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has two rocks off its south end (page 307)/

Chinkeamun is 1 1 miles eastward of Ting-hai harbour. The Shei-luh
diannel dose along the sottthum shore of Chusab has deep water in it,
but in some places it id so Harrow as to be practicable only for small steam
vessels or boats.

* 5i« Admiralty Chart:— China, East Coast, Sheet 8, Ko. 1,199 ; scaler ms0*25 indies.

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Tbe priticipd islands bounding 'the soitth siSe of tMs diaanel i^,
(reckoning £roiii the eastward,) Maoutze, Ta-kan, Yin-gto*, and Ao-shan.
Between Ta^kan and Maontze there are not more than 6 feM at low water/
and the same depth between the= two last ; between Ao-shan and Deer
island there is a deep water channel, but it is confined by mud-banks and'
obstructed by reefs.

CBUBAS is&AirB* SO Called from its supposed resemblance to a boat,
is 51 miles in circumference ; its extreme length in a N.W. and S.E,
direction being 21 miles, and its greatest breadth lOj miles. From the
beach at Ting-hai oni the south side of the island to the northern shore,
the distance across is 7 miles ; towards the eastern end it becoijnes narrower^
The island is beautifully diversified with hill and dale and well cultivated.
Of the numerous small streams which run from the mountains, the most
considerable is the Tung kiang which falls into Ting-hai harbour. ' The
products are rice, millet, wheat, sweet potatoes, and yams ; the tea plant
is found everywhere, but is treated with little or no care* The cotton
plant is largely cultivated near the sea. Besides the principal harbour of
Ting-hai there are three other commercial ports, viz., Chinkeamuh at the
south-east end of the island, Ching Keang or Singkong on the north-west
side, and Shaaou at the north end.

The town of Ting-hai is 1| miles in cirdumference and surrounded by
a wall 14| feet high and 13 feet wide, surmounted by a parapet 14^ &et
high and 2 feet wide. The southern face runs east and west ; the west
face north and south ; and the eastern face north 350 yards, and then
north-west. A canal, 33 feet wide and 3 feet deep, nearly encircles the
city, and enters it near the south gate, which is about half a mile 'from
the shore of the harbour. Canals form the principal means of transport,
the roads being merely footpaths on the stone embankments which prevent
the encroachment of the sea on the rice fields. Every large field has its
canal for the purpose of carrying away the produce.

The population of the town and suburbs at the commencement of 1 843
was- about 27,500, but in 1846 it had increased to 35,000 ; the population of
the entire island was estimated at 200,000. The principal exports are fish,
coarse black tea, cotton, vegetable tallow, sweet potatoes, and some wheat.

The burying ground of the British forces, who occupied Ting-hai from
1841 to 1846, is situate on the slope of the hill east of the joss house.

ivater. — The water is not good at Ting-hai, and is sometimes scarce,
the tanks in the rice fields near the sea being' the only supply, excepting
weUs which afford but a litnited quantity ; no running streams were found.
The place latterly adopted for watering by the squadron during the China
expedition in 1840-1843, was in the bay westward of Chuh or Guardhouse

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■ ■■ ■■ —41 ynuLTmrnaU'^The following is a meteorological abslzact
dadooed from monthly regiBten, kept at Chusan during the period the
island was ooeapied by the English troops in 1840 :—

The climate of Chosan is subject to a range of temperature similar ta
that in the same latitude upon the coast of North America ; the thermo-
meter in the shade standing at 103^ in September, and at 25P in February..

September was generally fine, only four rainy days for short periods ;
1*8 in. of rain fell. The barometer generally standing below 30 inches;
falling in strong south-easterlyy and rising with northerly winds : height
of the cistern above the sea 72 feet. Very strong breezes were not
experienced during this month. Winds easterly 10 days, south-easterly
6 days, north-easterly 8 days, and north-westerly 6 days. Rao^e o£
thermometer 108^ to 65°.

