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the point, S. W. by W. J W. ; and the northern rock of the group lying off
tlie north part of Chesney island, N.W. by W. J W.

OaatloB. — Vessels navigating the channel between the Saddle group and
Baffles island are cautioned to keep well over towards the Saddle islands to
avoid the above danger, as the lead will give no warning when approaching
it. In sailing north, when the Bit rock opens south of the South Saddle
they will be northward of the Cairnsmore ; and in sailing south, when the
same rock opens north of the South Saddle they will be southward of it.

9AMMMML XB&AVBS. — ^Raffles island, the largest of this group, bears
West 11 miles from South Saddle island. At half a mile from the north-
east point of Raffles and 2 miles W. by N. of the Cairnsmore is a sunken
rock. Senhouse island, with steep cliffs, lies If miles south-east of Raffles ;
there is a good channel between them, and anchorage will be found on the
south side of Raffles in the northerly monsoon.

Brooke island is a mile south-west of Senhouse island, and the channel
between should not be used, as the wind is liable to fail under the latter ;
there is, however, a good passage 2 miles wide west of Brooke, between it
and the Bonham isles. Off the north end of Raffles is Chesney island, from
which rocks and islets extend two miles farther norihward.J North-west
of Raffles, and distant from it 1| miles, are the Elliot islets, on the south-
west side of which H.M* brig Plover anchored, and found fair shelter,
with the wind blowing hard from the northward. From the Elliot, Gutzlaff
island bears W. by N j^ N., lOJ miles.

♦ Reported by Captain Dando, of the Bombatr Castle. Captain Charles Waddilove,
B.N., remarks that, on approaching from the south, the Bit rock is not easilj disHn-
guifihed at first; also that it has an oval shoal extending to the south-eabt, and a
remarkable patch of rock with one part standing upright like a mile-stone, a little to
the northward of it.

t By Lieutenant J. Ward, R.N., H.M. Yacht Emperor, 1858.

J For account of Tonbridge rock, reported to lie about 2 J miles northward of CSiesney
island, see Appendix, p. 575.



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CHAP.tiL] PARKEE, EUaaED, AND GUTZLAPP ISLANDS. 329

Morrisoii island, 7 miles south-west of Raffles, with smaller islands about
itf is TBij precipitous. The south-western islet of the Parker group is
2 miles S. bj W. of Morrison ; and east of this is a chain with deep water
passages between extending to Senhouse.

RVCK»»D XB&AVB8 lie W.S.W. lo miles from Raffles. Formed like a
pair of callipers, 10 miles in length, and opening to the westward, the group
affords shelter in both monsoons, but the tides set through it with consider-
able Telocity. Tajung, on the south, the largest and highest of the group,
is 660 feet aboTe the sea, and differs from the rest by being round-topped^
whereas the others are, as their name denotes, rugged, and barren. Under
the south side of an islet west of Tajung is Pirate bay, which affords snug^
anchorage during the northerly monsoon, and a better shelter than the bay
within the S.W. and N.W. horns of the group. A reef, which generally
breaks, lies off the east side of Pirate bay.

On the north side of this group the largest island is Tripoint, remark-
able for its triple peak ; and east of it is Spire islet, on which is a curious
pinnacle. The islands are inhabited by fishermen, and the varioos
anchorages are frequented by the ti'ading junks.

MMK and CBZCX8.— N.E. by N. 3| miles from the N.W. Horn of the
Rugged islands is an islet having a reef running out from the north-west
of it, with several rocks above water called the Hen and Chicks.

A shoal of only 10 feet has been reported to lie S.W. 7 miles from
Gutzlaff island, which would place it E. by N. ^ N. not quite 2 miles from
the Hen and Chicks. The chart shows indications of a bank of 5^ fathoms,
in this vicinity, extending from between 2 and 6 miles eastward of the
latter, with 6 to 7 fathoms around.

