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between Sharp-peak point and Rees rock does not force the vessel on the
shoals on the north side of the channel. Fair anchorage in 6 fathoms, to
stop during a tide, will be found with Bees rock bearing S.S.E.

♦ T^'satfj Pjrts of OiM, age 284.



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oha;p.ti.3 XBAVING the RIVgER MIN. — ^MATSOU ISLAND. 275

W98« ciuiBiiiei. — The junks generallj use the Woga channel between
Woga and Sharp Peak islands, but to the northward of the latter island
there are seyer^ sandbanks which show at low tide, with not* more dian
6 to 9 feet water between the banks. Small steamers may proceed to sea
by thie channel with considerable advantage in the N.E< monsoon, as they
are enabled, with fore and aft sail, to fetch up between Matsou and Chang-
chi; and if bound to Formosa ^ very weatherly departure is ensured. A
pilot, however, should be taken and due caution exercised, because the
banks are liable to change, and personal knowledge is requisite for the safe
navigation of the channel.

somnac coast » assaob into the fttver. — South of Woufou there is a
pass^e, over the flats at entrance, and along the mainland, by wMch the Min
is entered, about 6 miles below Pagoda island and 10 miles above Sharp
peak. Large junks use it, and the English pilots, occasionally, to save time, as
the distance is about 5 miles shco't^r than by the main chaimel. The course
they take is to follow the land at about a cable aflber rounding Kowlai head
(passing outside Cone rock and the rock off Sharp pagoda) until close to
Sand-peak point,' when it is necessary to steer out to avoid its off-lying
rocks. The mark out is Sand peak kept between the two rocks on Sand^
peak point until Rees rock comes on with the north extreme of Hokiang,
N, W.by W. :^ W., the leading mark out of South channel.
' • Oh entering the South passage,* which should only be used by small
st^am vessels after half flood, the deepest water is found with Square peak
oh Wou-fou island bearing from N.W. by W. \ W. to N.W. by W. | W.,
till the highest peak left of Serrated peak is in line with the outer rock off
Sand peak point, W. | S. Keep on this leading mark until close in, passing
the outer rock at a cable, from which steer well open of Meewah town point.
The banks off Triangle head shoal gradually. Sand island covers at high
water springs. The most difficult part of the passage is between Sharp
pagoda point and the rock lying off it, as there is a mud bank close to the
shore on the west of the point, and another close to the west of the rock.
There is also a narrow passage north of the rock. The rock covers at high
water eprhigs, and one a few yards north of it, at half tide. There is a
great eddy here. After passing this steer moderately close to each point,
and very close to the western side of Kowlui head, and then follow the
shore till Mingan pass is entered in order to avoid the bank on the north
side of the channel. A new island has formed on a bank less than one mile
£. by S. of Kowlui head.



* These directions are hj Navigating Sub-Lieutenant Alfred G. Joll, R.N., H.M.S.
Dwarf, 1873.

S 2



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276 WHITE DOa ISLANDS TO KIMEOD SOUND. [chap.tl



lies north-east of the entrance of the Min, and
North 10 miles from the western White Dog ; and between the two and
N.byE.^ E. 6^ miles from the latter is a precipitous black rock, the Sea
Dog, 60 feet high, and surronnded by reefs.

** S.W. by S. one mile from the Sea Dog is a rock (Hebe reef), wbich
shows when there is a heayy swell on and at low water springs. When
on it the west end of liatsou bears N.N.W. ^ W^ and Breakwater rock at
Tong-sha island S. by W. } W. The east end of Beef island (off the east
point of Matsou) in line with Changchi peak N. byE.^E. leads to the
' westward.** •

Between the Sea Dog and the east end of Matsou are two other rocks
above water, the Sea Cat and Flat rock, but they should not be approached
within the distance of 2 cables.

