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Chusan the channel is only a cable wide, and neither shore is steep^to.

WMOMMM BB&AWB is connected at low wa^r to the north-west
extreme of Chusan by a mud bank, steep-to on the north-eastern side.
Crack islet lies about half a mile &om its north point, and between them
is a narrow ehannel of '5 to 8 fathoms water, but it is not calculated for
Tossels of large draughty as a bank of 6 to 18 feet water extends a mile
from the north-west point of Broken island. A mud spit runs off north-
westerly 4 cables from Crack islet.*

BVir8TBRVZ&&B aROW, N.W. 3^ miles from Broken island, is a
batch of low islets which may be approached as convenient, the soundings
between them and Crack islet varying from 5 to 4 fathoms. The tides
are strong in this neighbourhood, the flood running to the west, the ebb
to the east.

SHAAoar BA&BOVB, or North bay, formed between Chang-pih or

Fisher island, and the north end of Chusan, is 2 miles long, If miles wide,

ad has a varying depth from 5 to 9 fathoms. Broken island, as before

bated, is steep-to on its north-east side ; from the western part of Chang-

* See Admiralty Plan of Chusan Archipelago, North Sheet, No. 1,969, scale, m — 0*8
t an inch.

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pihy shoal water extends half a mile. The soothem shore of Chang-pih
is an extensiye mad bank, a considerable pcnrtion of which has been
endoeed from the sea bj embankment ; off its sonth-east end, the water
is shoal, the 8 fiithoms line being half a mile from the shore.*

The Chosan shore is bordered by a mud bank, which renders landing,
unless at high water, difficult, except in one place near the eastern end of
the harbour, where there is a causeway. Near the causeway are some
houses, but the principal village is some distance up the Tslley. A
small islet lies off the north end of Chang-pih, and a group of islets,
named Cluster or Midway islands, off the north-east end.

soma iiur«Qsft m'wnu ci

-—Vessels bound to the eastward from Shaaon harbour may pass either
through the Kwei channel, between Lan-sew or Sheppey island and
Chusan, or to the northward of Lan-sew, which is the better channel of
the two, but both are difficult for a stranger. A sunken rock lies 3 cables
from the Chusan shore, S.E. 2 miles from the south-east point of Chang-pih,
with the south extreme of Chang-pih bearing W. ^ N., the largest of the
Cluster islets, N.E. of Chang-pih, N.^ W., and the summit of Lan-sew
open of the rocks off Ma-aou point E. by N. j N.

The Kwei channel, never to be attempted during the strength of the
tide, is between the large island of Lan-sew, 4 miles east of Chang-pih
and the Chusan shore, and although 1^ miles broad, the navigable passage
is greatly contracted bf the numerous rocks and islets on either nde. At
its western end it is only three-quarters of a mile between the two rocks off
Ma-aou point and the Houblan islets extending from the west side of
Lan-sew. In the centre, the Lan-sew shore is bold, but two chains of islets
from Chusan stretch half way across. The eastern end is narrowed to
2 cables between Kanlan point on the Chusan shore and the small islet
with a.reef offits south-east end, lying south of Sewshan or Grain islet off

There is the Kwimun channel, close in to the Chusan shore, but it is
crooked and a sunken rock lies near the centre.

The island of Lan-sew appears formerly to have been two, the inter-
vening space having been gained from the sea by embanking ; it is now^
called by the Chinese Lan-shan and Saw-shan, and is 3 J miles long and
2^ miles broad.

Tbvouffii csAnBA woRTK of iJkx-Bmvr. — When leaving the an-
chorage in Shaaon harbour by the Chang-pih channel, and intending to

♦ See Admiralty Plan of North Bay, No. 1,744 ; scale, m = 1 -2 inches.