Oantioii. — Before the lighthouse was erected on Gutzlaff, the Hen and
Chicks were once mistaken for that island in thick weather, and the vessel's
course being shaped for the bar of the Yang-tse, she ran on shore near
cape Yang-tse. The outlines of the two are quite different, Gutzlaff being
smooth and round, the Hen square and rugged. The soundings also are
different, there being 6 fathoms inside or north-westward of the Hen and
Chicks, and 5 to 4 &thoms only inside Gutzlaff.



, 210 feet high, and N.E. ^ E. 8 J miles from the
Hen and Chicks, is a round, smooth-topped island, surmounted by a low
lighthouse, and the most conspicuous object off the southern entrance of the
Yang-tse kiang. A small islet lies half a mile N.N.E. of it, and '' it has
been reported* from many sources, that a bank with only 2 fathoms on
it, extends a mile from its western side."

* Commander C M. Mathison, R.N., H.M.S. Mariner, 1850.



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330 KIMAOB SOUND TO THE YANG-TSE KIANG. [ohap.vii.

&XOST. — A light is now exhibited from a lantern recently erected
on GutzlaiT island. The light is a fioced white light, elevated 270 feet
above the level of the sea, and in clear weather should be seen from a
distance of 20 miles. The lantern is 24 feet high and painted white ;
there is no tower. The illuminating apparatus is dioptric, of the third
order. When it is desired to attract the attention of passing vessels, a gun
or guns will be fired and signals made. During fogs, guns will be fired in
answer to the fog signals of passing vessels." Telegraph Station.



I ef tla« ABOSXFB&AOO. — ^In the Vernon Channel, at the south
end of the Chusan archipelago, it- is high water, i^ll and change, at
9h. 40m., and springs rise 14 feet; in Ting-hai harbour at llh. Om.,
springs rise 12 feet, neaps 9 feet ; at Footoo island atSh. 15m., springs rise^
12 feet ; in Lan-sew bay at lOh. Om., springs rise 13 feet; at the Volcano
islands at llh. 30m., springs rise 16 feet ; and at East Saddle island at
llh. Om., and springs rise 14 feet.

Under Luhwang island the flood sets to the N. W. at the rate of 2 knots
per hour, and the ebb to the S.E. at 1^ knots. In Duffield, Gough, and
Roberts passes, the first of the flood, at full and change, often comes from
the northward, and sometimes runs in that direction 3 hours before the
tide through Buflaloes Nose channel overcomes that through the Beak
Head, Vernon, and Sarah Galley channels. In Duffield pass the tide
sometimes runs 5 knots ; in Gough and Roberts passes it is not so strong ;
in Beak Head channel 4 knots is about the maximum ; and in Vernon
channel it has been known to run 6 knots. 05" Roundabout island the
tidal streams are not so violent, but the eddies take command of a sailing
ship at springs.

In the southern entrance to Sarah Galley channel, between Laoush and
Ousha islands, the flood ran W. by S. at the rate of 2 knots, the ebb E.S.E.
1^ knots ; the moon was then 18 days old. In the Cambrian pass between
Ousha and Chukea islands, H.M. steamer Vixeny with the Cambrian in
tow, could not stem the ebb.

In the Tower Hill channel, as before stated (page 314), with a strong
flood, vessels-have been swept to the westward, and carried by the tide
beyond Just-in-the-Way, wid even through Blackwall channel ; and after
rounding Tower Hill and entering Bell channel, many have been borne by
the ebb, between Tower Hill and Tea islands. Having rounded thei north
end of Tea island with a strong ebb, it is necessary to guard agaii^st its
taking the vessel through the Melville channel, and if not able td pass
northward of Macclesfield island, send the boats a-head and endeavour to
keep the vessel to the northward of Sarah island, where there is shoal



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CHAP.vii] TIDES OF THE CHUSAN ABCHIPELAGO. 331

water to anchor. In the channel between Bell island and Chusan, the tide
at times runs with gi*eat strength, so much so that on one occasion the
Madagascar steamer had great difficulty in stemming it.

In the Blackwall channel, the eddies are as strong as they are off
Roundabout island, taking a sailing ship round against both helm and
sails. In the Kintang channel, between Kintang island and Deadman
island, the tides sometimes run 4 knots.