OAUTiOflri — ^A dangerous rock, on which the sea breaks at low water,
was discoveredf twelve years ago by the river Min pilots, lying East 3 miles
from Sea Cat, and N.N.E. from the highest part of Middle Dog. UntU
this danger has been further examined, the mariner should use great
caution in approaching its locality, for its position is given by compass
bearings, and therefore must be considered doubtfuL

AMomowuLUm^ — A good roadstead will be found on the western side
of Matsou during the N.E. monsoon, and good shelter in the deep bay (m
its northern face in the S.W. monsoon. HJSiLS. Hornet anchored in the
•latter bay, July 1857, and was well sheltered in 5 fathoms, muddy
bottom, at a third of a mile off shore, with the west extreme of bay
N.W. \ W., east extreme E.N.E., centre peak of bay S.W., and Pastel
rock N. by E. ^ E. There are several villages round the bay, and fish,
goats, and a smal} quantity of poultry may be procured ; fresh water can
be obtained in both bays.

CSAWCKJSX I8&AVB, at 1| miles north-east of Matsou, has on it two
remarkable sharp peaks, the highest being 1,030 feet above the sea. Off
the northern face of the island are several islets, the largest of which,
Gordon islet, bears North 2^ miles, but there is no safe passage between
ihem. N.E. 1^ miles from the north point of Gordon is a small black
rock with a reef lying westward of it.

At half a mile S.S.E. | E. from the islet off the south point of Changchi
ere two rocks ^always above water ; and West 1 J miles from the south
point is the Pastel rock,

* Doubts have arisen concerning the existence of this rock, although it is stated to be
-visible, and definite bearings and leading marks are given to clear it. It was searched
for without success by the Harbour Master of Fuchau in 1871, and it is affirmed that the
Chinese fishermen and aU the pilots deny its existence. On the contrary it was seen break-
ing from Q.M.S. Dwarf in 1869, and bearings taken at the time confirmed the coirectness
of its position.

f Commander T. Colvile, H.M.S. Camilla, Dec. 1859.



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CHAP. VI.] CHANGCHI ISLAND. — TUNG-TING ISLAND. 277

N.E. bj E. ^ E. 2 miles from the north-east point of Changchi, and with
a channel between them, are three peaked rocks named the Trio, about
50 feet in height.

AncHoTAffe. — The bay on the south side of Changchi affords good
shelter in the N.E. monsoon, but a heavy swell rolls in at times. Yessels
entering from the northward can round its eastern point dose-to, and
anchor within the point, in 6 fathoms. Either this or the anchorage on
the western side of Matsou, which is preferable, should be used by sailing
vessels bound to the River Min during the N.E. monsoon, as they may
always get to the bar from hence the precise moment they require it,>
whilst from the White Dogs a vessel will barely fetch.



», or Tungsha, in lat. 26** 9' N., long. 120** 26' E.,
is a barren rock, about 40 feet above the sea, bearing East 22^ miles from
Matsou island, and N.E. by E. ^ E. 26 miles from the south end of the
White Dogs.



I Boex and i^AMMM I8&BT.— N.W. by W. 12^ miles from Alli-
gator island is Lame rock, low and flat, with a reef lying 2 cables north
of it. Lame islet, bearing N. by E. 6^ miles from Lame rock, has ledges
extending from its north and south ends. It is about 200 feet above the
sea, with large boulders sticking up here and there ; near its summit are
three houses.



; socx, 40 feet high, is 7 miles W.N.W. of Lame islet, and
6 miles E. \ N. of Ragged point on the mainland. A reef shows at low
water E.N.E. 5^ miles from the Black rock, and from it Lame bears
S. byE.^E. 5 miles, the north end of Tung-ying island E. by S., and
Cony islet N.W. | N.



Tuvo-Tiarch the easternmost island on this part of the coast, bears
E. ^N. 13 miles from Lame islet, and its peak rises 855 feet above the
sea* Its appearance is level and flat, with steep cliff shores, aiid a large
village stands on its western side ; off its south extreme is a ledge of
rocks. Light proposed, on summit, of first order.