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pass nortli of Lan-sew, steer about N.E. by E. for Kwi-si, a barren island
•with a round peak upon it. The southern side of this island is steep-to,
and the distance between it and the north-west point of Lan-sew is 1^
miles ; a mud bank dries 1^ miles from the western side of the latter, and
is steep-to, the lead giving no warning, but its northern edge will be
avoided by keeping the north end of Mo-un (the largest islet off the north
end of Lan-sew) open of the north extreme of Lan-sew.

Having passed Kwi-si steer for the next island, Kwan, the south shore
of which keep close aboard, to avoid a reef which lies half a mile to the
southward and covers at high water ; from the reef Kwi-si hill bears
W.byN., and the highest part of Lan-sew S.S.W. ^W. ; the ground
between this reef and Lan-sew is foul. Although the channel is half a
mile wide it is difficult to shoot through, owing to the eddy tides and flaws
off Kwan, which is 600 feet in height. When the reef is passed, take
care to avoid a ledge of rocks extending a short distance from the north-
west point of Mo-un, which bounds the channel to the southward.

To the eastward of Kwan are nine islands lying off the south-east end
of Tae-shan to the northward ; there is a reef off the southern end of
the nearest. From thence an East course may be steered to sea along
the fiouthern coast of Keu-shan island and the Fisherman's group. The
channels north of Kwi-si and Kwan are described on page 325.

Anciioraffe. — ^Vessels wishing to anchor on the east side of Lan-sew
island may haul to the southward after passing^the first islet east of
Mo-un, running between it and Gan-ching, a cluster of rocks to the
eastward. At the east end of Lan-sew is a low cliff, named Harty island,
which may be passed at a cable, when hauling to the southward, anchorage
will be found in 5 fathoms, the water shoaling gradually towards the
shore. H.M.S. Py lades (in 1840) anchored here in 5 J fathoms, with the
east end of Harty island N. f W. 6 cables, and Grain islet S. W.
In the northerly monsoon there is a better anchorage at 7 miles to the
north-east in Peaked Rock bay on the southern shore of Keu-shan.

C&ZFFS and BOVB ROCXS. — To the eastward of Lan-sew, at the
distance of 2 miles and 5 miles respectively, are two cliff islets, called
Cliffs and Doub (Double) rocks. South 2 cables from Cliffs, the western
islet, is a ledge of rocks nearly awash at high water, and the gronnd in its
neighbourhood is foul ; there are rocks, also, which show at low water,

Ing 1^ cables from the north-east point of the same islet.

ar.B. and BJLST COASTS of CBVSAB. — The north-east coast of

husan, east of Lan-sew, trends S.E. II miles to Whang head, a low

ininsula forming the east end of Chusan. At the distance of 3 miles

Thornton island, with a narrow passage between it and Chusan, and

soasi. X

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a deeplj indented bay westward of it, in which the mud dries oat a long
jrhjj rendering it difficult to land except at the extreme points ; an islet
and rocks lie off the north-east face of Thornton. At 2| miles farther
to the south-east is Tsae, a larger island with a remarkable fall in the hills
near its centre. The Chusan shore hereabouts is shoal-to. ,

To the eastward of the north part of Tsae are three islands at the
distance of half, 1^ and 3| miles. The nearest, named Meih-yun, the
largest of the three, has a patch of rocks lying N.N.W. 4 cables from its
north point. Meih-ting, the central islet, has a pinnacle rock lying E. by N«
half a mile from it, and a rocky patch at 2 cables westward of its north
extreme. The outer islet, Jow rock, is a narrow cliff with a rock lying
one cable from its north side. There are islets also N.W. of Tsae.

Half way between Tsae and Whang head is a low island, named Ta-chen,
and the depth in its vicinity is 3 fathoms. A reef lies three-quarters
of a mile south-east of Ta-chen, and a quarter of a mile from the Chusan
shore, with the north-east point of Ta-chen in one with north-east
point of Tsae N.N.W., and the north end of the Poo-too group E. by N.