In the northern part of the Chusan archipelago, with Lan-sew island
bearing West 5 miles, the flood ran to the W.N. W. the first hour, then
N.W. ; total amount of tide 11 knots. The ebb, S.E. by S. the whole tide \
total amount 5| knots.



APPROACHES TO TUNG KIVER AND NING-PO, AND HANG-CHU BAY.

KXiTTAno CBAimi,* between the south coast of Kintang island
(page 318), and the mainland, is about 2^ miles wide, but is narrowed
to 1^ miles by an extensive mud bank which borders its southern shore,)
and by a ledge of rocks extending 2 cables from Alligator point, the south
extreme of Kintang, which is marked by a beacon.t This mud bank dries,
upwards of three-quarters of a mile from the shore, is steep-to, and the lead
gives little warning; there are some small islets lying on its outer edge^
near the westernmost of which is a boat creek, from whence there is a paved
footpath leading to Tein-tung and so on to Ning-po, the whole distance
being about 18 miles, the last 6 miles of which may be performed by canal.

3ir8T-X]r-TBB''WA'r is a small islet, 20 feet high, with rocks extending
1^ cables from its S.S.E. side, lying in the eastern entrance of the Kintang;
channel. To the south-east, between it and Tygosan island there is four
anchorage in 12 to 16 fathoms, which will be found a convenient stoppings
place should there not be sufficient tide to take a vessel on to the river
Yung, the anchorage outside of which is much exposed.

Tbe BBJLDMAW is a square island lying W. \ N. 2\ miles from the.
south extreme of Kintang and 4^ miles westward of Just-in -the- Way.
The channel between it and Kintang is rather less than 1| miles wide,
with deep water and strong tides. The Ko channel, between the Dead-
man and the main, is half a mile wide, but is not recommended, as the
tides run with great strength, and the limit of shoal water on the south side
is not well defined.

* See Admiral^ Chart of Kintang Channel, No. 1,770, scale, m = 1 '2 inches,
t Painted white. From Alligator beacon, Long-nose point bears N.W. by W. about
7 cables, and Just-in-the-Way, E. \ S,-— Chinese Official List,



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332 XIMROB SOUND TO THE YANG-TSE SIANG. [chap, vil

B&ov9a WUHim mUI »6>oo«« — ^Blonde rock, a short half mfle northward
of the Deadman, shows at low- water springs* The marks for it ar^ the
easternmost islet off the north-east point of the Deadman in one with San-
•han islet S.E. ^ S. ; and the west end of Domb islet S. W. ^ W. Beacon
hill, at the east side of entrance to the riyer Ynng, in line with the citadel
bearing W.S.W., leads northward of the rock. It is marked bj a wooden
beacon with cage, said to be painted white.

THi-&a or B^AMM IB&AWB. off the Tnng riyer is 2} miles N. W. bj W.
from the Deadman ; there is a patch of 2} fathoms water at 6 cables
8.E. bjS. from its north end. H.M.S. Conway anchored W.S.W. of this
island, with Pas-jew, the western of the Yew islands, bearing South.
Hus anchorage in the summer season is safe, but during the autumn and
winter violent gales with thick weather rise rapidly, causing an uneasy
sea, in which a vessel will have difficulty in weighing her anchor;
consequently, the anchorage at Just-in-the-Way or that in Ta-outae
harbour, at the north-west end of Kintang (page 318), should be resorted
to at this season.

mqmAMM I8&AVB &IOST. — ^A ^ed white light, visible all round, at
an elevation of J 23 feet above the sea, is exhibited from a white octagonal
tower, 33 feet in height, on the summit of the island. It is dioptric, of the
fifth order. The lightkeepers' dwellings are painted white. A fog bell is
sounded once every 15 seconds in foggy weather.