Aaeboraireri — ^There is a good jEinchorage in the N.E. monsoon in 10
fathoms, at half a mile southward of the small island lying off the north-
west point of Tung-ying. This island appears as part of Tung-ying,
except on a N.E. by N. or S.W, by S. bearing.

coarr is a remarkable conical island, lying W.N.W., 19 miles from
Tung-ying ; a reef extends 3 cables off its north-east shore, otherwise the
channel, nearly 1^ miles wide, between it and the two islands north of it,
is safe. A rock awash at low water, lies East 1^ miles from the cone,.



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278 WETEE DOG ISLANDS TO KIM&OD SOUND. [ckaf.tx.

and another S.E. | E. 1| miles; from the latter, S.W. of which there is
imeTen ground, the south end of Spider idand bears W. f N.*

•ra»m i8UJn> is 3^ miles westward of Cony, and its highest part
is 6S0 feet abore the sea/ Iliere is a large Tillage in a bay on its south
side, a reef off its south-west point, and four small islets off its north-east
face. Between it and the main, which is 5^ miles distant, there are three
other and*larger islets ; between the first and Spider island is a half-tide
rock ; the centre one, named Isthmus, has a sandy isthmus, and a mud
bank extends westerly from it, but the channel between it and the first
islet is clear. The passage between Isthmus and Inside islet, 1:|^ miles to
the westward, is obstructed by a reef, some rocks of which uncorer at
half-tide and which extends 6 cables E.N.E. from Inside. The chan-
nel bietween the latter islet and Cox point has 6 to 4 fathoms and is a
mile wide. West of Spider and southward of Isthmus are the two groups
of Larva rocks with a channel between them ; two rocks on each are
above water. The channel between Isthmus and Larva is contracted to a
mile by reefs extending northward from both the latter groups.

jLaolioniffei — ^There is good shelter from N.E. winds on the west side
of Spider island.

TXiro-SAB BAT, formed on the west side of a peninstda of the main-
land 13 miles westward of Changchi, affords safe anchorage in 2^ to 3
fathoms in the N.E. monsoon ; there are the remains of a walled town
here but the place is nearly deserted.

Fronting this bay to the southward and south-east are many islets and
rocks. The outermost (four islets above water, named Square rocks) lie
3 miles to the southward, with reefs extending northerly from them. To
the north-east of them is Crab islet, surrounded by reefs, which extend
off its north-west part at least half a mile. In the channel between Crab
islet and Ting-hae point are two islets.

IRTAVXI SAT, 6 miles E.N.E. of Ting-hae, is frequented by junks,
but although it affords them good shelter it cannot be recommended for
larger vessels. There is a rock, which shows at lower water, lying near
the centre of the bay at 7 cables off shore, with Pe-kyau point E. ^ N.,
and the nearest Claret rock S.E. by S.

cXiARBT ROCX8 are l^ miles southward of the east point of Wanki
bay. Three of them are from 20 to 30 feet above the sea, but they
are all surrounded by sunken rocks, the southernmost of which lies
S.W. ^ S., half a mile from the south Claret, with the hill over Ting-hae
bay bearing W. ^ N., and the summit of Matsou S. by E. The northern-

* See Admiralty Chart: East Coast of China, Sheet 6, No. 1,754, scale, m = 0-24 of
an inoht and Flan of SamnsahBay, No. 1,988, scale, m == 0* 7 of an inch.



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CHAP. VI.] TING-HAE BAY. — SAM*SAH INLET. 279

most rock lies N.E. ^ E. a mile from the north Claret, with the north end
of Gordon islet in one with a small islet beyond it E. by S. ^S. Pe-kjau
point is half a, mile northward of this rock; there is adiannel between
them, but the sunken rocks lying off the point narrow it to 2 cables ; a
stranger therefore should pass south of the Claret rocks, and. haul up when
the yillage in Wanki bay bears North.

BAOHBD »ozvT is &6 north-east extreme of a narrow peninsula, in
some places only half a mile across, which runs 6^ miles E J^.E. of Wanki
bay. A quarter of a mOe eastward of the point is Diplo islet, with a reef
extending three-quarters of a cable eastward of it. Here there is gene-
raUy a heavy tide rip, and much sea in NJB. winds. The junks use the
passage between Diplo and the main, said to be a good one, but sailmg
vessels have no business there, as the tides are sti^ong. Steamers, however,
use this passage with safety, and frequently anchor under the small island
westward of Eagged point.