Between Ta-kan and Maoutze there are not more than 6 feet at low
water, and \he same depth between the two latter ; between Ao-shan and
Deer island there is a deep water channel, but it is confined by mud banks
and obstructed by reefs.

ULT, 10 miles across and 10 deep, is formed between the
north*east &ce of Chusan and the extensive chain of islands running in a
E.N.E. direction towards Video island. The navigation of the southern
part of this bay, from the north-west point of Chusan to Poo-too island, has
been noticed above and on page 821 ; the northern part, beginning at Yideo,
will now be described, and also those anchorages which may be useful to
a vessel proceeding to Ning-po or Chusan in the northerly monsoon.

Tbe VOmTBaBar past of tbe CBVSAV ASCBIPBLA.OO consists of
numerous islands and rocks, which extend northward of Chusan a distance
of 40 miles to the entrance of the Yang-tze kiang, and front Hang-chu bay.
All of them are inhabited, with the exception of the outlying Barren isles
and Leuconna, and small supplies may be obtained, but the natives, except
at Tae-slfan island, were in a very miserable condition, owing to the
constant visitation of pirates. Many good anchorages will be found among^
them, in depths gradually increasing from 5 fathoms off Hang-chu bay
to 30 fathoms on the outer part of the bank.* The outer islet, Jow rock,
is a narrow cliff with a pinnacle rock between it and Meih-ting.

♦ See Admiralty Chart :— China, East Coast, Sheet 8, No. 1,199.

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As vessels bound to the Tang-tse kiang usually pass eastward of this
archipelago, and as, in the northern monsoon, they endeavour to make the
island of Video if they cannot weather the more northerly Barren isles,
we shall commence with the eastern islands, and then continue the
description westward.

VZBBO is&Aira, in lat. 30^ 8' N., long. 122^ 46' E., bearing E. by N. ^ N.
22 miles from the summit of Poo-too, and N.E. by N. 19 miles from Tong-
ting islet (page 308), is about 500 feet high, nearly square, and has a bold
precipitous appearance, and a remarkable white cliff which shows when
the island bears N.W. by N. ; when first seen from the south-west the
island appears flat and shelving to the westward. Light proposed,

8SOTBBRS and 8ZSTBR8. — E.byN.^N. 5 miles from Video are four
rocks called the Four Sisters ; and E. by N. 9 miles from Video are two
rocks named the Two Brothers. As the soundings in this vicinity are above
30 fathoms, any cast below that depth will, in thick weather, point out
that a vessel is among the chain of islands.

KBVConA ZSKAVB bears N.KE. ^E. 18 miles from Video, and
when seen from the southward it makes like three abrupt, round-topped

BBBHZVB BOCB, a remarkable rock 35 feet high, has 14 and 16 fathoms
water around it, and a rock awash lying 3 cables to the eastward. Leu-
conna bears from it E. byN.^N. 12^ miles, and Video S.byE. JE.
13 miles.

BftBBiiW isXiBS, three in number, in lat. 30"" 43' N., long. 123"" T 14'' E.,
are three-quarters of a mile in extent, east and west, and about 50 feet
high, and at 2 cables south-east. of the eastern isle is a reef * awash at
high water. They lie E. \ N. 16 miles from East Saddle island, and
N.N.E. I E, 20 miles from Leuconna.

PZSBBBMiLH-'S OBOVP^ — North of Chiisan, a chain of islands extends
from Video W. by N. \ N. 45 miles, terminating in the Volcano islands,,
facing Hang-chu bay. Between Video and the Fisherman's group, the
first islands westvTard, there is a channel 2 niiles wide ; but among the^
Fishermans group (consisting of four islets and several rocks) vessels
ought not to go. Perhaps the best channel through the chain is close to-
the westward of this group, S.S.W. ^W. 9^ miles from the Beehive.
From this to Keu-shan, westward, is 10 miles, with many intervening
islands, but the channels between them ought not to be attempted, as, from
the character of the land, there are, no doubt, many sunken rocks.