The first 10 days of October were fine, the remainder of the month
overcast; weather squally, much rain during the last week. Except the
four first days of this month, the barometer was never below 30 inches^
and rose as high as 30*33 in., rising with fresh winds from the north-
west. The winds variable, changing frequently during the 24 hours;
they were from the North 6 days, N.E. 12 days, N.W. 9 days, and
4 days from S.E. to S. W. 0% the 29th the meteorological instruments
were removed to the suburbs, where the height of the cistern of the
baix)meter above mean tide level was 24 feet. Range of thermometer
92° to 51°.

November was generally overcast with rain, the barometer in easterly
winds fell below 30 inches. Winds were N.E. 2 days, N.N.W. 8 days,
N.W. 4 days, northerly 4 days, westerly 4 days, S.S.W. 2 days, and calm
4 days. Range of thermometer 74° to 40°.

In December the weather was finer than last month; the barometer
kept very high, being 30*59 inches on the 10th ; vrindB^Jight from the
N.W, ; the mercury generally rose as the wind fi:eshened from that
quarter, and during calms fell to 30*02 inches. Winds 'south-westerly
half a day, westerly 2^ days, north-westerly 15 days, north-easterly half
a day, northerly 5 days, easterly 1 day, and calm 6 days ; much rain
during the last week. Range of thermometer 77° to 27°.

During January the weather was misty with much rain ; barometer
ranging from 30-6 1 to 30O8 inches, falling previously to south-easterly
winds. Snow the last two days. Winds fresh with squalls; from the
N.W. 20 days. West 2 days. S.W. 1 day, S.E. 1 day, North 3 days, and
calm 3 days. Range of thermometer 60° to 28°.

February was generally fine ; winds N.W. 5 J days, North 2^ days,
S.W. 1 day, S.E. 2^ days, cahn 5 days. Range of thermometer SO" to 25°.

The greatest range of temperature during 24 hours was 28°. ' Dui-ing

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January^ the barometer was at the height of 80*61 mcheS| and generally
fell in light or easterly winds. A few days south-easterly winds occurred
in September, but the northerly monsoon could not be said to have com-
menced until the beginning of October. The following are the number of
rainy days in each month : September 4 days, October 3 days, November
12 days, December 7 days, January 11 days, Februjiry 3 days.

Fogs are prevalent in April ; about the period of the change of mon-

Tnro-HAS MAMMomtf formed on the south side of Chusan, is fironted
by many smaJl islands, between which are the several channels leading
to it. The outer and westernmost island is Ta-maou or Tower-hill, east
of which and distant 1 and 4^ miles respectively are the large islands
Teijo or Elephant island and Fih-lou. Within, or to the northward of
these, reckoning from the westward, are the ii^ands called Ha-tse or Bell,
Pwanche or Tea, Seaou-keu or Deer, and Ao-shan. The two small
islands Tawoo or Trumball, and Wae-woo or Macclesfield, lie inshore or
to the north-east of Tea island, fronting the city, and there are many
small islands and rocks among those larger ones above named.

The harbour is difficult of access in all its approaches, owing to the
strong tides and sunken rocks. The best approach is through Tower Hill
and Bell channels, the latter being between Tower Hill and Bell islands,
and between Bell island and Tea island ; in these no hidden danger has
been found ; but the tides are strong, and sailing vessels in light winds
must be careful that they ai'e not set by their influence between Tower
and Elephant, or between Tea and Elephant islands, where the ground is
foul and the channels narrow and deep.*

]>iBac»Txov8 throuffii TO'vnm BZ&Xi €» AmrBXi. — The best approach
to Ting-hai harbour for large or unhandy vessels is through Tower HiU
channel. Unless favoured by a commanding breeze and neap, tides, they
ought not to pass between Roundabout island and Ketau point, as the tides
run there with ^reat strength, and outside Eoundabout, the whirls are
often BO strong that a ship can with difficulty be kept on her course, even
under steam. After passing Ketau point steer to pass a convenient
distance from the south extreme of Tower Hill island. Should the tide
fail, anchorage wiU be found under the islands eastward of Tygosan island ;
for which purpose pass 3 cables southward of Square Stone islet, to avoid
the reef lying 1^ cables S.W. of it, and anchor before the channel between

'tie Tygosan and Chuen-pi islands opens, as the water shoals suddenly off

e east end of Entrance island.

