in extent* At the southern comer of the bay is. the Cheung-
lEong^ a barred creek inside of which numerous junks are seen, and to the
eastward about a mile inland, a town of the same name.t There is a
sunken reef northward of this creek, and also a reef extending from the
centre of the bay, 3 miles farther north-eastward.

vo&T BBOVO-BAV lying at the northern part of the above bay is
available for vessels of light draught, and affords toom for several large
junks. The harbour is fonned by a sand spit which extends 1^ miles in
a southward direction from the north point of the bay, but whether above
high water or not is not known. -The spit encloses a shallow basin, into
the head of which flows a small stream communicating with Teuk-cham,
a large walled town 5 miles to the north-east, where resides the chief
mandarin of the Tam-sui prefecture. This is the second city of Formosa.

Three-quarters of a mile east of the end of the spit is a large reef
extending northward from a projecting point of the shore, and between
them the depth is 9 feet mid-channel, and 13 feet nearer the spit. The
head of the bay has not been sounded. With the end of the spit bearing
North, and half way between it and a sand bluff to the southward is
anchorage m 4 fathoms at low water ; smaller craft can go in further and
anchor in 12 feet, with the spiteil most striking, a perfect contrast to the sterile-looking
mainland of China.

Faim Island, three-quarters of a mile long, east and west, is 2 miles
S.S.W. ^ W. from Ke-lung island. The land over its northern coast is 200
feet above the sea. Close to its north-west extreme, and almost connected
with it, is Macedonian mound, 140 feet high. Both the island and the
mound are fringed with steep shelving rocks having 7 and 10 fathoms close
to. Palm island is separated from the main by a very narrow channel avail-
able only for boats and junks, and which has a rock at its narrowest part.

Basil Island, low and rocky, about 10 feet high and covered with shrubs,
lies 3 cables west of Palm island. Its extreme north end is marked by a
beacon, officially described as ** boards mounted on a single spar 43 feet
high, the whole painted blackJ'

Xmase point, the west point of entrance to the harbour, is a low pro-
jecting shelf half a mile W.S.W. of Bush islaud, and remarkable from the
number of detached pieces of sandstone rock which the action of the sea
has worn into grotesque figures ; the summit over it, 390 feet high, has
several patches of stratified cliff on its seaward slope. The point is marked
by a whiie^ beacon and may be rounded at a cable. There are 7 to 16

thoms in the entrance, which is 4 cables wide, between Image point and

B reef off Bush island.

• See Admiralty Chart of Ke-lung harbour, No. 2,618 ; scale, m = 6 inches.

t According to the Chinese official list, corrected to March 1874, there is now no

toon on Image point.

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264 NOETH 0OA8T OP TOBMOSA. [ohap.t.

' nuiinin rm^ on which several shipft hare Btraek, is a sunken ledge
of rocks of 1 to 8 'fiithomsy covered wiih coral, and nearly S oableg in
extent. On • its onter edge are two knolb of. 4 and 6 &6t, &om the
weeftenunoet of which Image pohit bears KW.bjW. 4 cables, and. the
left extreme of Bosh idand N« by £. This knoll is marked hy % red
Jmoy on ita western edge, in 7:^ fathoms.

0Mr »eak •■« Bsin raelr. fVtig peak| a remarkable sugar loaf hill,
ahoni 160 feet high, lies on the western shore of the haxi>oiir, half ^a mite
sonihward of Image point. From it projects another shelf of sandstOBe,
on which is the mushroom-shaped rock to which has .been given the name
of Ruin rock. A sunken ledge with 8 to 9 feet on it extends 1^ cables
eastward of this point, the outer edge of which is marked by a white buoy
(Coral sboal buoy), in 5^ fathoms.

9wA iMtfboT.^^ Above Buin rock the harbour turns south-westward to
its head, gradually shoaling to one fftthom at the distance of half a mile.
There is room for one vessel of moderate size to lie at single anchor with
short scope, in 4 to 6 fiE^oms, S.E. by E. of Buin rock^ but a larger vessel
must moor. The junks anchor in 2 and 2^ &thoms at a quarter of a mile
higher up and about a mile fix>m the town of Ke-lung, which can only be
approached by boats at high water.

The head of the harbour has shoaled considerably of late years and much
less water will be found than is shown on the chart ; this is due in some
measure to the numerous junke which frequent the port, being allowed to
throw overboard their ballast.

