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rocks which are steep-to and only show at half-tide. S.S.W., 1^ miles
from Parker island, is the entrance of a small river for boats, leading up
to a village 3 or 4 miles inland, having about 6 feet in it at low tide.

At 7 miles above Medusa creek the sound is separated into two branches
by the Treble islands. Pass northward of these islands, keeping in mid-
channel to avoid the Half-tide rock 3 cables from the north shore.

In the shallow bight on the north shore, to the north-west of the Treble
islands, is the village of Tung-ju, from whence there is a paved footpath
communicating with the Fungwha branch of the Ningpo river, the distance
from hence to Ningpo being 20 miles in a direct line. On the south side
of the sound, at 3 miles south-west of the Treble islands, is also a paved
footpath leading to San-mun bay. Having passed the Treble islands good
anchorage will be found in 6 or 7 fathoms, mud, off the village of Tung-ju.

TZBBS. — ^It is high water, full and change, in Nimrod sound at
lOh. 30m., springs rise about 20 feet.



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302



CHAPTER VII.

EAST COAST OF CHINA.— NIMROD SOUND TO THE
TANG-TSE EIANO,

INCLUDINO THE CHU8AN ARCHIPELAGO, NINGPO, HANG-CHU BAY,

AND THE AFPfiOACHES TO THE TANG-TSE EIANG PROM THE

SOUTHWARD.

Vamation 3° 0' West, to ^° 30' W. in 1874.



i>.*-<-ThiB large assemblage of islands, of
which Chnsan is the principal, lies near the mainland between the parallels
of 29"^ 39' and 30'' 50' N. The archipelago maj be entered from the
southward bj four channels named the Buffaloes Nose, the Beak Head,
the Vernon, and the Sarah Grallej, of which the two former channels may
be considered the best to enter bj, and the Vernon to go to sea. North-
ward of Chusan, the second channel between Chin-san island and the
chain of islands extending westward from Video, is genei-ally taken if
bound to Ning-po and Chusan during the N.E. monsoon, being clear of
danger with the exception of the Mariner reef at its western entrance.
The water of the archipelago is very muddy, and causes the boilers of
steamers to prime.

AVs^WAaro, the largest of the islands in the south-west part of the
archipelago, is 9J miles long N.W. and S.E., and 6 miles wide at its
broadest part, which is the western end j near the centre it is not more
than 2 miles across, and not much elevated above the sea. The south-
eastern body of the island rises to the height of 865 feet, being a conical
bare hill; on the isthmus is an isolated peak 718 feet high, and on the
north-west side of the island are five high peaks, one of which is 910 feet
high. The western part of the island, forming the eastern side of Duffield
pass, has several small bays with stone embankments extending from point
to point. Cape Luhwang, the north extreme of the island, is high and
bold. The island is well cultivated and maintains a large population.

The southern face of Luhwang has two small deep indentations with

* See Admiralty Charts:— East Coast of China, Sheet 8, No. 1,199, scale, m = 0-25
of an inch; and Chusan Archipelago, South Sheet, No. 1,429, scale, m = o-8 of an inch.



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CHAP- V"] OHUSAN ARCHIPELAGO. 303

sandy bays, and a reef projects 3 cables from the point abreast the Mesan
and Lanyett group, described on page 299. Reefs also extend half a mile
from the north extreme of the latter group, narrowing the channel between
them and Luhwang to less than a mile. The coast line of Luhwang
immediately westward of the reef point trends to the north-west, forming
a wide bay with three islets in it, extending to Duffield pass. South one
mile from the easternmost islet is a mud bank, of 3^ fathoms water, which
extends to Mesan, to avoid which a vessel may keep the islet aboard ; a
rock lies half a cable from its south extreme. Duffield reef lies off the
western extremity of Luhwang at the eastern side of the entrance to
Dufield pass, and consists of three rocks above water with a sunken rock
between them and Luhwang.

Ancborage. — There is good holding ground in 9 to 5 fathoms on the
south-west side of Luhwang outside the line of these islets and Duffield
reef point. Within this line the soundings are irregular from 2J to 4
fathoms.