WAM-mw or TZOXK zs&AVB abZOBT. — K fixed red light, visible all
round, at an elevation of 148 feet above the sea, is exhibited from an octa-
gonal tower, painted with alternate red and white vertical stripes, on Pas-
yew * isle, the western of the three islets fronting the entrance of the
river Yung. The light is of the sixth order, dioptric. A gongf is sounded
during foggy weather, giving five strokes in quick succession, at intervals
of about one minute. The town is 30 feet in height. The light-keeper's
dwellings are also painted in red and white vertical stripes.

TUVO bzvsbJ has its entrance fronted by three islets, called the Yew
islands or Triangles, which form three passages into the river. The
town of Chin-hai is built close to the . south-west side of Citadel hiU, on
the western side of entrance to the river, of which it is the maritime
town. From Chin-hai the river trends in a S.W. and West direction for
1 1 miles to Ning-po fu, and is about.2 cables wide, with depths varying
in mid-channel from 5 to 2 fathoms. Vessels of 17 feet draught can
proceed up to the city from Chin-hai at springs, at half-tide, and anchor

* Fas-yew is called Tiger island in the Chinese Official List of lights, buoys, and
beacons, corrected to March 1874. f ^^^'

X See Admiralty Chart of Yung Birer, No. 1,592 ; scale, m «=» 3 inches.



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CHAP. VII.] EASTERN APPROACH TO NING-PO. 333

off either face of* the foreign settlement. European pilots can be obtained
at Chin-hai.

The Yung separates into two branches at Ning-po fu. That from the
north-west, is a largo stream running d«wn through the districts of
Yu-yao and Tsie-kie, and is vanously called the Yu-yao or Tsie-kie branch
and the Shun river ; the other, the Funghwa branch, is from a S* by W.
direction, is barely a cable wide, and is crossed by a bridge of boats at
a quarter of a mile above the junction. As the turning at this junction,
from the river Yung into the Tsie-kie branch, is very sharp and difficult
to take, owing to the crowded state of the river and the flood stream
setting up the Funghwa branch, large vessels should anchor below it
and wait until it is clear of the native shipping. The British Consulate
is on the left bank of the Tsie-kie branch, opposite the northern part of
the city.

CZTT of VZHG-FO. — The Chinese city is immediately above the junc-
tion, its walls extending along the river side up both branches. It is
governed by a Tao-tai, who is also Superintendent of Customs. Its popu-
lation, numbering about 300,000, are industrious, enterprising, intelligent,
and mild in disposition. See Art. Ning-po in Appendix, page 444.

Trader — The principal imports consist ojf cotton and woollen manufac-
tures and opium, also of dried fruits, metals, rattans, drugs, oil, tobacco,
sugar, sandal wood, &c., amounting in 1871 to 2,165,518/. The exports
consist chiefly of green tea^ raw silk and cotton, and copper cash, also of
wheat, rice, fish, medicines, &c., amounting to 2,692,495/. Nearly four-
fifths of the whole foreign trade is done through Shanghai,

TIBBS. — ^At Chin-hai it is high water, full and change, at llh. 20m.,
and springs rise 12^ feet. At Ning-po fu it is high water at Ih. Om., and
springs rise 9 feet.

BIBBCTZOVS. — A vessel bound from Ting-hai harbour, Chusan to the
river Yung, should, after clearing the Bell channel, steer W. by S. for
Just-in-the-Way, recollecting that the south-east face of that islet is foul,
and that a reef extends a cable's length from Insular point, the north
extreme of Tygosan. As before stated (page 331), if the tide should fail,
there is fair anchorage to the south-east of Just-in-the-Way. From hence
the peak of Tower-hill island in line with Insular point will lead south-
ward of the rocks off Alligator point, after which keep over towards the
Bjntang shore, until well past the Deadman, or until Beacon or Look-out
lill at the eastern point of entrance to the river Yung is in line with the
citadel W.S.W., which will lead northward of the Blonde rock, and
southward of the 2J fathoms patch lying S.E. by S. 6 cables from the
lorth end of Tse-le.



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334 KIMKOB SOUND TO THE YANO-TSE KIAKG. [chap.tii.

