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Within the north point of entrance is a town. South of the town pointt
is a small rock which never covers, having rounded which haul up to the
northward, giving the west extreme of the town point a berth of 2 cables
to avoid a sunken rock off it which shows till quarter-flood. Having
arrived within the point anchor in 14 fathoms, as the mud banks rise
almost vertically. On the south side of entrance is a small fort with a
few houses. The narrowest part of the channel is 6 cables wide, and the
strong tides and bafliing winds make it necessary to have a boat ready to
tow the vessel's head round. The Plover traced the inlet for 15 miles to
the N.W. from the town point, and had then a depth of 8 fathoms ; the
channel is, however, niarrow, tortuous, and surrounded by high hills, and
there was apparently little or no traffic.

* See Admiralty Plan of Nam-quan harbour, No. 1,980, scale, m = 1*7 inches.

t Navigating Lieutenant Barns states that this point is not steep-to, but has a reef
which extends one cable. Also, that a reef of rocks runs nearly 1 J cables to the south-
westward from the small islet on the south-west side of Chin-quan.

t Bate island, as marked on the Chart, is only a continuation of the point. The tides
run very stroDg here, and eddiea extend off. nearly all the points. Nav. Lieut. John
F.Bam8,E.N.



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284 WHITE BOG ISLANDS TO NIMBOB SOUITD. [obap.ti.



•HJLS* Nmrod when proceeding up Nam-quan har-
bonr, Jannarj 1857, stnick on a rock with only 9 feet water on it, lying
aboot 11 miles from the entrance, and 1} cables eastward of a small isJet
on the western shore.*



-In Nam-qnan harbonr it is high water, full and change, at
KA. Qm., and springs rise 17 feet.

aovsSAmT«— The boundary line of the provinces Chi-kyang and
Fa*kyen passes through Pih-quan harbour.

Thm OOA8T from Nam-qnan harbour trends N.E.byN. 21 miles to
Ping-yang point, and at the distance of 12 miles is Tanue bay, which is
too shallow to afford shelter to any vessel drawing over 10 feet water.
A low rocky named Gap islet, lies 1^ miles southward of Tanue point ;
and N.E. | E. 4| miles from it is Farmer rock, which shows at low water,
and lies 3^ miles off shore, with Fing-yang point bearing N.N.W., and
Tanue point S. W. by W. ^ W. 3^ miles.

From Ping-yang point the coast takes a north-westerly direction and is
fronted by mud banks taking a north-north-east direction, which dry three
miles from the land at low water, and on which are several small islets and
rocks 5 or 6 miles from the shore. At the distance of 11 miles from the
point is the embouchure of the Shwin-gan river by which the commerce
of Wan-chu fu is maintained.

The bar at the entrance of the Shwin-gan. has only 9 feet on it at low
water, and off it are the four Tsang islets, the southern of which is the
largest. In the channel between this latter islet and the mud bank at
the entrance of the river the depth is only 9 feet. Between the south
Tsang islet and the one next it to the northward, there is a channel of 4
fkthoms water close to the latter ; and inside the two central islands the
depth is 3 fathoms, but the space is confined.

WAMMX ai&Jk]n>8 lie N.E.byN. 30 miles from the Tae group, and
on the south-eastern side of the largest, 740 feet above the sea, there is a
good harbour called port Namki. Vessels should not pass among the islets
forming the gouth-west part of this group, as there are many reefs which
cover at high water. The westernmost islet, Turret, makes like a cone
and has reefs to the north and west of it. The southern islet. Castellated
rock, lies S.S.W. 5 miles from the rest of the group.
if' Aiiclioraffesi^ — ^In the N.E. monsoon, and with S.E. winds, a swell rolls
into port Namki. There is a bay on the north side of the west point of
Namki which the junks frequent and which is a good smooth water

anchorage.t
Wteter. — Grood water can be obtained in port Namki.