VU'TO is&AXTD, to the westward of Luhwang, is about 2^ miJes long,
north and south, and a mile broad, and its narrow south extreme is con-
nected at low water to St. Andrew island, a bold steep head. A spit runs
off the north extreme of Fu-to, and to the north-east are three islets, with
a rock one cable to the north-west of Chloe island, the northernmost.

Tree-a-top Island is 3^ cables southward of the south extreme of Fu-to,
with a deep water channel between. This island, 180 feet high and
about 4 cables in circumference, has a pile of stones on its summit, but no
tree ; the old name, however, given it in the chart by Thornton in 1703 is
still adhered to.



9, the nearest but not the best channel in, is between
I/uhwang and Fu-to, and is 1^ miles wide at the southern entrance (where
the water suddenly deepens from 5^ to 40 fathoms), and half a mile in the
narrowest part, which is near the centre. On the Fu-to shore are several
islets ; among them the water shoals to 4^ and 5 fathoms, and a vessel
may anchor and stop a tide if necessary. Off the fourth point on the
Xiuhwang side is a reef extending a cable from the shore ; otherwise this
side oi Luhwang is very steep-to, the depth being 35 &thoms within a
cable of the mud. Two small islets, named the Notches, lie in the centre
of the pass, abreast this reef, and between them and Fu-to is a half- tide
rock ; unless this rock shows, vessels should not tack inside the Notches
so as to pass westward of them.

Toaner .Bet>e rock, with only 16 feet over it, lies 2 cables eastward of
Hebe island at the north end of the pass, with the north extremes of Hebe
and Chloe islets in one bearing N»W. by W. and Point Barrow, the east



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304 NIMROD SOUND TO THE YANG-TSE KEANG. [chap. vn.

extreme of Fn-to in one with the west extreme of Tree»a-top island, seen
over the mud connecting St. Andrew with Fu-to. On the Lnhwang side,
north-east from Hebe island, and a cable firom the shore, is Bird rock,
which formerly had a stone pillar on it, but it was either thrown down or
removed in 1846 ; there are two islets at 2 cables southward of it ; beyond
the rock the coast-line of Luhwang turns suddenly to the north-east to
Cape Luhwang.

<M>irOM 9JkMBf formed between Fu-to and the Central islands, is I^
miles long, half a mile wide, and far preferable either to Duffield or
Roberts pass, for both shores are steep-to, and the lead, if hove quicklj,
will give warning of approach to the shoal extending half a mile S.S. W.
from the southern islet of the Central islands.

The south-western of the Central islands is a small islet connected at
low water with the largest of the group by a reef and spit. At half a
cable north of the northern island is a reef.



I yjkftSf between the Central islands and the mud which dries
one mile from the embankment on Mei-shan island, is 2 miles long^ N.E.
and S.W., and 4 cables wide ; the depths in it vary from 6 to 40 &thomSy
but as the lead gives no warning, its boundary on the Mei-shan side will
not be known except at low water. Mei-shan island appears formerly to
have been eight islands, now, however, united by substantial stone walls,
one of which, on its north face, is 1^ miles in extent. The mud dries
1^ miles from its south, and a quarter of a mile from its north end ; on its
east side the bank is steep-to.

On the north-east side of Mei-shan are the two Damson islets, from the
northernmost of which. Cliff islet, a bank of 3 fathoms extends nearly a
mile to the north-east. By keeping the Central islands open of the Damson
islets until the vessel is three-quarters of a mile past Cli^ islet, this bank
will be avoided, and the Ketau shore can then be approached. The^
course for Ketau point, after clearing this pass and Gough pass, will be
N.E. 9^ miles.

Tuwrm, CBAVXTB&t between Mei-shan and the Ketau shore, is 10 miles
in length and 2^ cables wide, and carries a depth of 5 and 6 fathoms
except at the south entrance, where it shoals to 10 feet; some parts,
however, may be deeper, as only one line of soundings was taken across
the bar. On the mainland, near the centre of this channel, is a custom-
house, and the entrance to a canal which communicates with two populous
villages. Two miles northward of Mei-shan is the walled tow^f Kwokeu,
where the mate of the Lt/ra, merchant ship, was kidnapped, and attempts
made to interrupt the surveying operations in 1840.



