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tho western point of the southern island during strong north-east winds.

Crate island is a small cliff islet 2^ miles eastward of the Squall islands,
and the channel between has 8 fathoms in it ; but the western end of
Crate is not steep-to. A group of rocks lie 3 miles W. by N. of Squall.



rB, lying N.byW.^W., 4^ miles from the Squall
islands, is remarkable, having a sharp cone, 670 feet above the sea, over
its southern point, and a beacon on its western summit. Between Chuh-
seu and the Squall islands are four rocks ; and S.E. by E. ^ E. 2| miles
from the highest part of Chuh-seu is a solitary rock named Fir Cone.



TAI-CIHAV BAT Mid BXTam.— Tai-chau bay, to the N.W. by W. of
the Tai-chan islands, is wide and shallow, and at its head is the entrance
to the Tai-chau river, 17 miles west of the cone of Chuh-seu. On the
south bank of the river is the walled town of Haimun, 4 miles above
which the river separates into two branches, one taking a north-west, the
other a south-west direction. The city of Tai-chau fu is on the north
branch of the river, about 24 miles in a direct line from Haimun. There
are only 8 feet at low water across the bay to the entrance of the river,
but inside the headlands at the entrance the depths are 4^ and 5 fathoms.
The inhabitants reported that vessels of 12 feet draught couJd not cross
the bar, except at high water, and that the tide, which rises from 18 ix) 20
feet in this locality at springs, would carry them up to the city.

The southern shore of Tai-chau bay is fronted by a chain of islands
extending towards Song-men, most of which are connected with the shore
at low water. The outer and north-eastern of thes§ is the North Fore-
land, an islet 9 miles W.S.W. of the Squall islands, and which has a depth
of 10 feet inside it. South of it are two other islets, and S.S.E. 2 miles
from it is a half-tide rock from which Chikhok, 8 miles S.S.E., is in line
vrith Low Chikhok. The water decreases gradually from Squall islands
towards the head of Tai-chau bay, but by not bringing the North Foreland
eastward of South, a vessel will have 2^ fathoms at low water.

The channel between Chuh-seu and Mud islet (a hill on the mud on
the north side of Tai-chau bay) is shallow, with several rocks in it covered



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CHAP. Yi.] TIA-CHAU BAT. — TUNG-CHUH ISLAND. 293

at high water. North 1| miles from the western islet lying off the
Chuh-seu group is a rock showing at low water.

XLnoboragre and Vater. — Good anchorage and a convenient watering
place, with abundance of water, will be found under and to the south-west
of the cone of Chuh-seu in 6 fathoms, between it and an islet with a reef
off its north-east point.

TDVCHCBITB zsZiAirB. — East, a little northerly, 5 miles from Chuh-seu
is Tung-chuh or Bella Vista island, 700 feet high, the easternmost of this
group. The two Reef islands lie S.S.W. 2J miles from its south point ;
a reef extends north-easterly from the southernmost of the two. Midway
between Eeef and Chuh-seu is a cluster of rocks.

Gau-tau island, remarkable for four barren peaks, lies 3 miles north-
west of Tung-chuh, and the channel between them has not been examined ;
there is generally a heavy swell in it. The low north-eastern promontory
of Gau-tau is an island at high water ; and there is a half-tide rock
3 cables North of its north-east extreme.

XLnclioraire. — Shelter may be had in the N.E. monsoon under the south
side of Tung-chuh, but there is generally a heavy swell, which renders
riding there unpleasant, and vessels had better gain the anchorage under
Chuh-seu, or endeavour to reach Barren bay.

BASRBsr 8A7» formed between Gau-tau and Kin-men islands, is
2^ miles wide at its north-eastern entrance, and besides the half-tide rock
just noticed off the eastern promontory of Gau-tau, there are rocks off
the eastern point of Kin -men, and a mud spit off the north-west point of
Gau-tau. Immediately to the south-west of Kin-men, and separated by a
deep-water channel rather more than a cable across, is Nine Pin island,
divided neai- the centre by a sandy isthmus, on which is the rock from
which the island is named. Very poor shelter will be found between
Gau-tau and Nine Pin in 6 to 3 fathoms, the deeper water being towards
the latter.