^ See Admiralty Chart :— Chusan Archipelago, South Sheet, Ko. 1,429 ; and Ting-hai
rbonr, No. 1,895 ; scale, m » 4 inches.

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HftTlag rotmded Tower Hill^isla&dy haul up, stemng first fbr BeQ
nlaiid then for Tea UkM. The soimdi^Bs in Bell ohannei, between Bell
and Tower HiB islands, rarj from 90 to 40 &ih<Hns; but off the north*
west end of the latter is a mnd bank of 8 fathoms water eacten^&ng 1|^
oable» off shore.

There is good aaehorage in 10 and 12 fkthoms betwe^ Bell and Tea
islands, nearer the latter, but vessels intending to rema^ here should not
open the channel between Bell and Chusan, as the tides are stronger
and the ground locae. On proceeding from henoa to ZiA^faai faacbour,
take eare to avoid the Nab^a sunken rock with 14 feetoTer it at low water,
Ijiqg 2^ caUes from the Chusan shores and South of a sma£L hillock in the
vaUey near the shore ; the marks for it ace Taching point» the west ettteme
^ Tea island, in one with the east side of Taewang or Bell rock, & \ W^
and the south point of Guardhouse isle nearly in line wi^ the summit of
Tawoo or TrombaU island. A 8-fathoms patch lies about 5^ cables
W.&W. of the Nab» and £.by N. |N. nearly 4 caUee from Ap-taa-ahan

The Spithead anchorage on the Chusan shore, between the Nab rock
and Guardhouse iale^ will be found a convenient place for watering ; the
anchoring ground is steep-to, and the tides are irregular, and off the
entrance to the watering creek is a mud flat of 3 fathoms water* With
light winds, vessels should avoid the strength of the ebb when passing
thromgh the channel between Tea and Guardhouse islands^ for it is liable
to set tJbem through the Melville channel. A ledge of rocks covered at
high water, extends one cable fit>m the high water mark at Konching pointy
the north. extreme of Tea island.

Ftoceeding towards Ting-hai harbour, and being abreast of Guard-
house i^le^ steer towards Wae-woo or Macdesfleld island, taking care to
avoid the Middle Ground, which has only 2 feet on its shoalest part.
Tower Hill in line with the slope on the southern rise of Tea island will
lead along the southern edge of this shoal, in 4 fathoi^s. The Wae-woo
channd is only 2| cables wide between the 3 £ftthoms line on the edge of
the Middle Ground and Wae-woo and Tawoo islands. The usual anchor-
age is abreast Taotau, the suburb of Ting-hai, but vessels must moor as the
eddies are stroi^. The channel between Chusan and Guardhouse isle is
only fit for boats.

04k«TiOV« — Spring tides set at the rate of 8 and 3^ knots per hour in
the Tower Hill channel, and with li^t winds and a strong flood-veesela
have been swept avray to the westward, a^d carried by the tide beyor-'
Just^-the-Way, and even through the BlaekwaU channel; and afl
rounding Tower Hill and entermg the Bell channel many have been bo
by the ebb amongst the islands between Tower TTill and Elephant isl

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orh^tweBWike latter and T^ lidftnd, wh6i:« the cbanneii^ are narroWy the
watep Ae€p, «^ t&e grotmd foul. ' In thes^'dMes the bower anchere and
c^iafiuEM^i^ld not be tis)^/hlft ii; good "kcidg^ and stent hKWmsti whieh (as
the holding ground is good and if care be taken to conn the Teflaeiand not
breakher ^beer) -will' bring a 'Vessel up and present her being driven into
these nMraw^passajges^virhei^e some have been Jbronght np in irom '30 to 40
fathoms water, with two anchors down and three or four round turns in
the hawsei * . ^

Badng'tfounded the north end of Tea islahd .wi<^ a strong ebb^ it is
neeessary to guard agamst its taknsg the: vessel "tiirongh the 'Melville
channel, and if notable to pass northward of Macclesfield island^ send the
boats a-head and endeavour to ke^ the vessel to the northward of Taken
and Sarah islands, where the water is not so deep.