8AK-8AB xiTLBT.* — The entrance to this inlet, at 10 miles westward
of Spider island, is If miles wide, with deep water and strong tides.
There is a rock in mid-channel W. ^ S. 6 cables from Castle point, from
which the centre peak of Cone island bears N.JW. and Steep rock
N. by E. I E. I to pass eastward of it keep the west end of Cone island in
line with the highest peak of Crag island.

On the eastern side, close to the entrance, is a small bay with a fort in
it, and here the junks remain for a tide, but the water is very deep and
shoals too suddenly for vessels that cannot take the ground.

The Plover made a running survey of the interior of this inlet. She
ran to the westward, leaving a large island on the port hand, then hauled
to the northward, and found anchorage on a middle ground, three-quarters
of a mile from the shore, and 5^ miles above the island. The bay extended
to the northward 13 miles beyond this anchorage, terminating in a sandy
isthmus, over which Fuh-ning bay was seen. The bay also runs back to
the west and south-west ; in the latter arm is the town of Nin-le-heen.

At 4 miles southward of the entrance of Sam-sah inlet is the opening
to another inlet, 10 miles deep ; there are 30 fathoms water at the entrance,
but circumstances did not admit of its being examined.

SJLO XSKAJTBS. — Off the entrance to these inlets, about 4 miles north-
westward of Ragged point, and 7 miles south-westward of Spider island

* See Plan of Sam-sah bay, No. 1,988. Sam-sah inlet is not known by that name to
the natives or European coasters. The true Sam-sah liea farther north, being a small
cove at the north-east angle of Fuh-ning bay, at 2 miles N.W. of the north point of
Fongho island. There is anchorage, in the K.E. monsoon in the coye half a mile east-
ward of it, in 3 to 5 fathoms, but it would be scarcely safe to proceed into it yithout the
serrices of a pilot Remark Book of Narigating Lieut. John F. Bams, B.N.



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280 WHITB DOO ISLANDS TO NUCBOD SOUND. [chaf.vi

are three islets, named Bag islands, and a mile northward of the eastern-
most is the Bittern rock, which covers at high water. The Plovet
anehored westward of the westernmost islet and found tolerable shelter.

TiBSSi.— It is high water, full and change, at Changchi ishmd (page
276) at 9h. 80m., at Spider island at lOh. Cm., and the springs at botli
islands rise 17 feet. Inside Matson and Changchi the tidal streams are
Terj perceptible, there being a great indranght into Ting*hae baj and the
northern entrances to the rirer Min with the flood, and the velocity off
Bagged point sometimes amounts to 3 knots. There is also a great in-
dranght into Sam-sah inlet. Off the Bag islands the tides run with great
strength, and a long swell rolls home into Sam-sah bay with north-east
winds.

To the northward of Changchi the flood came from the E.N.E., rate
1^ knots per hour, and the ebb from W. bj S., rate 1^ knots ; also off
Conj island the ebb averaged 1^ knots from W. bj S. at neaps. At the
anchorage inside Sam-sah inlet the ebb came from the N.N.W., and it
ran 11^ miles in a tide; the flood set E.N.E. for the first 3 hours^
then S.E.

BOVB&B WMMLM Bi&AWB is 3^ miles long, N.N.E. and S.S.W., and
near its northern end are two remarkable peaks, the highest of which
rises 1,190 feet above the sea. It lies 3 miles north-east of Spider island,
the only danger in the channel between being the rocks lying off the north
end of the latter island.

There are two cone-shaped islets between Double Peak and Cony
island, with channels between too narrow for sailing vessels, but there is
a good passage between the southernmost of these islets and the reefi
. extending north-eastward of Cony island (page 277).

1%A» ai&AWB, at l^ miles westward of the north end of IDouhle
Peak, is a low flat islet, with a sunken rock off its southern point. There
is no passage fit for vessels between this islet and the mainland.