The town of Ke-lung stands at the head of the bay a mile above Buin
rocky and is joined to the suburb of Sow-wan on the south side of the
harbour, by a stone causeway. The coal mines are about a mile E.SJ).
of the town, ou the southern banks of the small shallow stream which
branches off in that direction.

SmppUea. — The trade of Ke-lung is extensive, principally with the river
Min, Chin-chu, Amoy, and Tongsang. For the latter place quantities of
coal are shipped, and for the former rice, ground-nut oil, camphor, and
camphor wood. The export of coal in 1871 amounted to 18,671 tons;
the duty is 4s, 6d. per ton, but vessels are permitted to take, for their own
use, a small quantity iree of duty.

Good water is easily obtained on the western shore of the harbour, in
the second small bay within Crag peak. There are several streams on
either shore. Pigs, poultry, and sweet potatoes may be purchased ; at Sow-
wan there is a market-place.

The Ke-lung coal is a smaU bituminous mineral, good for domestic pur-
poses and for steamers making short passages, but it is otherwise unsuitable ;
it bums rapidly, cakes the furnace, and makes much smoke, choking the

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oiup.y.] KBLUKG HABBOTTB. 266

tabes* The eonsnmpiion is about osie half greater than Welsh coaly and
Its eyaporaimg power 30 per cent, less^ whilst a loss of speed is eavsed by
the frequent necessity of sweeping tubes. Vessels loading with coal had
formerly to clear at Tam-sui, but a branch of the custinn house has now
been estalslLdied at this port to obTiate that ineonrenienee.

oiimated — The NvE. monsoon is generally alttended with rain« The
suxmner is fine, but blaek north-easters with rain are liaUe to occur y they
send a considerable swell into the harbour but do not often fetch home,
and at the same time it is nearly calm at the head of the inlet. When
they do blow home, they send in a heavy sea, and the wreck of junks
is not uncommon, and European vessels part their cables at such times.
Typhoons are of rare occurrence

TIBBS. — ^It is high water, full and change, in Ke-lung harbour at
lOh. 30m., and the rise, when uninfluenced by the weather, is about 3 feet.
The flood at the entrance sets fairly into the harbour about a knot an
hour ; the ebb towards the eastern shore andTocks ofl" Bush islet. In the
nfurrows-of Junk passage, between Palm island and the main^ the streams
run with great strength. Outside the h«*bour the flood sets into the bight
towards Masou peninsula and is weak ; the current during the ebb sets
strong to the eastward, and only occasionally changes its direction to the
north-westward during the flood.*

DISBCTZOW8. — The entrance of. Ke-lung may be boldly steered for even
in a N.E. gaJe with thick weather, if the land about it, especially Ke-lung
island, can be well made out. Crag peak, a conspicuous landmark within
the harbour, may be steered for on any bearing between S. ^ W. and S. by
W. f W., and will lead in within the entrance clear of all danger. After
passing Image point which it is preferable to hug, steer for the sandy bay
to the south-east, getting the point on a N.W, ^ N. bearing, and anchor in
6 to 7 fathoms, mud, good holding ground, with the west extreme of Bush
island, N. by E., or Crag peak S.W.^W. This anchorage is 1^ cables south
of Inflexible reef, and if the buoys are in position the red buoy will bear north.

If proceeding into Junk harbour, round Buin rock at 2 cables, passing
outside the white buoy, and anchor with the rock S.E. by E. ^ E. A gun
boat may proceed higher up.

A sailing vessel must use much caution in leaving this harbour during
the N.E. monsoon, in consequence of the heavy sea rolling in, and there
being no anchorage outside. With a light wind short tacks should be
made, and the entrance kept open until an offing is gained.

OOJILL BiLRBOim* or Petaou bajf a small inlet of the C08st 1^ miles
south-eastward of Palm island at the entrance of Ke-lung and bearing
from Ke-lung island 8. ^ E., is so called from its proximity to the coal

* Between Ke-lxmg and Craig island, in Maj, a strong current, perhaps the flood tide,
has been observed setting S.W. 2 miles an hour.

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mines on the hill sides of the soathern shore of Quar-see*kaa bay. It liesr
open to the northward and is sorroond^d with reefe and rocks, and shoal
at the head; it might, however, be available to a vessel in distress, if
embajed to windward of it.

It offers anchorage and shelter for one or two vessels onlj, and should
the mines ever be worked by Eoropeans, the coal, which is of good quality,
coold be conveyed to Harbour rock at its head by means of a railroad along
the west shore of the bay, at the base of the hills.. A short pier &om the
ninrth side of the rock would enable a vessel to lie alongside in 3 or 4
fathoms water, and receive or discharge her cargo.


