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bank is also deeper, although it shelves off very gradually to the north-

The breakers said to have been seen from the Steam Ship Costa Eica,
in lat. 32^ 10' K, long. 125° 3 E., have been carefully searched for, but
not found ; 25 fathoms were obtained on the spot, with even depths all
nd, in a space of 15 miles square.

lie Wortb Sntranoe, which, in 1842, was in lat. 31° 52^ N., long.
1° O' E., has never been examined since that date, when it was
y partially surveyed. It leads into the Yangtse, north of Tsung-ming,
ire the river flows into the sep. by what is called the North Branch.

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It 18 exceedingly probable that the banks and channels in this locality
have entirely changed since the survey, and on no account should vessels
approach it, even in the finest weather, under a depth of 8 fathoms.

THe wukxm w BmLvrmEBMAM CBAinra&.— In 1842 the waters of
the Yangtze divided at Bush island, the greater part flowing through the
southern channel, which then carried a good depth of water, but of late
years the latter has been filling up owing to the diversion of the greater
body of water to the northward of Bush island, which has had the effect
of altering entirely the features of the unnavigable mass of swatchways
and Hhallows which formerly existed in the space between Tsung-ming
and Tung-sha, and scouring out a deep, broad, direct channel, which,
fortunately for navigation, emerges at Shaweishan island. This channel,
when examined by Captain Charles Forbes, B.N., in 1869, was found to
have a uniform breadth of fully 3 miles, carrying a depth of 5 to 8 fathoms
in an almost direct course to the sea, its south point of entrance being
marked by Shaweishan island and light, from which its bar, of 4 fathoms
at low water and one mile across, extended between 3 and 8 miles W, by N.
from Shaweishan.

To enter, pass northward of Shaweishan, taking care to avoid a 16-feet
patch at the north-eastern extremity of the Tungsha banks, which lies
W. by S., 2^ miles firom the island, after clearing which, bring Shaweishan
on an East bearing, and keep it so until 15 miles distant, when the course
may be altered to W. by N. for the next 5 miles. Tsung-ming may then
be closed, and its shore passed at the distance of a mile or two until
abreast Bush island, but care must be taken not to overrun the above
distances on the flood {see tides, p. 352), nor to* dip Shaweishan light, if
at night, before hauling in for Tsung-ming.

8BAWBZ8BAW zsXiAWB, in lat. 31"" 24^' N., long. 122'' 14^' E. and
N.N.W.fW., 41 miles from North Saddle light, is a small steep-sided
island, 190 feet high, fronting the main entrance to the Yangtse, and
surmounted by a lighthouse. When bearing S.S.W. it makes as a flat-
topped island with the highest part to the eastward, and when bearing
West as a peaked island. When bearing N.W. ^ W., distant about 5 miles,
it appears like two islands, the westernmost being the smaller. It is
seldom seen when entering the river from the southward.

XAOBT. — A ^xed light, visible all round, is now exhibited from
the summit of Shaweishan island at an elevation of 229 feet above
high water, which in clear weather can be seen at a distance of 22
miles. The illuminating apparatus is dioptric, of the first order. The
lighthouse is round, painted black, and 55 feet in height, and the
lightkeepers' dwellings are painted white.

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5SST SOCX8, 10 feet above high water, lie S.S.E. 17J miles from
Shaweishan, and N.W |N., 23J miles from North Saddle light, and
N.N.E. ^ E. 24J miles from Gutzlaff. They are a dark cluster of rocks,
of which the largest is very prominent, and when first seen always makes
as a single black rock, but should there be numerous fishing boats cruising
in their vicinity, they might not be distinguished if not on the alert.