ABeboraffes' — There is good anchorage in the N.E. monsoon on the
south-west side of Double Peak island, to the south-east of a small islet,
with a rock above water on each side of it, lying three-quarters of a mile
westward of the west point of the island ; the two cone-shaped islets
northward of Cony island sheltering from the eastern swell.

There is good shelter abreast the first sandy bay within the point
westward of Flap island. Here were found six piratical junks, plundering
part of a convoy they had captured.

BXTTSRW VKLAJX'D, — ^From Flap island the coast trends northward
for 10 miles to Fielon island, and off it is Bittern island and several rugged
rocks, which vessels of large draught should give a berth to and not close
the shons under the depth of 6 fVithoms. Bittern island is from 3 to 4



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csAP. ▼!.] DOUBLE FEAKy PIH-SEAKG, PTJH-YAK ISLANDS. 281

nules in circumference, and between it and the main there is a passage
three-quarters of a mile wide and a mile in length, affording good
anchorage in 3^ fathoms for small yessels in either monsoon. On the
north-west side of the island is a sandy cove where fresh water will be
found. H.M.S. BUtern, when in search of piratical junks, anchored in
4^ fathoms with Goodrldge point E. \ N., and the extremes of the island
from S. bjE.I E. to S.W. by S.

TOi-jnaro bat«— From Fielon island the coast falls back to the west-
ward, forming a deep but shallow bay, on the shore of which is the city
of Fuh-ning. In the northern part of the entrance is a group of islets
extending 2 miles from the coast. The Plover anchored under the south-
western, named Fong-ho, which is the largest, but the shelter was not good.
There is a narrow passage between the rocks off Fong-ho and those off
the point.

VXH-BSAWO niiAViMi.— E. by N. 8^ miles from the north point of
Double Peak island is the southern of the Pih-seang or Tsih-sing out-
lying group. The iKurthern islet, named Town island, is the largest, and
the h'ttle cove at its south-west angle will afford shelter to one or two
small yessels. Between the northern and southern islets of the group
there is a channel free from rocks, but the intervening space is thickly
studded with fishing stakes.

nni-TAV zs&AiTB, 1,700 feet above the sea, lies North 12 miles from
the Pih-seang group, and between it and the coast is a good roadstead,
named Lishan bay, the anchorage in which is on the Fuh-yan side,
abreast an islet and a joss house. The northern entrance to the bay is
broad and open. To the southward are three entrances : the first Fuh-
yan pass, between Fuh-yan and Chuhpi island, is only a cable wide, and
vessels using it are apt to get becalmed under Fuh-yan. The Chuhpi
pass between Chuhpi and Angle island is 8 cables across, but there is a
patch of low rocks (which must be left to the westyrard) to the S.W. of
Chuhpi that narrows the channel to half a mile ; and there is a sunken
rock off the north-east point of Angle island. The third entrance, called
Little Pass, between Angle island and the main, is only fit for ^all
junks or boats.

crater.— Good water is plentiful and easily obtained at the anchorage
in Lishan bay.

Ttnwm* — In Lishan bay it is high water, full and change, at lOh. 15m.,
springs rise 16 feet. The first of the fiood came from the E.S.E., rate
three-quarters of a knot, then from E.N.E., rate half a knot ; the ebb
ran to the N.E., rate three-quarters of a knot.

* See Admiralty Chart: China East Coast, Sheets. Bagged point to Pih-ki-shan,
No. 1754; scale, m«0-S4 inch.



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282 WHITB 1)00 ISIaANDS to NIMBOD SOTTNI). [ohap. Yi.



in lat. 26'' 53' N., long. 120'' M' 18" E., has its
summit 8 fbet above high water, or 24 feet above low water springs. . It
is 9 miles E.&E. of Fuh-yan and 14 miles N.E. of Town island, Pih<»seang
group.

VAa ai&AW»S« — ^E. hj*N. 16 miles firom the eastern point of Enh-yan
are the Tae islands, the easternmost of which, 618 feet above the sea, is
the laigest, and remarkable for its table top. Shelter in the N.E. mon-
soon can be had under this island as close as a vessel can safely go (say
half a cable's length), but it is bad.