♦ Capt. C. C. Forsyth, RN., H M.S. Hornet, 1857.
t limtenant Alfred £aton, B^., H.M.S. Firm,



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CHAT.Ti.] NAM-KI AND PIH-EI-SHAK ISLANDS. 285



B. — ^N.N.E. 9 miles from Namki is another
group, the largest island of which is named Pih-ki-shan. The four islets
close to its south-east side, protect the anchon^ on its south side from
the easterly swelL Vessels should not, howerer, choose this anchorage,
imless from necessity. Fresh water may be obtained.



TVwa-rwAV juid tab-pzb ib&avbs.— W.^N. 11 miles from Pih-
ki-shan, with five small islets intervening, is another group of one island
and four islets. The island, called Tiing-pwan or Brass basin, has
anchorage off its south-west face in 8 fathoms in the N.E. monsoon, but
the shelter is not so good as that on the south side of the Tae-pih islands^
lying 3 miles to the N.W. of it, under which the water will be smooth in
4 fathoms.*

In working up to the northward of the Tae-pih and Tung-pwan groups,
shoal water will be found to extend 8 miles from the foot of the hills on
tbe main ; at which distance is the 2 fathoms' line of soundings. On the
eastern edge of this line, at 6^ miles northward of Tae-pih, is the Pang-
peto reef, visible at low water; from it the western of the Tae-
pih islands bears S.S.W.^W., and the southern of the Tseigh islands
E. by 5.^8.

TZBXS. — At the Namki and Pih-ki-shan islands it is high water, full
and change, at 8h. 30m., and springs rise 17 feet. At the anchorage under
the southern side of the latter group, the ebb came from the N.N.W., the
flood from the S.E.by E.

voiro-iVBAVO cwouVd — ^The Tseigh islands, three in number, named
North Tseigh, South Tseigh, and East Tseigh, 8 miles N.N.W. of Pih-
ki-shan, lie on the south of a large and numerous group. Between the
Tseigh and Pwan-peen island, the next island northward, is a navigable
channel for vessels, 3 cables wide. Fong-whang, the largest island of the
group, is 6 miles long N.E. and S.W., 2^ miles at its extreme breadth, and
its eastern face is high and precipitous ; there is a junk channel between
it and Pwan-peen.

Coin island, the eastern of the Fong-whang group, has three rocks
lying N.W. of it, and to the W.S.W. is a low flat islet, named Flask, with
rocks off its southern end, and two rocky islets to the north-westward,
between which there is a safe channel of 8 fathoms water.

Bm&oox BAB80US, the entrance to which is between the Tseigh
group and a high island with bold cliffs, named Fakew, has excellent



* See Admiral^ Chart : East CJoast of China, Sheet 7, No. 1,769 ; scale, m =0*24 of
an inch.



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286 WHITB DOG ISLAin>S TO KIMBOB fiOTJND. [<mv^ tx.

anelMMge in 4 lo 10 fftdiomsi sheltered from all wiiids. The distaaoe is
8 milee between the Taeigh and Fakew [Takew] and on entering a veseel
will haye to pass oyer a bar of 4 fathoms water, dee penin g to 6 and 8
fa thom ^ and then shallowing to 4 and 3 fathoms at the head of the
harbonr. The anchorage is in 5^ fathoms off the west end (^ l^wan-poen
island**

0«ppilM« — Water can be procured in this harbour, and bullocks of the
best description.

TI9BSI« — ^It is high water, full and change, in Bullock harbour at
8h. SOmi, springs rise 17 feet.

9SBBOnows^— Vessels have no busineiss in the space between the
Pih-ki-shan and the Tseigh islands, as the clusters of rocks there are inter-
spersed with reefs covered at half-tide. If bonnd to Bullock harbour from
the soothward pass between Tung-pwan island and Shroud ialet, whicli
latter may be recognised by its bluff ; the islands near it are low. Care
most be taken to aroid a sunken rock lyin^ North of the rocks im-
mediately westward of Shroud ; and also the reef North of the islet lying
NJ^.W. 2^ miles from Shroud.