There is a channel westward of Nine Pin, but it cannot be recom-
mended, as there are depths of 1| and 2 fathoms to the northward of
Nine Pin, and between it and Pine Cone, an islet lying N.W. 2^ miles
from it. South 2 cables from the west end of Nine Pin, is a rock which
wiU be seen at half- tide.

VA&K and CBiLZir zsibAirBS. — Fall island, lying nearly 2 miles north-
ward of Kin-men, has off its west end two rocks above and one below
water. The channel is safe between these islands, and also between Fall
and Chain islands, but the latter are not steep- to.*



* See Admiralty Chart :— East Coast of China, Sheet 8, No. 1,199, scale, m - 0'25
of an inch.



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294 WHITE DOG ISLANDS TO NIMBOD SOUND, [chap, ti.

Chain islands, three in number, bear N.W. by W. 4^ miles from Fall
inland. South 2 cables from the centre island is a half-tide rock ; and
there is a rock awash and two small islets lying off the west end of the
southern isUind. Between Chain and Pine Cone to the southward are
four detached rocks where the ground has not been examined.

oa«tlo«.— Vessels should keep eastward of the whole group just de-
scribed, for the space inside Chuh-seu, Kin-men, Chain, and Sanmun
islands is shallow, and has in it several rocks covered at high water.

yy pffWAm omoiTF, consisting of three inhabited islands and eight
rocks, lie N.E.byE.iE. 17 miles from Tung-chuh, and occupy a space
5 miles north and south, and 2 miles east and west, but they are
too small and too detached to afford shelter. The southernmost island,
320 feet above the sea, is the largest, and makes like a saddle. The
inhabitants, who are Fu-kyen men (and most likely pirates), call the
islands Ung-shan; they are all fishermen, and excellent fish may be
obtained.

The rocks are steep, with remarkable cliffs. The sea has so much
undermined the northernmost islet, named Mushroom, as to cause it to
bear some resemblance to a large mushroom. N.E. fE. 1| miles from
Mushroom is a sunken rock, of 8 feet water, from which the Cheng
rock appears in one with the south-east end of Cliff or Sha-ho island,
bearing S.S.W. J W. A quarter of a mile N.N.W. from Mushroom is a
rock awash at low water.

MOVTA.OV xs&AJTD, or Tanto-shau, 19 miles N.N.W. ^W. of the
Hieshan group, is separated from the islands off the mainland by channels
varying from 1 to IJ milea wide, the navigation of which is much
obstructed by sunken rocks ; shelter however in the N.E. monsoon will
be found under its south and south-west extremes. The island is 740 feet
high, and nearly divided into two parts, the connection being a low shingly
isthmus ; the northern portion is called Gore island. There is a detached
islet off the south-east point.

To the southward of Montagu, and at 2 to 4 miles from the eastern
<;oast of the large island of Nyew-tew, are six islets ; the southernmost,
called the Twins, are 8 miles from Montagu, and the others are 1 J to 6
miles from it, with clear channels between them. Abreast Dike islet, the
middle and innermost islet of the five, is Nose islet, nearly connected with
Nyew-tew at low water, and vessels passing between them must recollect
that neither are steep-to.

BBROZWB ROCK. — This rock, awash at low water, was reported in
1851 to lie 3 miles S.W. of the eastern or larger Twin. It was subse-
quently observed breaking 1^ miles W.S.W. of the same.* The most

* Mr. J. F. Bams, R.N., Second Master, H.M.S. Havoc, 1865.



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CHAP. VI.] HIESHAN GROUP. — SAN-MTJN BAY. 295

trustworthy position yet assigned it^appears to be East Twin N.E. by E. J E.
3^ miles ; West point of Learning N.W. J N. 3^ miles ; Sanchesan or
Triple island W. by N.* The rock is also said to break only at low water
or with a heavy swell.