A&ZADxrs &OCX, with 9 feet* on it at low water, is apparently of the
same jagged formation as the Amherst rocks, from which it bears W. by S.
7 miles, and South .17^ miles from Shaweishan island. There are
5 fathoms water close round within 30 feet of the rock. With a strong
ebb tide, the position of this danger can easily be distinguished by the
commencement of discoloured water ; the brown water resembles the shape
of a comet, the nebula being over the rock. The Amherst rocks are
well in sight from it on a fine day, but if they be not seen, the Ariadne
rock is a great danger in entering, particularly on the northern and western
streams, for the lead is no guide.

and AZOBT, forming the southern conspicuous
object at the entrance of the Yangtse, is described on page 329. If kept on
a South bearing it will lead up to the outer part of the bar at the entrance
of the South channel in not less than 19 feet at low water springs, and on
a S. by W. bearing in not less than 21 feet.

CAPS TAxroTSB, forming the south point of entrance to the estuary,
is 17 miles W. by N. from Gutzlaff island. The whole coast here is very
low and quite level, having been entirely gained from the sea, and the mud
dries out half a mile at low water from the embankment. There is anchorage
in 4^ fathoms southward of the cape, and fair shelter from northerly winds,
unless the wind draws well to the eastward.f

The SOVTB BASTX. — ^The coast for 20 miles northward of cape Yang-
tse 18 fronted by an extensive mud bank which commences at the cape,
and its eastern edge or elbow, in 2 fathoms, was (in 1864) 13 miles
from the shore, and 12 miles N. by W.^ W. from Gutzlaff. From this
elbow the bank trends to the north-west and gradually narrows up to
Kintoan beacon. It is of very soft mud, and on its outer part large
floating fishing stakes in long rows, attached to nets, are generally
met with.

" Survey of 1864. There were only five feet on it in 1842.

f There was formerly a beacon on the cape, but it has long since disappeared, and
here is now no distinguishing mark whatever. H.M. surveying vessel Swallowy
i. Wilds, Esq., R.N., commanding, anchored off it for the purpose of ascertaining the
»sition of the beacon, but the natives could give no information as to its existence.

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m« SOimi BVTBAVOB of th^ TA«o-Tsa« which is the recognised
channel and fairway into the river, is bounded to the southward bj the
Soath bank, just described, and to the northward by the south^n edge
of the TungHha banks, and the shallows extending therefrom in the direction
of the Ariadne and Amherst rocks.

Tb« aUTMi MJkM, about 5, narrowing to 3, miles in breadth and 8 or 9
in length, has according to the Admiralty surrey of 1864, not less than
20 feet least water at its outer part, nor less than 18 feet at its inner end,
8 miles below the light vessel ; but seldom will so little be found, and
although it has extended seaward since 1842, the alteration is almost

me TmrOAXA XIOBT vassal^ painted red, with the word Tungsha
on her sides, is moored in 3^ fathoms at low water in the entrance of the
river, at the inner part of the bar, under the North bank. She has one
mast, surmounted by a 10-feet black ball. She exhibits a revolving light,
giving white flashes at half minute intervals, elevated 40 feet above the
sea, which in clear weather can be seen 11 miles. Her position is in lat.
31^ r 2(y' N., long. 122° 1' E., with Gutzlaff S. by E. f E., Shaweishan
N.E. by N., and Kintoan lighthouse N.W. by W. ^ W.

A gun will be fired from her to attract attention when vessels are
observed running into danger, and the course which should be steered will
be signalled by the Commercial Code. In foggy weather a steam fog-horn
will be sounded at intervals of ten seconds. When necessary to lower the
lantern for trimming, a small light will be hoisted and a flash light burned.

MxmTOAM &ZOKTHOUSB, formerly known as Kintoan Beacon, and
painted black,* is erected on the southern shore of the Yaiigtse,
N.W. by W. ^ W. 16J miles above the Tungsha light vessel. Prom it
is exhibited a flxed and flashing light, the flashes occurring every half
minute, at an elevation of 70 feet above the sea, which can be seen in clear
weather a distance of 14 miles. The iUuminating apparatus is dioptric, of
the fourth order.