When approaching the harbour from the northward through the San-
pwan pass, which may be taken by a vessel of 12 feet draught, pass west-
ward of Fakew [Takew], bearing in mind that a rock with only a foot over
it at low water lies N.N.W. ^ W. rather more than a mile from its south-
west point, with the west point of Fong-whang in line with the east
extreme of Great San-pwan bearing N.E. | N.

To the N. W., 4 miles from Fakew, is the island of Niaow fMiaow] ; the
channel lies between these two, and between Niaow and Fong-Ti*ang,
where, from both shores being shoal, it is only 6 cables across. Great
San-pwan [Chwang-pien] is almost connected with Niaow, there being
but a very narrow channel between them. Close to the south-east point of
Great San-pwan is a bold perpendicular islet, and the channel is between
this islet and Little San-pwan [San-pwan]. The winds being variable
and the tides uncertain, unhandy vessels will have difficulty in going to the
northward through San-pwan pass, especially if a strong northerly wind



* The names inserted in square brackets are those by which the islands are distiot-
gnished on the Admiralty Chart, which at this part differs in several instances fh)m the
oii^nal sailing directions. It is stated by Nav. lieat Barns, B.N., who was croizing in
these pazki in 1866, that several of the names on the chart have been wrongly inserted
or misapplied. For instance Tung-pwan is not known to the Chinese by that name, bat
one of the Tae-pih gronp js># called. The natives call the Flh-ki-shan islands Fihh-ki,
and Bittxni^ island Fih-kishan. And in the river Min, Won-fou ishmd is properly
Lowgai, and Pinnacle island the true Won-foa.



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OBAr.n.;\ BTJIiLOOK HAEBOUB. — ^WAN-CHU BIYEB. 287

hsLB been blowing, as there is usually a heayy swell at such times setting
into it*



u— N.W. by W. 8 miles from Niaow island is Wan-
cbu island, fronting the month of the Wan-chu river. A mud spit extends

6 miles south-eastward from this island, leaving only a shallow channel of

7 feet water between it and Niaow, close to the latter.



Bf- — ^At the entrance of the river it is high water, full and change,
at 9h. ; at Wan-chu fu it is high water at 9h. 30m. ; and the rise at each
place is 15 to 16 feet. The velocity of the food is from 3 to 4 knots at
springs ; that of the ebb from 4 to 5 knots.



BZSBCTXOV8. — Bound to this river from the southward, when
abreast Coin island steer N.W. ^ N*, leaving the Cliff rocks to the north-
ward and the north rode of Great San^pwan [Chwang-pien] island to the
^Boutb. Having passed the latter, edge away West for the south point of
Hutau island leaving a remarkably steep bluff island, called Hokeen, to
the south. Off the south point of Hutau, and abreast Hokeen, is a sunken
rock lying .1^ cablesf off shore,^. but it will be avoided by ox)ening
the south-west point of Hutau to the southward of White rock | in Hutau
bay. South of White rock there is a middle ground confining the channel,
which is north of it, to a width of 7 cables. There is good anchorage
in 4 and 5 fathoms to the south-west of White rock, but the bay within
the rock is shoal.

Fr<mi half a mile off the south-west pomt of Hutau the entrance of the
river bears W.N.W. 5 miles, and it will be knowni by an isolated range of

* The San-pwaa pass Is of great value to small vessels steaming up against the N.E.
monsoon, and on this account it is desirable that the following information relative to its
rapid silting up should be verified. It has been reported bj Mr. Henry F. Woods, B.N.,
Acting Master of H.M.S. Cormorant, that the pass is gradually shoaling all over, that
the banks on each side of the passage are growing out, and that they had already, in
1866, narrowed the channel to very little. The channel was not discoverable by the
colour of the wattf, for it was found as shallow where it was tolerably clear as where it
was greatly discolored by the mud stirred up by the tide. Soundings of 2 J to 2i fathoms
onlj were obtained at 2 hours after high water, which, allowing a reduction of 12 feet,
would reduce the depth at low water springs to less than one fitthom. In Septetnber the
north-eastern end of the Pass was so filled up with fishing stakes and nets, that there
was great dif& culty in findbig a passage for a gunboat.

t Commander Yansitiart, H.M.S. Bittern, states that this rock is within half a cable's
length of the south point of Hutau, and may be passed close-to ; and that a sailing vessd
most be careful of the ebb tide, which sets with great strength to the B.N.B., across the
flat between Hutau and Wan-chu point, and between Hutau and Junk island ei^e^aUy
as the flat seems to have grown to the southward.

t Said to be a large peaked islet.