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OTAp.vn.] BEAK HEAD CHANNEL TO CHTT8AK. 805



win be found anywhere along the Ketau shore, between
Mei-shan and Ketau pointy until abreast of Sing^lo*san island, where the
water deepens.

OAvnov. — ^As there is no anchorage besides the above, but in very
deep water, until that (page 315) under Elephant island is reached, it
would not be prudent for sailing vessels to proceed farther unless the
wind and tide will ensure their gaining that position.



I. — In the above |>asses the first of the flood often comes from the
northward, and runs sometimes for three hours before it takes the direction
of the ocean tide.



CHAvmnb (Taou-sau-mun of the Chinese), the next
passage north-east of Buffalo Nose channel, is considered one of the
best by which to enter the archipelago from the southward. Its eastern
entrance is 2| miles wide, between Beak head, the east extreme of Beak
island, and Yemon point, the east end of Yemon island. Beak iskmd is
nearly 5 miles long, in some parts very narrow, and remarkable for two
hummocks near its west end. Off Beak head are three islets ; and south*
westward of the head are several islets and a rock, between which and
Luhwang island is Harbour Bouse (page 299), which will be found a con-
venient stopping place for a vessel that has missed her tide through
Beak head channel. The channel between Luhveang and Beak island has
3^ &thoms least water; but there would be no object in using it while
there are passages so superior.

Off the north-east face of Beak island are two reefis, lying respectively
3 cables and half a cable from the shore. Off the north face are Gull,
Shag, and Pufiin islands ; a reef also extends 3 cables from the north-west
end of Puffin. Near the west end of Beak island the channel is narrowed
to half a mile by the reef of rocks, extending from between Gull and
Shag half-way across the channel, the northernmost of which is always
above water, and also by two small islets lying off the south side of Conical
hill island, which lies between Shag and Yemon. Between Conical hill
island and Yemon are two islets, the reefs off which render the channel
between these islands intricate.

9zmBCTXOV8. — A N.W.byW.JW. course for 8 J miles from the
eastern entrance of Beak head channel will lead southward of Conical
hiU and Conway islands, and from thence a N.W. course will clear the
channel ; take care, however, in light winds to give the Pai rock, the
last islet on the north side of the channel at its western entrance, a wide
berth, as the flood sets directly towards it. There is good anchorage in
9 and 10 fathoms on the north-west side of Conway.

80251. V



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806 NIHltOD SOUND TO THB YAN0-TSB KXANG. [gkaf.th.

lb the northward of Conwaj ieland is a group of islets and fof^s,
through which there is a possi^ into the Yemon ohaimel ; bat owing to
the rapidity of the tides, it should not be attempted without local ezpe»
rience. On the Luhwang side of Beak Head channel is a reef, and an
islet with a small pinnacle on it ; the ree( which is generally nncovered,
bears S.£. } S. 2 miles from Cape Luhwang, and by keeping the cape
westward of N. W. ^ N* it will be avoided. The mud dries 7 cables from
the Luhwang shore, in the bight to the southward of this reef, which
makes landing difficult except at high water.

▼■Bwoxr owukMMWMB (Hea-che-mun of the Chinese), the next channel
northward of the Beak Head, is formed by Vernon island on the south and
Taou-hwa island on the north. This will be found a convenient pasasge
from Chusan daring the northern monsoon, the distance from Elephant
island, off Tinghae harbour, to the open sea being only 17 miles ; it shoold
not, however, be attempted ^by sailing vessels with light winds, as they
are liable to be becalmed and experience flaws under the high land of
Taou-hwa, and in some parts the soundings are 60 fathoms, and the tides
strong.*