♦ This reef appeared to extend three-quarters of a mile soutii-cast of the isJe. —
Edward H. HiUs, Master, R.N., H.M.S. Higlfiyer, June 1859.

X 2

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-Shelter will be found under Hall island, the largest of
these intervening islands, at 7 miles westward^of Fisherman's group ; but
a vessel had better ^o on to Keu-shan island, and anchor on the south side
in Peaked-rock bay (page 321), bearing in mind that the head of the bay
is shoal.

MMU-mmAM Mid OMAWO-TO^^. — ^Keu-shan, the first lai^e island of this
chain, is 8 miles long, east and west. Peaked-rock bay is westward of
Eden point, the south-east end of the island. Along the southern side of
Keu-shan are several islets and rocks, to which give a berth of 2 cables.
Off the western part of Keu-shan is Chang-tow island, the peak of which
rises over the west side of the island to the height of 920 feet above the
sea, rendering it one of the most conspicuous objects of the chain.
Between the islands is a narrow channel, named Chang-tau strait, carrying
5 fathoms, but the south point of Chang-tau is not steep-to.

TAB-SSAV CMAna& is west of Chang-tow, and between it and Tae-
shan. Its approach from Lan-sew bay is 1^ miles wide between tlie west
part of Keu-shan and the Doub and Cliff rocks (page 321). From the
Cliffs the southern entrance to the Tae-shan channel bears North, and is
formed by the islets of Pou-no and Pou-ti to the west, and Funing" island,
with the Cliff islet south of it, to the east ; off the west end of the latter
is a reef, covered at high water. N.W. by W. 6 cables from Funing are
two low rocks, and the space between them and Funing is shallow.
Between these rocks and the south point of Chang-tau is Chang-tau strait.

The Tae-shan channel is a mile wide. Both shores are shoal-to, and a
sunken rock lies S.S.E. 2 cables from the projecting point on the Tae-shan
shore. A mile N.E. of this point is Gan-su island, which has a double
peak on it, and there are two islets on each side ; the channel lies between
it and Chang-tau, under the north head of which is a low rock.

The directions for passing south of Tae-shan island, between Kwan and
Lan-sew, have already been given in page 321 ; but it remans to describe
Tae-shan and the channels between it.and the Volcano islands.

TAS-BHAV Z8&AVB, 8 miles long and 5 broad, and the third in point
of size in the archipelago, Chusan and Luhwang only being larger, is very
populous, and carries on an extensive manufactory of salt from sea water.
The centre of the island is an extensive plain, with many villages ; the
hills also separate near the eastern extreme, leaving a level plain across the
island. Off the south-east end of the island are nine islets, among which
vessels have no business to go. There is a passage close to the eastward
of Kwan ; but owing to strong tides and the flaws under the bluff land of
this island, vessels had better pass south of Kwan and between it and
Kwi-si islands, where there is a channel a mile wide ; the mud dries
3 cables from the west end of Kwan.


To the northward of Kwan and Kwi-si are three islets; the best
channel is. between Ning, the western islets, and Kwi-si, ufter which a
vessel can haul up for the Tae-shan shore, and anchor in 4 or 5 fathoms
off Wou-hou creek, observing that there is a reef which covers at first-
quarter flood, lying with the summit of Kwi-si beariug S. by E. 2 J miles,
and Ellicott isle, about 3 miles north-west of Kwi-si, W. by S. ^ S. 2 J miles;
the north end of Peshan islet in line with the north point of Kwan bearing
E. by S. i S., will lead south of it.

The mouth of Wou-hou creek is 6 miles N.E. from the summit of
Chang-pih, and it was here that the Chinese forces assembled in 1841
for the retaking of Chusan. The creek runs through the centre of the
island, but is not accessible to large boats at low water. There is another
creek near a village farther westward, but with these exceptions the
whole face of this side of Tae-shan is difficult of access in consequence of
the mud drying a long way off shore.