It will be pradent for a stranger before entering the river Yung, if
unable to obtain a pilot to mark tbe Sesostris rock by a boat,* and also to
examine the entrance, for since the survey of this river in 1841 the stakes
and sunken junks which blocked the channel between the citadel and Peak
islet have been removed, and this may have caused some change in the
mud banks and soundings outside.

The Yew islands, as before stated, form three passages into the Yung
river. The eastern passage is between the islands and Look-out hill, the
east point of entrance, and the first danger in it is the Nemesis rock, which
lies E. by N. | N. a quarter of a mile from the siunmit of Ta-yew, and
is covered at half-fiood. By keeping Pas-yew open of the south point of
Ta-yew, this danger will be avoided.

Having passed the east point of Ta-yew, keep it and Seaou-yew aboard,
to avoid the Sesostris rock, with only 8 feet on it, lying in mid-channel,
until Peak islet (a remarkable rock on the east side of the river opposite
the citadel) is in line with Cone hill bearing S. W. ^ S., which leads west-
ward of the rock.t From the rock the Friendly islands (7 miles north-west
of Chln-hai) are in one with Talung island (a high bluff island beyond it)
bearing N.W.iW.'

Having cleared the Sesostrift, steer to pass between half and 1^ cables
southward of Pas-yew, and then for the point under the citadel, taking
care that the tide does not set the vessel over to the eastern bank
of the river, where the water shoals to 2 fathoms at half a mile off
shore.

The middle passage, or that between Seaou-yew and Pas-yew, is pro-
bably the best of the three. A mud spit, the extremity of which is marked
by a black buoy, extends north-westerly IJ cables from the west end of
Seaou-yew, and shoal water, 3 fathoms, some distance beyond it, but this
bank will be avoided by keeping the citadel open westward <tf the west end
of Pas-yew until a small hill on the southern shore bears S. by E. \ E.,
which is the leading mark through ; then steer as before so as to pass
southward of Pas-yew.



♦ A late notice from the Chinese authorities <15th May 1874) states that the buoy
is conical and 6 feet in diameter, and is surmounted by a red cage elevated 11 J feet
above the water line, also that it is moored in 6j fathoms, 90 feet N. by W. from the
peak of the rock, with Tiger island flagstaff W. | S. and Seaou-yew island summit
N.E. i N.

t The merchant barque Mohan is said to have struck on a rock having 9 feet on it
and 1 8 feet close-to, lying with Friendly island just showing northward of Pas-yew, and
the northern extreme of liook-out hill bearing East. — Nautical Magazine, 1S52, page
395.



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CHAP. VII.] NING-PO EIVEB. — NOETHEBN APPBOACH. 336

The passage between Pas-yew and Chung point under the Citadel, has
2 fathoms in it at low water, and is the broadest and best for small
vessels when the tide has risen sufficiently high for them to enter ; the
only danger being the Tigers Tail rock which covers at high tide, and
lies rather more than a cable N.W. JN. from the summit of Pas-yew,
with the south-east foot of the citadel hill in line with Cone hill, bearing
S.S.W. I W. ; the rock is now marked by the Tiger's Tail beacon, of iron,
surmounted with a cage. Chung point is steep-to on its east side, and
vessels will find good shelter under the fort.

Fishing stakes are moored to the west side of Peak island in deep water.
The bend of the river above Chin-hai is often rendered most difficult to
navigation by the immense number of junks at anchor there or dropping
with the tide. The passage between them is left so narrow that the
greatest caution is necessary to avoid collision. Above Chin-hai, keep
mid-channel, giving the points a good berth. Vessels drawing 12 feet
water should go up on the flood, as they are liable to take the ground in
many places.

Tb« coJkBT from Chin-hai trends in a north-west direction, and is
fronted by a mud bank which dries at low water for nearly three-quarters
of a mile from the sea embankment, and is steep-to. At the distance
of 7 miles from Chin-hai, and three-quarters of a mile fr*om the shore,
is a group of five islets, named Friendly idands, inside of which there
was shelter in 3 fathoms at the time of the survey, but the water is said*
to be shoaling fast. Take care when rounding the west end of the largest
islet to avoid a spit extending 3 cables to the S.E. from it.