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288 WHITB DOa ISLANDS TO KIMBOD SOUND, [chap, tl

bilk, with a square fort at the east, and a small walled town at the west
end. The depths will vary from 3 to 4 fathoms in the channel oatside the
entrance which is more than a mile wide, but upon either side the edges
of the extensiye mnd banks shoal suddenly and at low water large tracts
of them are drj.

Having passed the range of hills keep the left bank or north shore of
the riyer aboard, until the first hill on the flat island (Wan-chu island)
bears S.W. bj 8., when the ressel will have cleared a middle ground at
half a mile from the south shore, and 1^ miles E.NJ5. of this hill ; the
highest part of Hutan in line with the south foot of the hills at the
entrance bearing £. ^ S. is the mark for its northern edge.

From abreast this middle ground, in the yicinity of which and fronting
a village the depth decreases to 1 1 feet, keep mid-channel, passing a large
walled town on the north shore of the river in 4 to 5 fathoms, then
gradually haul over to the first point on the south side, where the hills
come down to the water's edge, passing a point with a circular fort and a
building like a large jar upon it close-to. The leading mark across, in
5 fathoms, is Salamis point, east of Jar point, in line with a remarkable
gap, S.W.byW.iW.

Aaelionifferi — ^Vessels ought not to go more than 2^ miles above Jar
point ; they will then be in from 3^ to 7 fathoms water. At this position
with the west extreme of the largest island bearing about North, there
is a sunken rock ofi^ the south bank.

From this anchorage the distance to Wan-chu fu is 5^ miles, but the
channel is too intricate for a stranger. The water of the river contains a
great deal of sediment and is not used by the inhabitants for culinary
purposes. From the summit of Fort hill the canals with junks in them
were traced to the westward, where they probably' communicate with the
Shwin-gan river, which appears to monopolise the commerce of the district^
as but few junks were seen on the Ngau river, notwithstanding its
capabilities for navigation.

The Wan-chu river is navigated by our gunboats. Lieutenant Alfred
Eaton, R.N., commanding the JPtrm, reported in 1866, that in one part the
channel north of Wan-chu island had shoaled to 11 feet. Also the dis-
covery of the rock near the anchorage 2J miles above Jar point ;* and

♦ Navigating Lieut. John F. Barna of H.M.S. Havoc, also writes:— "The Firm
stmck on a rock about a cable from the bank of the river, and 2 miles below the town ;
the small island just to the eastward of the double pagoda island was not] seen ; the
remarkable building stated to exist on Jar point was not recognized, but on the
summit stood the three chimneys so common on this coast. Froyisions are cheap and
abundant, and the authorities and people well disposed towards foreigners. Wood is
procurable in any quantify at 25 cents per picul."



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CHAP, vl] WAN-CHTJ BIVER. — KEMONG HARBOUR. 289

higher up, eastward and wiUiin a mile of the entrance of the creek on the
north bank lying about North from Fort hill, two rocky patches in the
channel to the southward of which vessels mast pass.

In 1869 the upper channel was partially re-examined and found to have
considerably altered since the survey of 1843. The spit extending from
the large island had greatly diminished, along which a narrow channel
ran in a N.N.W. direction, with soundings varying from 3 to 5 fathoms,
deepening towards the high land and a dark bluff close to which was
7 fathoms. The depth ov6r the flats on the south side is only 3 feet.*

Soutiieni cniaiinei. — There is said to be a good channel into the river^ on
the south side of Wan-chu island and flats, carrying from 3 to 5 fathoms.
Its entrance is between the south-west point of Niaow [Miaow] and the
rocks lying a mile westward of it, after passing which steer West until
the west point of Wan-chu bears N.W. | N. ; then haul up N.W, for the
opening into the river, afterwards closing the Wan-chu flats and keeping
close along the island. It has a bar of 9 feet. Pilots can be obtained at
a village on the west side of Niaow.