SAW-Blinr BAT entrance is 20 miles W.N.W. of the Hieshan islands,
and it will be readily recognised by a remarkable Ihumb peak, 800 feet
above the sea, called by the Chinese Tafou,' and by the opium vessels
Albert peak; it rises from the northern end of Tafou island, on the
northern side of the bay.

Vessels wishing to stop a tide or driven in by bad weather, will find
good shelter in the N.E. monsoon immediately westward of Lea-ming
island, which forms the north point of entrance of the bay. In running
for this anchorage, give a berth of 2 cables to the south-west point of the
island, to avoid a reef lying off it. The soundings will shoal suddenly after
the north peak of the island is brought southward of East ; the bottom
is soft mud.t

S.W. f S. 2J miles from Lea-ming, is Sanchesan or Triple island, and
the depth between them is 10 and 1 1 fathoms. West, 6 miles from Lea-
rning is a conical islet, named Cone island, with a reef off its south end ;
and N.W. by N. 6 cables from Cone is a small islet with a rock off its
south-east face. At 4 miles westward of Cone is a small islet lying in the
fairway of the river.

Having passed southward of Cone, St. George island will be seen
bearing N.W. by N. 4 miles; the water shoals gradually as this island
is approached, and the anchorage in 3 fathoms at half a mile South of it
is secure in N.E. winds. There is a well of good water on this island,
but it is not easily got at nor plentiful.

The bay or inlet northward of St. George is shoal and full of rocks ; it
extends a considerable distance, leaving an isthmus 7 miles wide between
it and Nimrod sound. At 4 miles N.N.E. of St. (Jeorge is the entrance
of a passage, communicating with the sea through Sheipoo harbour, which
is frequently used by the junks.

Uing'lum River. — ^Westward of St. George island is a group of high
islands, the largest of which is called Tinwan. There are several islets
and rocks on the eastern face of this group, and between their western face
and the main is the deep water channel of the Ning-hau river, a mile wide.
S.W^ from Tinwan is the embouchure of a smaller river, on the bar of
which are only 4 feet, but with deep water inside. On the left bank of the

* Lieutenant Alfred Eaton, R.N., Commanding H.M.S. Firniy 1866.
t See Admiralty Plan of San-mnn bay and Sheipoo harbour, No. 1,994, scale,
VI SB * 7 of an inch.



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296 WHITE DOG ISLANDS TO NIMKOD SOUKD, [chap-ti.

latter, 5 miles from Tinwan, is the walled town of Kien-tyau. Between
Kien-tyaa and Tan-tew point, opposite and west of Tinwan, the hills rise
abruptly from the coast-line to the height of 1,000 feet ; but shallow water
extends above a mile from the shore.

Passing mid-channel between Tin wan and Tau-tew point, a W.by 1^. ^N.
course will lead up to the entrance of the Ning-hau, which is 6 miles above
Tiuwan, and to the south of Quarry island, where there is good anchorage
in 6 and 4 fathoms ; a mud spit extends 2 miles eastward from Quarry
island*

TXBBS. — ^At the anchorage under St. George island, San-mun bay, it is
high water, full and change, at lOh. 20m.; and the springs rise about
15 feet.

•maiyoo XOAB.* — ^Vessels bound to the roadstead off the tov^n of
Sheipoo may pass close to the northward of the islets off Gore island, the
northern portion of Montagu island, and steer to the westward for the two
forts on the summit of Tungmun island. On the north side of the road-
stead are the three Bangao islands, and South 3 cables from the eastern
point of the centre one, Wangchi, are the Bangao rocks, which always
show. There is deep water close to these rocks, except to the westward,
where it shoals to 2^ fathoms ; to avoid which do not bring the higher fort
to the southward of West.