The Yemon channel at its eastern entrance is 1^ miles wide, but
5 miles within it is divided into two passages by John Peak island, which
has a rock, lying half a cable from its north-east extreme, which un-
covers at the last quarter ebb. The passage between John Peak and
Taou-hwa is only 3^ cables wide between this rock and two small, islets
and some rocks which bound its north side. The passage between John
Peak and Yemon t is half a mile wide, and good anchorage wiU be found
on the south side of John Peak. The shore of Taou-hwa is bold and
precipitous, and the peak of the island is elevated 1,680 feet above the
sea. Near its western end the land becomes low, rising, however, again, .
and surmounted by a peculiar perpendicular crag, called Miller's Thumb,
606 feet high, which will be recognised nearly throughout this part of the
archipelago.

ABoboraffe.— Yemon island has on its north-east side a wide bay, with
two islets and a reef in it, where vessels may anchor in 4 and 5 fathoms,
and procure water from the several cascades on Taou-hwa island ; the

* Taou-hwa is most conspicaous. We made the land la veiy hasy weather which
obscured all the lower land, but this peak showed the position and enabled me to
recognise the entrance of the Yemon Channel. On entering the channel the muddy
water caused the boilers to prime, causing a loss of speed ; and at times we were unable
to make headway against the stream. Bemark Book of Capt. Wm. Gore Jones, R.lf.y
H.M.S. Princess Royal,

In July, and perhaps some other mouths, beware of fishing stakes west of Peak
island ; they are always in deep water.



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CHAP. TO.] VBENON AND SAHAH GALLEY CHA»>*. g/yg

wat€^r mxj be obtfu^ed widioat removing the caciks irom tim b^ts^ .
^93t end of Yernoii is rag^d^ with .large bonldertof grantte^. at Han eAd"
tibem iti a eove^ which twxs back three-quarters of a mile to the wesiwttd
aad afibrds shelter for. boat^. .

ifaBAW OAJULBT cnKAJmOi is the next passage northward of the
Vemon^btit it is hy no means so eligiUe as those just described. Kear
the entrance, at 4 miles N.E. by E. |E. from the south point of 13a6u-hwa
island, is the Jansen or Laoush rock^*a steep cliff islet, with rocks
extending 1^ cables from its south end; there is also a half-tide rock
lying W.byN.fN., IJ miles from the north extreme of Laoush, with
the highest part of Ousha island bearing N.N.E, J E. 1| miles.

The coast line of Ousha is steep cliffs, and off its north-west end is
a ledge of rocks; the southern end of the island is the highest, and
rises in a round peak. The channel between the north-east point of
Taou-hwa and Peak island is not navigable, owing to reefs and strong
tides ; neither is there a fit passage between Peak island and Tang-fau.
Vessels may pass between Peak island and the two patches of rock lying
westward of Ousha ; but there are some rocks off the north end of Peak
which must be avoided.

The Cambrian pass, between Ousha and the large island of Chukea, or
Chus P^k, is 2 cables wide, but it should not be used without a com-
manding breeze, on account of the strong tides.

JkiMMOTtOMB. — ^Vessels entering the Sarah Galley channel from the
southward generally pass westward of Laoush rock and Ousha island,
and from thence the channel is between Ousha and the two patches of
rock to the westward, 'which are almost covered at high water ; they lie
N.N.E. and S.S.W. of one another, 2 cables apart, and half a mile dis=-
tant from Ousha. After passing these rocks the course is K. ^ E. 2J miles,
leaving Teen and Tung islets, off Tang-fow, and a reef between them, to
the westward ; and Hut island, off Chukea (so called from a house on
its summit) with a reef of rocks off its south extreme, to the eastward.
The channel h«re is three-quarters of a mile wide.

From thence steer N.W.byN. for If miles, leaving an island with two
hummocks to the southward, and Druid island to the northward ; but be
carefrd after passing Hut island, that Flat or Liwan island (the southern
small island at the inner entrance to the channel) is not brought westward
of W.byN. JN., as the water shoals suddenly on the north side, and the
I d dries nearly all the way across from Druid island to South Chukea
i nd^ leaving only a small boat channel.