JbOT-snr 8A7. — Junk island, lying on the north side of Hutau, is
low and rocky, and the channel between them, and between Junk island
and the main, can only be used by small junks.

North of Junk is Lot- sin bay, which runs back to the northward
20 miles, in the southern parts of which there is good anchorage, but the
head of the bay is shoal except a narrow outlet to the sea between Ta-ou
island and the main named Hebe Lock.

QVAVO-TA zsXbaarB^ — ^At 2 miles eastward of Hutau is Quang-ta
island, under the west side of which H.M. brig Plover anchored, but
the water was found to shoal very suddenly. ThereJ is a channel between
Quang-ta and the Cliff rocks to the south-east, and also between Quang-ta
and Ta-ou to the north ; but the islets and rocks off the north-east part
of Quaug-ta being but partially surveyed ought to be avoided.

XEMOWG BASSOUS. — Westward of the east point of Ta-ou is a bight
named Kemong harbour, with an islet off each point, in which the junks
are fond of taking shelter. It is, however, confined, and vessels will have
better anchorage to the eastward under either Taluk or Seoluk islands.

Captain Meier, of the Hamburgh barque Kingman^ reportsf the
existence of a rock, lying awash in the middle of the entrance to
Kemong harbour. From the rock, which was only seen twice, one or
two feet above water, during the three weeks the vessel remained in the
harbour, the east extreme of the rocks extending from the north-eastern

♦ By Navigating Lieutenant Francis Kibbey Taylor, R.N., H.M.S. Salamis,
t Nautical Magazine, page 277, May 1860.
30251. T



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290 WHITE DOG ISLANDS TO NIMEOD SOUND, [chap, vl

point of Quang-ta bore South, and the east point of Nam-pan off its
wotftem point of entrance, S.W. Before the arrival of the Kingman no
£uroi)ean vessel had brought a cargo to this port. The Chinese knew of
tlio existence of the rock.



SaO&VX, TA&ITKt CBZV-KX, TOWAW, and PB-8BAV, I8Xak»]>8

form a group off the coast from 3 to 14 mOes eastward of Ta-on. Taluk
the centre ami highest of the gioup, 770 feet above the sea, is 30 miles
N.N.E. of Pih-ki-shan. West of Taluk is Chin-ki, a low flat island with
a largo villugo on it ; there is anchorage between these in 3 to 4 fathoms.
The baj to the north-west of Chin-ki is shoal, and at its head is the
entrance to Hebe Lock conmiunicating with Lot-sin bay. At 8 cables
north-east of Chin-ki is Towan island, with a channel of 4 &thoms water
between thom ; but as there is a sunken rock in the middle of this channel,
and a reef runs out from the north point of Chin-ki, vessels have no
business here. Between Towan and the rocks off the north end of Taluk
the passage is a mile wide.

The Seoluk, consisting of three islets lying north and south of each
other, are 1 j miles southward of Taluk, and in the channel between them
the depth is 7 to 8 £»thoms.

Pe-shan, the easternmost of this group, is 1^ miles long, east and west^
and off its northern face are three rocks, and off its southern two islets.
W. by N. 1^ miles from Pe-shan is a low level islet, named Flare island,
and 1^ miles north of Flare is Sugar Loaf island, with a small islet close
to its north side. Between Sugar Loaf and Flare the depth is 5 fathoms.



I. — At the anchorage between the islands of Chin-ki and Taluk
it is high water, full and change, at 9h. 20m., springs rise 13 feet.

TAOW-PVWG xsidLVB, at 9 miles N.IST.E. of Pe-shan, is 7 miles long
N.N.E. and S.S.W., and 1^ miles broad, and forms the east side of Yey-
van bay, which is shoal and affords no shelter. The island is separated
from the main by Penetration pass, a narrow channel through which all
the country trade passes. Near the north end of the pass, on the main, is
the walled town of Song-men.