From the northern extremity of Formosa there extends for 170 miles
in an E. by N. direction, a chain of rocks and islands of small size, bold of
approach, and for the most part widely separated, lying on or near the
edge of the bank of soundings extending from the coast of China. About
them are irregular depths of 60 to 100 fathoms, and they appear to be
separated by deep water, yet unsounded, both from the Luchu islands to
the eastward, and from the Meiaco sima chain lying 60 to 80 miles in a
parallel line to the southward.*

This chain comprises a group of three. Pinnacle, Craig, and Agincourt
islands, 20 to 30 miles from Formosa, a second group, some 80 miles east-
ward, consisting of Hoa-pin su, the Pinnacles and Ti-a-usu ; and 50 miles
beyond, the Raleigh rock which is the easternmost of the chain. These
all lie in the strength of the Japan current, although the first-named group
is within the influence of the tidal streams, but unlike the Meiaco simas,
they have no coral formations.

PzmrAC&B X8&AV3>, called by the Chinese Tsaou su or the Chair-
bearer, owing to its resemblance to coolies carrying a sedan chair, is in
lat. 25** 25^'N., long. 121** 58^' E., and 19 miles N.E.byK from the
entrance of Ke-lung harbour. It is a rugged mass of rock, 170 high, with
perpendicular sides, and around it are three semi-detached pinnacle rocks
about half the height of the island, two of which are visible in almost every
direction. They all stand upon a low reef, the western point of which
extends, probably, 2 cables.

CRAza zs&AWB, in lat. 25° 29' N., long. 122° 8' E.,is 10 miles E.N.E.
of Pinnacle island. Its eastern point is a steep cliff from the summit of
the island, 240 feet in height, off which lie the two high craggy rocks,

♦ See Admiralty Chart of the islands between Formosa and Japan, "with the adjacent
coast of China, No. 2412 ; scale, rf = 3'0 inches.

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surrounded by a large reef, from which the island has probably received
its name. The southern face is cliff-bound and steep, with a sandy bay on
the west formed by the western point, a flat conical head with a low cliff.
The northern face of the island is a gradual but broken slope, off which
H.M.S. Serpent anchored in 9 fathoms, in June 1866. At this season the
island is visited by a species of tern similar to the wide-awakes of the island
of AsceDsion in the South Atlantic.

AaxircoiTBT zs&iLWB, 9 miles N. | W. from Craig island, is in
lat. 25° 38' N., long. 122° 5^' E. It has a round summit, 540 feet high,
stietching out into high, bold headlands on the north and south, in the
latter of which is an immense cavern. All the eastern face is very steep ;
the western is less so, and has a high, stony beach where- stands a small
village ; and off the south-west point is a reef. Soundings of 20 to 45
fathoms were obtained around the island, within a mile, the western side
being the shallower.*

BOA-PZir SU and tbe POTAC^Ls OROVP. — Hoa-pin su, the north
face f of which is in lat. 25** 47' N., long. 123° 0' E., is an island 3 miles in
extent. "The extreme height of Hoa-pin su was found to be 1,181 feet,
the island being apparently cut away vertically at this elevation, on the
southern side, in a W.N.W. direction ;J the remaining portion sloping to
the eastward, where the inclination furnished copious rills of excellent water.
That this supply is not casual is proved by the existence of fresh-water fish
found in most of the natural cisterns, which are connected almost to the sea,
and abound in weeds which shelter them. There are no traces of inhabi-
tants, indeed the soil is insufficient for the maintenance of half. a dozen

The Pinnacle group, which is connected by a reef and bank of soundings
with Hoa-pin su, allowing a channel of about 12 fathoms water between it
and the Channel rock, presents the appearance of an upheaved and subse-
quently ruptured mass of compact grey columnar basalt, rising suddenly

* The above positions differ a little from those previously given. These islands were
examined in June 1866 by Commander Bullock of H.M.S. Serpent, and their positions
accurately determined. ^

■f The above description of this group is from Captain Sir Edward Belcher's Voyage
of H.M>S, Samarang, 1843 to 1846.

% The south side is probably so scarped, but cannot be in a W.N.W. direction, for the
south-west point, when seen on a S.E. by E. bearing, appears low and shelving. The
western part of the island rises symmetrically to a sharp peak, and is separated by a
deep gap from the eastern peak which is somewhat lower, very rugged, and steep on its
flonthem side ; the south-east point is a high cliff. The island might rather, therefore,