Tnrougii Ma&wxubB CMAjmwL, — Thei Melville or southern padtoge
to Ting-hai harbour is between Elephant and Deer islands^ but as two
sunken rocks lie in the centrel)f the channel and narrow it to 1 J ca'bles, it
should not be attempted unless there be a commanding breeze, and the
mariner have a thorough knowli^dgc of their position. Its navigation is
rendered more difficult in the neighbourhood of these dangers by' the tides
rushing throtigh four different channels into this, and forming eddies which
render a vessel unmanageable even with a good breeze at the springs.*
A boat a-head will be found useful at the neaps. ' •

The entrance will be easily recognised by Elephant island, which Is
remarkable jBrdm a curious crag near the liummit ; and by the cone-topped
islftndofPating, totheN;N.E. of it. There is anchorage in 16 and 18
fathoms in the entrance of the channel between Elephant and Tun^ islet;
but the holding ground is not good. Beyond Bound island, which lies
4 cables from the north-east point of Elephant, the water deepeils to 30
and 40 fathom^ towards the southern sunken rock, on which H.M.S.
Melville struck in 1840.

The Melville rock, of only 10 feet water, lies S.E. by E. | E. 2 cables
from the Black rock, and E. by N. J N. 1| cables from the rocky ledge
extending towards it from Ledge island, and which covers at half tide;
the -marks for it are the Cap rock in IMe with the saddle of Kintang island,
beaHng W. by N., and the Joss house on the hill near the stiburbs 6i Ting-
hfu showing between Trumbdl and San)£h islands, N.'^ E. Dundas, the
norih^nr sunken rock, is a small patch of only- 9 feet water; it is &bout 7
to 10 yards in extent, and Hes N. ^ W., If c&bles from Melville rock, and

* Commander Lacy, B.N., remark^, ** The Adventure came out through the Melville
channel-with the ebb tide, which I should never think of doing again in a large ship,
as she was nearly unmanageable in consequence of the strong eddies, and we had the
greatest difficulty in keeping the marks on."

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KE. bjE. I E. 2 Cibl6B from the Black roek, with the bushy tree on the
eMieni dope of T»-kea iahnd, in line with the middle beacon on Tsingluy
Tau or Beacon hill, N.EL^iL, and the north end of the Black rock on with
the aonth ude of Ct^ rock W J3.W.

From abreast Boondabont ialand a N.W. ^N. coarse for 4^ miles wiU
lead to the entrance of the Melville channeL Pass on either side of Bound
ialand, and when northward of it, its east extreme touching Trunk point
bearing S.^ W., will lead * between Melville rock and Ledge icdand, and
between Dundas rock and Black rock, rather westward of mid-channel
When dear of the Dondas keep in mid-diannel, and when abreast the south
end of Sarah island steer for the west end of Macdesfield island, which
should be rounded rather dose to avoid the Middle Ground, the southern
edge of which, in 8 fathoms, is onlj 2} cables distant. A rock, covered
at high water, lies bardj a cable's length from the northern face of

be enteied from the eastward through a branch of the Melville channel, by
passing between Deer and Taken islands, which are I^ cables apart. The
Mdville and Dundas rocks will be avoided by keeping the western hillock
of Taken open of the summit of Tawoo island, or by keeping Deer island
aboard, but it must be borne in mind that neither shore of the channel
is steep-to. The Beacon rock, awash at high water, to the north-east of
Taken, may be passed on either side ; and from thence steer for the Chnsan
shore, keeping a cable's length eastward of Grave island, and when the
harbour beacon is seen north of it, it can be steered fnr, passing between it
and the Chusan shore, keeping the latter aboard, until Taken is shut in by