Cliff island, or Seao-Seao, lying nearly in the centre of the roadstead,
has anchorage off its north-west end in 4 fathoms, but with a strong wind
a considerable swell rolls in. A reef of rocks extends westerly from Cliff,
and the channel between it and the islands off the main has 3 fathoms
water. South of Cliff is an islet with foul ground between, and S.S.E.
6 cables from its east point is a sunken rock. There is a narrow channel
between this danger and the shoal ground extending from Montagu and
Gore islands, the extremity of which is marked by a flat rock with a
sunken rock 2^ cables N.W. of it. This latter is 5 cables E.byS. of
Cliff.

SKauPOO BA&Bomi is between the mainland and Nyew-tew island,
and at high water has the appearance of a splendid basin, but when the
tide is out the mud dries off shore a long distance, giving it the appearance
of a river. At its western end is an entrance into San-mun bay, and on its
south shore there is another leading into the bay west of Lea-ming island,
which is very narrow. The town of Sheipoo stands on the main forming
the northern boundary of the harbour near the sea, and derives its
importance principally as a convenient stopping place for the coasting

♦ See Admiralty Plan of San-moon bay and Sheipoo harbour. No. 1,994 ; scale,
»i= 0*7 of an inch.



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CHAP.VI.1 SHEIPOO EOAD. — ^KWESHAN ISLANDS. 297

trade ; the walls are in a dilapidated state, and the houses and shops are
not good.

There are three very narrow entrances, with rapid tides and chow-chow
water in them, leading from Sheipoo road into Sheipoo harbour. Two of
these entrances are formed by Tungmun island. In the centre of the
middle entrance between Tungmun and Sin- island, and just within it, is a
rock on which H.M.S. Sphinx struck in 1853. It lies in the narrowest
part of the channel, and the least water on it was 10 feet, with irregular
soundings around, the deepest water being towards Sin island ; it appeared
very small, and is probably quite smooth. This passage is not recom-
mended for large vessels, and if used they should keep well over on the
south shore.

The northern entrance between Tungmun and the main, although tor-
tuous and narrow, is safe ; there is also less chow-chow water than in the
middle entrance. The south entrance, between Sin and Nyew-tew, is long
and narrow, and near its mouth is a small flat islet with a reef extending
eastward &om it. Vessels pass north-eastward of this islet ; but it is said
the Chinese junk-men never use it, and they report rocks in mid-channel.

The COAST from Sheipoo trends northerly about 25 miles to the
entrance of Nimrod sound, and is fronted by several islets, none of which
are large enough to afford shelter, and the depths about them generally
are under 3 fathoms.



SOCK lies N.E. byN. 6 miles from the east point of
Montagu, with the Bear (an islet near the main with a sharp peak at its
western end but not always easily made out) bearing N.W. ^ N., distant
1 1 miles. Should high tides and smooth water prevent this rock being
seen, the east point of Montagu kept westward of S. W. will lead to the
eastward.



are eleven in number, besides several rocks*
The central and largest island is 3 miles long, and deeply indented, and
its greatest breadth is 1 J miles ; in two places, however, it is not much
more than a cable across. Near its western end the land rises to a sharp
peak 490 feet high ; its coast line is steep, high cliffs broken by six small
sandy bays, and the island is steep-to on all but its western side. The other
islands are much smaller. The whole group is thickly populated, the
inhabitants subsisting principally on fish ; they have pigs, goats, a few
fowls, and sweet potatoes.

Fatahecock, the south-easternmost island of the group, is 450 feet above
the sea, and remarkable on account of its flat and table-like appearance.

The north-eastern island of the group is a narrow cliff islet uninhabited ;
to the westward are four small islets inhabited and cultivated ; and North



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298 WHITE DOG ISLANDS TO NIMEOD SOUND, [chap. vi.

of them, at the di}*tance of 3 cables, is a flat precipitous rock, the coloured
appearance of which (it being composed of red porphyry) renders it
remarkable. This face of the islands is free from danger, the depth being
7 or 8 fathoma near the shore.

The north-western island of the group is the second in size and
400 feet high ; its northern extreme is remarkable, in consequence of
several isolated masses of rock. The peak of the largest island bears
South of the north-west island, and between the two is a mud bank
gradually shoaling towards the larger island. By keeping the west
extreme of the north-west island to the eastward of N.N.E., not less than
3 fathoms will be found with good holding ground, and not much swell.