^Tien in the vicinity of Liwan the east end of Chusan will be seen,
h dng on it a small temple built of large stone slabs. Between Liwan
a I Chusan is Lokea island, the southern shore of which is not steep-to ;

U 2



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J^ YAKG-TSS KIAKG. [ohap.yit.

^ole of the islets on the south side of

^-loUy after which they become steep-to.

jbtM south of Ta-kan the shoal water will be

^lorthward, bj not bringing the rocks oS the.

Ai southward of West or on with Tmiik point on

iTsn has two rocks off its sooth end ; the anchorage in

ydd in page 810.



b about 7 miles long, north and south, and on its
wesw ^ are many deep indentations, some of which are enclosed

from tht^ jea bj stone walls. Near its south extreme are four remarkable
peaks, and near its centre is a smooth-topped* cone, 1,164 feet high, named
Chukea peak, which is one of the most prominent objects seen in making
this -part of the archipelago.

There are also several indentations on the eastam side of Chukea, and
the southern one, Wolf bay, affords anchorage at times in the 1S[.E.
monsoon, and was resorted to in 1842 by the men-of-war from Chusan,
for water. On the north side of the bay is a black islet, with rocks
extending southerly and easterly from it. Fronting the bay, and 1^ miles
from the shore, is a peaked rock, named Pillar, off which, at 2 cables to
the N.E.y are two ^reefs, showing at half tide. Off Pelican point, the
north point of the small inlet north of Wolf bay, is a reef visible at
low water ; and E.N.E. 3 cables from the point, is Nob rock, always above
water.



TOxrOTuro ana vzMTuro xsXiAVBS. — To the eastward of Chukea,
at the distance of 5 and 8 miles, are two islets named Pihting and
Tongting. Tongting, the outer one, about 40 feet high, has detached reefs
south-west of it. Pihting is a similar islet.

»eUoaii Soek lies E. by S. ^ S. 2^ miles from Pelican i)oint on the Ohokea
shore, and only shows at low water springs ; but the disturbed water over it,
when covered, will generally indicate its position. From the rock, Yangsi
Islet, off the north-east end of Chukea, is in line with the summit of
Poo-too island, N.N.W.^W. ; Pihting islet bears E.}N. ; and Chukea
peak N.W. | W.

BAST IBIMT and SAftT ftocx. — North, 6^ miles from Pihting, is
East islet, 30feet high, and from it Loka, the northernmost of the islands
on the north-east face of Chukea, bears W. by S. 4 miles. East rock,
nearly awash at low water, lies E.byS. 2 miles from East islet, with
Tongting islet bearing S. by E. J E. 7 miles, and the summit of Poo-too,

♦ The south end of Chukea is a ridge as high as the peak. Capt. Wm. Gore-
Jones, B.N.



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CHAF.vn.] CHITKEA AND POO-TOO ISLANDS. 309

(whicli will be known by a look-oat house on it, and the high land of
Chusan forming a table top at the back of it) W. by N. \ N.



i-—N.W.byN., 6 miles from East
islet is N.E« islet, a oonical rock, in form something like a haycock ;
it also lies N.E. ^ E. 2 miles from the north-east end of Isthmus. The
Ninepins ire four pinnacle rocks with reefs around them lying 1 to 1^
miles east south-eastward of N.E. islet, and N.E. by E. ^ E. 5 miles fifom
the summit of Poo -too.

Y8TBMIIB SBKLAHU, the outer north-eastem island of the Chusan
archipelago^ is three-quarters of a mile from the north-east point of Poo-too,
and the channel between has deep water. A half tide rock lies E. by N. ^ N.
4 cables from the south-east point of Isthmus, with the east and south-east
extremes of Poo-too in one bearing S.W. f S., and the south summit of
IsthmuBW.^N.



lies 1^ miles from the east extreme of Chusan,
and the channel between is called by the Chinese Leenhwa-yang, or the
Sea of Water-lilies. The island is 3^ miles long, north and south, and in
one place only half a mile across. The temples on it are numerous, but
the two largest, on its eastern side, are falling into decay. A narrow
projecting point extends from the eastern side of the island, forming to
the southward a deep sandy bay, in which there are 3 fathoms water ; the
islet off the point has a sunken rock off its east side. The western face of
Foo-too is shoal, the 2^ fathoms line of soundings being 3 cables from
the shore. An islet lies off the north end of Poo-too, and some rocks
half a mile farther northward ; vessels may pass between the rocks and the
islet.