At Towtow point, the west end of Tae-shan, the hills come down to the
water's edge, and midway between it and Chang-pih are Miles and Ellicott
isles, with 5 and 7 fathoms in their vicinity. The Show islands, one of
which is high, lie 6 cables westward of Towtow point; the channel
between having 4 fathoms at low water. On the north side of Tae-shan
are four islets, which are too small to afford much protection in the N.E.
monsoon, but during the summer good anchorage will be found off the
town near the centre of the island. The bay is very capacious, but the
whole of it is shoal, and the tides are very strong.

▼oZiCAVO xstAWBS.— East Volcano, with four peaks on it, lies 6
miles westward of Towtow point, and is 4 miles long north and south*
East of its south point is an islet; and between it and the Show islands off.
Tae-shan are the two Becher islets, with steep cliffs, lying close together,
and also two low rocks 1^ miles North of the latter.

Vessels passing between the Show islands and East Volcano should
be careful not to stand too close to the latter, as the water shoals to 2
fathoms at l\ miles off shore. East 3 cables from its north point is a half-
tide rock, steep-to.

JUieiiorasre. — There are many sunken rocks among the group of islets

which extend 5^ miles off the north-west face of East Volcano, among

which vessels ought not to go, but they will find anchorage with shelter

from northerly winds on the south side of West Volcano, the southern of

le group, and nearest to the south group of the East Volcano, the anchorage

ting: to the northward of a flat rock, lying westward of the south point of
le latter. The northernmost islet of the group has a reef lying 1^ cables

^rthward of it,

BITBST vo&CAiro UGHT. — Since the 1st October 1872, there has been

hibited from a lighthouse recently erected on the western island or

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rock of the VolcaQO group, a fixed white light, elevated 93 feet above the
sen, which, in clear weather, should be seen a distance of 15 miles. The
illuminating apparatus is of the fourth order, dioptric. The tower is of
stone, 33 feet high, and painted black ; and the keeper's dwelling is painted

Tfina — It is high water, full and change, at the Volcano islands, at
1 Ih. 30m., springs rise 15 feet. The flood sets W.N.W. and the ebb E.S.E.
The velocity of the tide will be found to increase as Hang-chn bay
is approached, and in light winds a wide berth should be given to aU the
isi(>t8 hereabouts ; see also page 338.

■yjiii XB&ST, lying 4^ miles northward of the Show islands, has a
smaller islet on its north-west side and another on its south-east side. The
depths from 2 to 4 miles around Skead are unknown, but towards the
Rugged islands to the northward they vary from 5 to 7 fathoms.

MAmnmm mvUP. — A notice was published in the ''North China
Herald," in February 1857, of a rock or reef on which the merchant brig
Mariners Hope struck, when running between Tae-shan and Chin-san
islands towards Ning-po. The vessel was 12 hours on the reef, which was
stated to be about a third of a mile long, east and west, 2 cables broad, and
had 7 fathoms at her bows, with only 5 feet under her stern at low water.
Skead islet bore S J E., distant 3 miles ; south extreme of Chin-san E. J S. ;
large Volcano S.W. westerly; and extremes of Rugged islands from
N.N.W. i W. to N.N.E. \ E.

OBIV-SAV XB&AVD, 8 uules long east and west, lies W. by N. 13 miles
from the Beehive rock (page 323), and 5^ miles to the north-east of Tae-
shan. The channel south of this island and between it and the chain of
islands extending W.N.W. from the Fisherman's group is sometimes taken
during the northerly monsoon by vessels bound to Ning-po or Chusan, and
it appears preferable to that through Lan-sew bay, being broad and clear
of danger, with the exception of the Mariner reef just described. . There,
are several islets lying off the eastern and northern face of Chin-san ; the
best anchorage in the northerly monsoon is westward of the south-eastern
islet, between it and Chin-san ; and. there is also tolerable shelter on its
western side, off Pennell, the south-west point of Chin-san.