This passage, although narrower, is superior to the Melville channel, as
vessels have the tide in their iavour all the way. The principal objection
to its use is the liability to flaws of wind under Deer island ; but the main
point to be guarded against is the flood from the eastern channels carrying
them so far westward as not to fetch far enough eastward of Grave island.
A spit extends fit)m the south-east end of Tawoo, the 8 &thoms line being
8 cables from the shore ; the south end of Wae-woo open of the summit of
Tea idand, leads south of it. Between Ta-woo and the shore there is a
middle ground of 1 to 8 fathoms, on the inner edge of which is a rock
marked by a beacon pole ; between the rock and the shore is a deep water
channel, a cable wide, leading to the anchorage off Tao-tau.

* Mr. Joseph G. Dathan, R.N., remarks, "this is a xery good and distinct mark, as
« also is the cross mark for Dundas rock j the others are not so easily made out by a
" stranger.**

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Aae&«nwe. — ^At the anchorage, in 10 fiithomsy E.S.E. of Wae-woo, it is
indispensable to moor taut owing to the eddies, for however carefnUy a
vessel maj be brought to with single anchor, and afterwards well watched,
she will scarcely fail to foul her anchor badly and probably trip it. This
anchorage has been reconunended as convenient and possibly a more easterly
position may be less objectionable. A preferable anchorage is, in 5 fiithomSi
S.S.E. of Grave island, where there are no eddies and the tides are regular
but not strong.

Tbe CBAnBK between WMMA IBTiAWB maA OSWiAJr is not re*

commended, owing to the tides, which run 5 knots at springs. Nearly
mid^channel is Kwa-fn, a half tide rock, with a stone beacon on it ; and to
the S.W. of the beacon is a 9 feet patch lying with the south end of
Kwo-kan, the westernmost of the two islets on the Chusan shore, in line
with the south end of Eiddisol island. Neither is the north end of Bell
island steep-to, consequently, should a vessel from necessity use this
passage, the channel between the beacon and the Chusan shore should
be preferred to that between the beacon and Bell island.

xiBBisoK is&AWB, lies 2 Cables southward of Yanglo point, the
south-west extreme of Chusan, with a deep water channel between, but
the eddies are violent at the springs ; there is a patch of 2| fathoms off
its south-west end. From hence to Sinkong point, 4 miles to the
N.W. by N., the coast line of Chusan is mud, with the exception of a small
hillock at the edge of low water.*

JLn^onive in 10 and 12 &thoms will be found all along the Chusan
shore between Yanglo and Sinkong points, but in standing towards the
shore be careful as the water shoals suddenly after 10 fathoms.

CBZVO MMAMU BABSOVBt on the wcstem side of Chusan and
distant 7 miles in a direct line across country from Ting-hai, is formed
between the islands . Wa-teo, Lin, and Latea, (otherwise called Outer,
Middle, and Inner Hook,) and Chusan. Upon the islands, and on the
point near the southern entrance, are extensive stone quarries. There is a
white rock off the south-west point of Wa-teo, and a mud bank extends
from the island nearly to the rock and also bounds its west side. Between
Wa-teo and Chusan the entrance to the channel is 6 cables wide with
7 and 8 fathoms water in it, forming a snug anchorage much frequented
by the junks as a stopping place, and defended from pirates by a fort.
Abreast of Lin, the small island next north of Wa-teo, the channel is less
than a cable wide, with 7 fathoms water. The town stands on the Chusan
shore, on the banks of a stream, which at high tide is navigable for

* See Admiralty Chart of Eintang channel, Ko. 1,770, scale, m » 1 *S inches.