Waters — A stream runs into the above bay, on the eastern side of
Poo-too, and it might be used should the well at the south side of the
island prove dry. This stream runs in a small sandy bay to the west-
ward of a hill with three chimneys on it, and may be known by a small
joss house. The landing-place of the pilgrims who visit it is at a
canseway east of the well bay.

AVCBOSAOa.— There is anchorage off the eastern side of Poo-too in
12 and 14 fathoms water, but several vessels have had a difficulty in pur-
c^ttging their anchors ; it is also much exposed, and by no means desirable
i lad weather.

'o the eastward of the south point of Poo-too, and off the north-east
( I of Chukea, are four islands named Loka, Pih-sha, Lakeah, and
] :eati. There is a passage between them and Chukea, and a good
c "nel between them and Poo-too,



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310 NIMEOD SOXrND Ta THE YAl^G-TSB BIANG. [chap, to.



iV of OKiimA]r."*-WhAiig head, the east point of
ChuBan opposite Poo-too, 19 a low- peniiurala. 3%eiiBe tthe o^aM tnenda .4^
miles to another head which forms the south-east point of Chusan. Shoal
water extends ia mile from* this shore.

The norlh-west und west faces of Poo-too isbnd are ahoal.to, 'leaving,
however, a channel between them and Whang head nearly a mile wide.
The northern part of this channel has onlj 4 fathoms in it, and in working
through, when southward of Whang head, do not bring the ship's head
eastward of North, as the Chusan shore is shoaL

Tha chatmel off. the aouth-eait end o£ Chuiriui ^K^SnaMba'yMi^ tttd in
the centre ii a reef witJi a stone piftlar oa it. Tlie flait- eKtendingr. iowwrd$
Poo-too baa only 1^ fathoms on it at low -watery and soiiie hard cAs^ts;
therefore veaaels dmwing x>ver ikd Ibet should not tittempt ^iIb passage;
hat use the Sanih Galley channel, page 807. In worldng through it from
the southward between Lokea and Kin-ho island, bear in mrnd that the
shoal water ei^tends 3^ cables from the former, and 6 cables &om the
latter ; the above pillar or beacon in one with, a diff islet northward of it, is
a good mid-channel mark. After passing westward of the beacon bring the
diff islet in line with a building on Whang head ; this wiU lead over the
flat in the deepest water, and when the south end of Poo-too bears East it
may be steered for.*

osTOBAMWr m^mnfimmk art the aouth.'-east end of Chusan, cu-ries

on a considerable fishery to the eastward «f Poo-too idai|d;'abomt 35

junks, eadh having from 30 to 35 men, and 2^0 mnaller boats avnm^g

5 men eaoh, are emj^jed for this purpose, and the proceeds araciirried

principally to Nlng-po, the flab being preservedin ice duiing^the ' iSttmmer.

The harbour, formed between the island of Lokea and the Chusan shore,

is 1^ cables wide with 4 and 5 fathoms water-in it abreast the town. ^ The

south-west entrance to the harbour, between Lokea and Maontze i^Iand^

has not more than 2^ fathoms in it at low water ; the mud extends weat-

I
ward i^ cables from Lokea, and a rock lies S.SJ^.^a cable from the east

end of Maoutze.

H.M.S. Pylades anchored in 5 £Eithoms between Maoutze aiud Chusao,
the width of the channel being 2^ cables ; the Inland, 600 feet high on the
Chusui side, occasioned the squalls at timeiei to be vieiy violent. R;M«S.
Conway Anchored in 6 flithoms, W. ^ 6. 8 cables- from Liwan island, Which



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