S.S.W.^W. d miles from the easternmost Tae island are two rocky
islets named Strawstack, aboat 100 feet high ; they almost join. Close to
the north*east point of the northern Tae island is a remarkable roek, Hie
Mushroom, 260 feet high.

A rock has been reported by the master of the steamer Waratdh as lying
about 4 miles westward of the Strawstack, and visible at low water springs.

Between the Tae group and Fah-yan are the Incog islands, too small to
afford shelter; they are low and flat, with steep cliffs. At 3 miles N.W.
of these islands is Solitary rock, with a reef extending 2 cables in an
easterly direction from it ; the soundings between this and the main, from
which it is distant 3| miles, vary fr<Hn 7 to 5^ fathoms.

CtatiittoB. — Vessels passing inside the Tae islands should keep well to
the westward, as the ground in their vicinity has not been well expbred.
Two reefe, which show at low water, have been found ; from one, with
the rocks on it 8 feet above high water, the Mushroom rock bears E.S.E.,
and the west end of the eastern Incog island S.W. by W. ^ W., on which
bearing it is in line with the east end of Fuh-yan ; and from the other,
the table top island of the Tae group bears E. by S. \ S. and the west rock
of the group N.E. by E; IJ miles.*

SBvair UTAMB ai*e a group of rocks and islets, 2| miles in extent^
which may be passed on the outside safely at a mile* The southern inlet,
about 200 feet high, which is the largest, and split into two, is 7 miles
N.E. by E. J E. from the eastern Tae island, and S.S.E. from Cleft rock.
A rugged islet, 70 feet high, lies a mile NJE.byE. of it; and a mile
farther are three low flat rocks, the easternmost of whicltcQvers, and bears
S.E. ^E. 3 miles from Cleft rock j the ^tter 50 feet high and having the
appearance its name implies, is 8 miles N.E. by N. from the eastern Tae
island. '

PZB-QVAir BAB80U&.— -N.W. 14 miles from the. Tae group is the
entrance to this harbour, between Ping-fong and Chin-quan islands and

♦ A sligLt examination was made in 1866, of the Incog islands and the channel
between these and Solitary, by Commander Charles Bullock, RN;, H.M.S. Serpent The
channel was found clear, and the islands appeared to be steep-to all round the group.



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OBckr.n.] TAB ISLANDS.t-NAM-QUAN HAEBOUB. 288

the main. To the northward there is a high and very r^narkable, Bharp,
conical hill, Pih-quan peak, in lat. 27° 18' 48" N., long. 120"^ 28' 42" E.,
having on its summit the appearance of a cairn. The harbour is 1 J miles
wide, carries a depth of 3 fathoms, and affords good shelter in the N.E.
monsoon to vessels under 15 feet draught.

Ping-fong has three chimneys on its summit ; off its south-east point is
a low rock which is never covered, and between this rock and Ping-fong
is a sunken rock. Vessels bound from the northward may round this
low rock at a cable's length, and then haul up for the south point of Ping-
^ong, giving it and also the south-west point a berth of 2 cables. The Pih
pass, between the north end of Ping-fong and the main, is fit only for
such janks as use sculls.

crater. — Fresh water can be procured in the sandy bay at the foot of
the three chimneys on Ping-fong.

WAM-QVAir »AT and HARBOUR.*— The south point of Chin-quan
island is a bold steep bluff, having under it a rock which may be passed
close-to.f Anchorage in 9 and 7 fathoms will be found on the west side
of Chin-quan after a second rock has been passed. Nam-quan bay opens
out to the northward as Chin-quan is passed. The soundings shoal
suddenly on entering the bay, which is viery shallow. The walled town of
Nam-quan stands on its noith shore.

Immediately westward of Nam-quan bay is the entrance to Nam-quan
harbour, an inlet, which runs about 15 miles in a general N.W. direction
when it appears to -expand into a wide basin called Gordon bay.



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