At 4 miles farther to the north-west is Talung island, a high bluff",
920 feet high, forming the southern horn of the Tsien-tang estuary, or
Hang-chu bay.

OAimov. — ^From Talung the coast trends more to the westward, and
for upwards of 30 miles is fronted by a dangerous mud bank which, at
the distance of 8 miles from Talung, dries 7 miles off* shore, and on its
edge are some small knolls. The Kite transport was lost upon this bank
in 1840, the tide, which here begins to increase its velocity to 6 knots at
the springs, turning her over the moment she tailed on it.

BCZSB&B ORomrB. — N.by W. 3^ miles from Tse-le island (page 332)
is a Middle ground with less than 2 fathoms on it, to avoid which vessels
'i proceeding to the northward from the river Yung, must keep over

•wards the Kinlang shore, and if drawing 18 feet water, should not bring
.se-le to the southward of S.S.W. There is a passage to the southward

* Commauder T. H. Mason, B.N., H.1ii.S. Medea, 1S49.



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336 NIMROD SOUND TO THE YANG-TSE KIANG. [chap.to.

of this Middle ground for vessels of 15 feet draught, but there are two
patches, on which II.M.S. Contest grounded, lying in a N.W. direction
from Tse-le, one with 12 feet on it at 9 cables, and the other with only
5 feet at 2^ miles from the island.

VArao or South island, bearing N. | W. 14^ miles from Tse-le, is the
outer and largest of the first group of islands met to the westward when
Bteeriug to the northward from Chin-hai ; it is flat-topped, 216 feet ,
above the sea, three-quarters of a mile in extent east and west, and
cultivated. As the water deepens close around this island to 26 and 32
fiohoms, vessels cannot anchor near enough to get shelter, but the holding
ground is good. About half a mile north of it is a small rock which
alwa/s shows.

ITBBT BTOmx is a small islet lying W. \ N. 3| miles from Nanho, and
there are 8 and 9 fieithoms water between them.



2 miles farther west, lie north 9 miles
from Talung island, and although small, will afford shelter from northerly
winds. The channel between them and the dangerous mud bank just
described, is 4 miles wide, and the depth in it varies from 6 to 2 fathoms,
shoaling towards the bank. A reef shows at low water, at half a mile
N.N.W. of the western islet ; and a shoal of 2 to 3 fathoms extends 4
miles north-westward from it.



BBSHAV XB&AVBS form three distinct groups. East Seshan, the
easternmost group, lies North 18 miles from Nanho island, and consists of
one island about 400 feet high, with six islets around it. Middle Seshan
island, lying 6 miles W.N.W. of East Seshan, is the largest of a straggling
group consisting of eight other islets, the southernmost of which is a small
rock nearly awash, at nearly 4 miles south-east of the highest; the
western islet, House islet, is an abrupt cliff with. a house on its summit.
Neither of these two groups are sufficiently large to afford shelter ; but fair
anchorage will be found in the neighbourhood of the three islets forming
the West Seshan group, at 10 miles W.N.W. from Middle Seshan island.

FOO is&aTS. — In the centre of Hang-chu bay, at 14 miles W.S.W. of
Middle Seshan island, are five low rocky islets, the depth of water about
which is 5 to 6 fathoms.

CHAPV is a town of considerable importance, standing in a bight on
the north shore of Hang-chu bay, 17 miles south-west of West Seshan. It
is the port of Hang-chu fu, and the only one from which the Chinese carry
on trade with Japan. It will be readily known by the hills in its vicinity,
as well as by the islets which protect the roadstead off it from the
eastward ; on the eastern of these islets is a remarkable white house.



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L



CHAp.vn.] SESHAN ISLANDS — HANG-CHU BAY. 337

The town * lies at the hottom of a bay on the western face of the hills
forming its eastern point, and at low tide the mud runs off a long way from
the low land lying between these and some distant hills whose tops are