L AABB3&S aBOXrp. — Th^s important group of islands, lies off the estuary
of the Yang-tse kiai^g, directly in the track of vessels entering from the

East Saddle, the outer southern island of the group, is 32 miles north-
ward of Video, W* \ S. 16 miles from the Barren isles, and N. by W. \ W.
17 miles from Leuconna island (page 323). South Saddle on the west and
contiguous to it is rugged, the highest part, at the north-east end, rising
680 feet above the sea.

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A rock, which shows at low water, lies in the bay on the east side of
l^e island, with ihe highest part of the rocky islet close to the eastern .
point of the bay in line with a conical hill over the west point of East

Eight miles north-west of East Saddle is North Saddle island, 780 feet
high. Between them is False Saddle island ; and south-westward of North
Saddle are the Side Saddles, two narrow islets which will afford shelter,
but not as good as under South and East Saddle. North Saddle forms
the north end of the Chusan archipelago, and from it the Amherst rocks at
the mouth of the Yang-tse kiang bear N.W. | N. 26 miles, the soundings
gradually shoaling from 12 to 6 fathoms.

Ancboraffe. — ^The most convenient anchorage in the northern monsoon
amongst the Saddle group is under East Saddle, and in the event of being
caught in a southerly wind a vessel might run between the islands, taking
care to keep South Saddle close aboard, within 1 J cables, as there is a
large patch of 3 fathoms occupying the centre of the channel, And three
rocks awash north of it. Water can be obtained at the east end of East

TZSBS. — It is high water, full and change, at an hour before noon, and
the rise is 14 feet ; the tides are said to be regular (see note to page 351) ;
the flood setting to the N.W., the ebb to the S.E.

UGHT. — On the north-east extreme of North Saddle island there is
exhibited from a lighthouse, a revolving white light, attaining its greatest
brilliancy every minute, elevated 273 feet above the sea, and in clear
weather visible from a distance of 24 miles. The illuminating apparatus
is of the first order, dioptric. The tower, of brick, is 54 feet high, upper
part black, lower part white ; the keepers' dwellings are painted white.
To the - southward, south-eastward and south-westward, this light is
obscured by several of the more lofty islands of the Saddle and Parker
groups, which intercept it between the bearings of E. by N. ^ N., and
N.W. \ W. ; but it is visible in all other directions.

cmzxASRs BOC^j lyixig 4| miles:^South of the east part of East Saddle
island, uncovers at low tides, with the Barren islands bearing E.N.E., Leu-
conna island S.S.E, J E., and the summit of Senhouse island W. by N.
The lead will give no warning of approach to this danger, the "depth betngT
24 fathoms close-to.

BIT and CAlRVSllKOBB BOCKS are in the channel, 4 miles wide,
between the Saddles and the Pai*ker group next westward. Bit rock,

* See Admiralty Plan of South arid East islands of Saddle Group, by Lieutenant
Nolloth, E.N., 1842, No. I,4i8, scale, m r=x 2*2 inches.

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not much elevated above high water, and with a rock awash reported* to
lie one cable S.E. of it, is 4 miles West of South Saddle and South of the
chain of rocks and islets extending from Side Saddle.

Caimbmoi*e rock, a dangerous pinnacle not more than thirty or forty feet
in diameter, and on which the ship Cairnsmore was ipvTCcked in 1858, rises
almost perpendicularly from soundings of 12 £Bithoms at about 2^ miles
eastward of the cast end of Raffles island. When examined f the precise
depth on the pinnacle could not be ascertained, as the wreck, with her fore-
mast standing, quite covered it, but there cannot be more than 11 feet over
it at low water springs.

From the rock, the south-east point of Senhouse bore South ; a small
rugged rock lying close to the south-east point of Raffles, and in line with