South of the peak of Kweshan, and separated from the island bja
channel 1 J cables wide, is another island which is also high with steep
cliffs ; off its western point is a half-tide rock, and a reef runs off from
its south end. The Holdemess rock lies W. J N. one mile from the highest
part of this latter island, and having only 6 feet water over it, occasionally
breaks ; from it the highest part of north-west island bears N.N.E. JE. ;
a small peaked islet to the south-east, S.E. f E. ; and Patahecock table
E.S.E., the reef of rocks lying off the south end of the nearest island
being in line with it. Another sunken rock with only 4 feet on it lies
8. by W. J W., three-quarters of a mile from the summit of the same
island ; when upon it the east end of the large Kweshan is in one with
the east end of the nearest island, bearing N.E. \ E., and Patahecock table
E.byS.iS.

Between the Kweshan group and Bear islet to the westward, the depths
vary from 6 to 3^ fathoms, gradually shoaling towards the latter. . ^



I. — It is high water, full and change, in the neighbourhood of the
Kweshan islands at 9h. 30m., springs rise about 14 feet.

The change in the direction of the stream does not take place until two
hours subsequent to the change of depth. The flood stream comes from
the southward at the rate of about 2 knots per hour, and will sensiblj
assist a vessel in getting into the Chusan archipelago. Between the
Hieshan and the Kweshan islands the flood against a strong northerly
wind causes an angry sea. The ebb stream out of San-mun bay will be
useful in working to windward, provided the vessel heads up to the north-
ward of N.N.W.

MOV8B, IxrBB&PB, and 8TASBOA.RD JA.CX SOCXS. — From the

north-east extreme of the Kweshan group, the Mouse,* rocks, nearly

* Mr. Jos^h G. Dathan, Master, R.N., of H.M.S. Encounter, observed that the Mouse
bore S. 75° £. of Starboard Jack, which would place the rock 6 cables farther to the
south.



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CHAP. VI.] BUFFALO NOSE CHANNEL. 299

level with the water's edge at high water, bear N.N.W. 6 miles ; the
Whelps, 50 feet high, a cluster of four small islets W.N.W. nearly 10
miles ; and a low flat reef, named Starboard Jack, about 15 feet high,
with two rocks off its eastern end, N.W. J W. 9^ miles.

p-nkABBS SOCK. — ^Mr. Arthur Meldrum, Ningpo pilot, reports a
sunken rock, which he had many times seen, with about 6 feet water, lying
nearly 2 miles S.S.W. ^ W. from the Whelps. When on the rock Mesan
island shows between the two south Whelps, and the peak of Patahecock is
on with the north-east point of the island which is nearest to the Holder-
ness rock. The rock is well known to the Ningpo pilots.*

Tbe CORBLBSS are several isolated rocky patches, 3 miles in extent,
and well above water, lying between the Whelps and Buffaloes Nose, an
island 6 miles to the N.N.W. From the outer or eastern rook, which
is occasionally covered, Buffaloes Nose bears N.N.W. | W. ; there are two
islets one cable to the westward of it, which will point out its position if
the rock should be covered. The distance between the Corkers and Ster-
board Jack is about 3 miles, and the channel between has depths of 6 to 5
fathoms.

BirFFA.&o xrosB CBAmrBA. — The Tinker is a steep cliff rock,
80 feet high, lying N. by E. i E. 2 J miles from Starboard Jack. The
Buffalo Nose Channel, the entrance of which is between them, has
6 and 7 fathoms in it, and wiU be found the most eligible to take in
entering the archipelago during the N.E. monsoon, as the vessel wiU be
well to windward. There is a sunken rock off the Tinker S.E.byE.
2 cables from it.