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bo«l0» Here the chfoiiiel ia alflo less thim » cftUe wide^ and tke d^piikt


safVAM« er flBbirBB tasAVB is between the west end of Cbusan
and the entranee of the Tung or Ning-po rirer. Near its soath-^ast
extreme is a remarkable sadcQe hOl 1,432 feet high, which with the C3«p
Twk forms one of the marks for the Melyille rock (p. 315). Another
remarkable peak, 1^520 feet high, is 1^ miles northward of the saddle

AUigaior poinli the south end of Eintaog, haa a ree^ which covers at
half tide, extending 2 cables to the southward ; there is a beacon painted
white on the extremitj of the reef. Algerine pc»nt> the south-east extreme
of the ishmd,' has an iaiet connected at low tide bj a mud flat^ from which
a ledge of rocks extends S.S.E. 2 cables, the sonth end of whidi coyers at
high water.

jkM^hMrmg^. — ^The eastern face of Eintang is bold-to, < withont any
anchorage along it. The western side affords good t^pporary anchoragCy
but it is adyisable to take up a position within half a mile of ihe shore to
be out of the strength of the tide.

Ta-ontae harboiir.— Off the north end of Kintang there is a group of
seven islets, amongst which there is anchorage ; off its north-west end is
Taping island, separated by a narrow channel of 4 to 6 fathoms. South-
ward of Taping is the small harbour of Ta-outse or Lukon, a former
station for opium vessels, which affords good anchorage in 7 to 10 fathoms,
sheltered by the small island of Ta-outse. The entrance is between Kin-
tang and Ta-outse island^ and the channel is barely 2 cables wide.
Between Ta-outse and Taping there are not more than 8 feet at low

Ta-outse harbour* is small, but affords good anchorage, and may
be recommended as a sanitary station for vessels obliged to make a
lengthened stay in the river Yung. Supplies of all kinds can be readily
obtained by native boats from Ning-po. Kintang is well cultivated and
produces abundant supplies, but they fdl appear to be sent to King-po.

xnrTAVO CBAvnA. — If bound to Ning-po or proceeding by the
Kintang channel, see Directions on p. 331.

BTMWAMn socx, 50 feet high, lies in the middle of Blackwall channel
between Chusan and Kintang island. The depths in its vicinity are 25
to 45 fathoms, except on a rocky patch 2 cables to the eastward, where
the least water that has been found is 6 fathoms.

BXdkCXVAabab cbaibvb]«, between £antang and Chusan, takes its
name from Tsih-tze or Blackwall island, about 6 miles in circumference,

♦ Captain C. F. A. ShadweU, B.N., H.M.S. Higyiyer, 1858.

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which ditidesite northern entrance into two pasai^fes, ibe western Blaek-
waU pefis^ and the pastern SJetsn pass, which is between the four islets,
faming Ching Eeang harbonr, on the Chusan shore , and ^lackif^ 0^
southern entranoe, between jCiddisol and the south-east point of Klntang,
is nearly 5 miles wide^^and just within it is the Steward rock described

Erom the anchorage off Sinkopgpoint^pn the Chusan shore^.the distance
through the Blackwall pass is 6 miles^ and no anchorage will be found
until' ijiear Cliff islet, pn the- north-west face of . Blackwall, from which
extends, 1^ miles^ a tongne-shaped shoal of 3 to 5 fathoms, exposed to
northerly winds. This pass is three-quarters of a mile wide, but the eddies
in. it are so stroag that vessels have been turned round in a double-reefed
topsail breeze. . Bondo, a small islet in the pass, lies dose off the south-
west end of Blackwall island, and there is deep water between them, but
the Kintang side will be found the best to border on. There is a long
bay on the Blackwall side, from the north end of which, BlackwaU point,
a reef extends westward 1^ cables, to avoid which do not open Steward
rock eastward of Bondo islet.

The Ketsu pass is not recommended as the tides are strong, and it is
contracted to 3 cables' breadth by the flat island of Ketsu. The channel
.between it and Blackwall is 3 cables wide ;. a sunken rock also lies 1^
cables from the north-east point of Blackwall. Between Eetsu and

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