At 2J and 3 miles respectively to the south-west of Song-men point,
ihe south end of Taow-pung, are two flat rocks above water, a mile apart.
To the south-eastward of the point are three islets, and the nearest,
named San-shi, has a reef off its west side ; the outer islet of the three
has a shoal off its nortli end. There is a navigable channel, a mile
broad, between San-shi and the rdcks off the point. At 3 miles north-
eastward of San-shi, are the Stragglers and Shetung islets ; the northern
and highest islet of the latter group, has a reef lying 3 cables from its
south-west point, and many rocky islets off its south end, between which



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CHAP. VI.] TALUK AND SEOLUK.— TAI-CHAU ISLANDS. 291

and the Stragglers there is a channel carrying a depth of 6 fathoms.
Indiflferent shelter in the N.E. monsoon may be found under Shetung,

Between Shetung and Taow-pung island ai-e two islets forming three
channels, the eastern of which, between Shetung and the next islet
westward, haa 3^ fathoms in it, but the other two are too narrow for
vessels. Junks lie inside the inner islet, where. there is a small village.
To the north-east of these two islets are three rocks above water, the
northern of which has a reef off its east end. Soudan, the easternmost
islet of the group, is flat-topped, and has a reef off its south side.

CBZXBOX xsXiAWDS— Chikhok island lies North 6 miles from Sou-
dan, and as it rises abruptly in a cone to the height of 760 feet above
the sea, and has a broad yellow stripe on its south-eastern side, it forms
altogether one of the best landmarks in this locality ; and S.W. by W. i W.
of it is the most conspicuous hill on the coast seen from the offing.
N.N.W. 1 J miles from Chikhok is Low Chikhok island with a half tide
rock lying N.W. 3 cables from it. West 2 miles from Chikhok is Crook-
back island, with many rocks about it, of which those which extend to
the eastward narrow the channel between it and Chikhok to one mile.
The Plover anchored to the south-west of Crookback in 2| fathoms, but
a long swell sets in here, and the channel to the northward of it is too
shallow to get through on that side. The same may be said of all the
channels amongst the many islands to the north-west of Chikhok.

TJLZ.CBAV xstAWDs. — E.iN., distant 9^ miles from Chikhok, is
Hea-chu islet, the southernmost of the Tai-cbau group, having off its
south side a remarkable finger rock. The group extends 9 miles north-
ward of Hea-chu, and consists of two large and teii^ smaller islands.
Between the two large islands is an excellent harbour, the approaches to
which, both from eastward and westward, are free from danger. The
southern of these islands, 750 feet high, is called Hea-ta, the northern
Shang-ta, which is well inhabited. Between Shang-ta and the Shang
rock, 1| miles to the N.N.E., there is a safe passage.

About 2 miles southward of the west point of Hea-ta are two rocks^
the western of which !ies S.S.W. 3 J miles from the highest part of Hea-ta
and shows at all times of tide ; the other, which bears N.E. J N. 4^ cables
from the western rock, and S. by W, | W. from the highest part of Hea-ta,
covers at high water.

Water. — Several watering places will be found on Shang-ta, but the
supply from any one of them is not abundant.

Anclioraffe. — The best anchorage in the harbour between the two large
islands of the Tai-chau group, during the N.E» monsoon, is to the
south-east of the islets, extending from the south-west point of Shang-ta.

T 2



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292 WHITE DOG ISLANDS TO NIMROD SOUND. [chap. ti.



B.— It is high water, full and change, at this anchorage at 9b. Cm.,
springs rise 14 feet

•qVA&& Z8&AW1MBI, two in number, the southernmost of another, tho
Tungchuh group, lie 6 miles N.W.by W. of Shang rock, the northern
islet of the Tai-chau group, and so close together as to appear as one
except on an E.N.E. and W.S.W. bearing. Rocks lie off the north-east
and north-west points of the northern island, and a reef extends from
the south-east end of the southern island.. Junks take shelter under



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