MESAW x8]bAin>. — Mesan, the largest of a group of four large and
several smaller islets or rocks, lies at three-quarters of a mile N.N.E. of
the Tinker ; it is about 400 feet high, its barren summit forming one of the
most remarkable features in the Buffalo Nose channel. There are 7 and 8
fathoms water between it and the Tinker, but sunken rocks extend a short
distance from both shores. Lanyett is the next island N.N.W. of Mesan.

BJUIBOUB ROtTSB. — ^At 3 milcs E.N.E. of the Mesan group is Front
island, the. southernmost of a chain of islets extending N.N.E. 3^ miles to
Beak island. Between Front island and a castellated rock two miles ito
the westward, is the entrance to Harbour Rouse, which will be found a
convenient stopping place in the northern monsoon for a vessel that has
missed her tide through the Beak Head channel ; the depth in the harbour
varies from 5^ to 2^ fathoms.

sutvilIbO sroBB IB&AXTB, lying N.W.^W. 16 miles from the
north-east extreme of the Kweshan islands, and six from Starboard Jack,

* Log of steam ship, Hon^ Kong, Captain W. SymingtOD.



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300 WHITE DOa ISLANDS TO KIMBOD SOUND. [chap.vi.

la 1| oiiles long north and south, and three-quarters of a mile broad. Its
eastern shore is rockj, and an islet lies off its north-west end; its western
side has several deep indentations, one of which nearly separates the
island into two parts. There are three peaks on the island, the central
one, 500 feet above the sea, being the highest. Near its northern end the
island is perforated, from whence its native name (Ninpi-shan) is supposed
to be derived.

Am/^hnm^^ — The anchorage westward of Buffalo Nose is secure;
during the N.E. monsoon, however, the wind blows directly through and
occaaional violent squalls are experienced.

•vppiiM. — Fresh provisions and water may be obtained at this anchor-
age, but the supply of the latter cannot be depended upon.

v&ovcMncAV omon is composed of three islets, of which the largest
lies W.N.W. nearly a mile from Bufialoes Nose, the depth between them
varying from 5 to 18 fieithoms. The largest is an even flat-topped itdet
with a reef extending from its north-east point ; there is also a detached
reef at 6 cables N.W. by N. from the same point The other two islets are
narrow and small, and lie to the north-west of the large one.

Junks usually pass inside the Ploughman and Buffalo Nose, and to
the westward of the Corkers; there are, however, many reefs, and the
tides are strong, and vessels will do better to keep eastward of Buffaloes
Nose. As before noticed (page 299), the channel between the Tinker
and Starboard Jack is the best to take during the N.E. monsoon, and a
vessel wiU have better anchorage under Luhwang than under Buffaloes
Nose.

MZMBOD sonra. * — Six miles W.N.W. of Buffalo Nose is the
entrance of Nimrod sound, a deep inlet of the coast running 27 miles
inland in a W.S. W. direction. Within the south point of entrance are the
Hunters, a group of six islands, and 3 miles N.W. by N. of these, on the
opposite side of the channel, which carries 5 to 6 fathoms, is the Castle
rock on the edge of the mudflat, which extends 2^ miles from the north
shore, and which commences at Barren island 5^ miles above.

Castle rock may be passed at 4 cables ; the other islands and banks of
the sound are for the most part steep-to. Between Nimrod point on the
south shore, 7 miles above the Hunters, and Barren island, the sound is
2J miles wide. Between Nimrod point and the Hunter islands is First
Cone point, with an islet off it; and westward of this latter point is Cone
rock and David island, with a half-tide rock lying one cable north-west of
the latter. Nimrod point is high, and has several sunken rocks lying

* See Admiralty Plan of ITimrod sound, No. 1,583, scale, i» = 0* 7 of an inch.



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CHAP. VI.] NIMEOD SOUND. 301

3 cables off it. Four miles above ij is an islet, which, from its central
position, is called Middle island ; and southward of this islet is the entrance
to Medusa creek, of 4 to 6 fEithoms water.

Above Medusa creek the sound is narrowed, between the south shore
and Parker island, to three-quarters of a mile, the water is deep, and the
tid^s strong. Off the east end of this island, at 4 cables, are the Danger