The light does not show over the shallow water of the South bank, so
that if standing in towards the south shore, eastward of Kintoan, it will be
lost sight of on a N.W. | W. bearing, which is a warning to tack or keep
more to the northward.

Xlntoaii Small Beacon and Airbt. — This beacon is a wooden tripod,
40 feet in height, and situate 5 miles N.W. J W. from Kintoan lighthouse
It carries b, flxed light showing white over the channel to the south-eas
ward, or between the south shore and the bearing of W. by N. ^ N., an<

* Chinese Official List, Marcli 1874.

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red across the channel towards Blockhouse shoal, between the same
bearing and S. by W. ^ W. The^white light can be seen in clear weather
from a distance of 6 miles, and the red light about 4 miles. The lights
which is elevated 32 feet, is carried on a wooden tripod 40 feet high.

Beacon Spit * is a 3 £a.thoms patch in the centre of the fairway^ east of
Kintoan lighthouse, and a little detached from a 3 £Etthoms spit, which in
1869 was growing out from the South bank. The channel was further
narrowed to less than a mile by a similar spit extending from the north
side. The Kintoan bar which first appeared in 1862, N.E.b7E. of the
lighthouse, appears to be extending both ways, and the channel to be

Tbe TUVCWBA BAITX, forming the north side of the South or fairway
channel, is rapidly growing up. Its south-eastern spit, which borders the
entrance and Outer bar, extends about 8 miles eastward of the light vessel,
•with a depth of 13 to 16 feet, and it may be cleared by not bringing the
light vessel to the westward of N. \ N. The south-western edge of
the bank is extremely irregular, and being steep-to should be approached
with caution ; it forms a complete breakwater to the channel, which affords
secure anchorage everywhere in ordinary weather.

House Island* formed on the Tungsha bank, has extended considerably,
and is now a leading feature on the north. The House on the eastern part
of this island bears East 9 miles from Kintoan beacon, and N.W. | N.,
9^ miles from the light-vessel ; the bank extending from the west side is
very steep-to, and should be approached with great caution. The bank is
evidently growing to the south-east from this island, for where the survey
of 1842 gives 3 J fathoms, there are now only 10 feet.

Bioek House Island is N. by W. ^ W. 6^ miles from Elntoan lighthouse,
and W.^W. 10 miles from House island. It is covered with
grass and low bushy trees, and is becoming larger every year. To the
eastward about 3 miles is Grass island, lately formed, and three others to
the northward. It is probable that in a few years these will become
united, and Grass island and House island become connected and form one
large island.

Bxocx BOVSB 8HOA&. — The navigable channel between Kintoan

lighthouse and Block House island has for some years past undergone a

series of important changed, the latest formation being Block House shoal,

niddle ground of 6 feet water, 7 miles in extent, the south point of which

larked by a buoy) is N.E. by N. of the lighthouse. The channel north-

ard of the shoal is not now navigable, whilst the fairway which lies

i^tween it and the south shore, and which in 1869 first became narrowed

♦ Said to have disappeared in 1871. See note on page 858.

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350 THE YANGTSE KIANG El^TBANGE. [cbap. tih.

to less than half a miley is reported to be filling up. There has been no
pennanencj in the character of the channel at this part, since the main
stream of the Tangtse began to open out a new and broad passage north of
the Tungsha bank, mariners must therefore trust more to the pilots than to
the chart.

Saoy^-— A red iron buoy, 6 feet in diameter, surmounted by a staff with
a truncated, pyramidal cage, 12 feet above the sea, has been moored on the
south-east extremity of Block House shoal, in 10 feet at low water. From the
buoy Kintoan lighthouse bears S.W.J S., and Small beacon W.N» W. westerly.

OUTSB AWCBOBAOB. — In fine weather a vessel may anchor anywhere
between Gutzlaff, Amherst, and the Saddle islands, but should always have
one of them in sight, so as take a good departure. It is recommended
that an anchorage should not be taken at night under the Saddle islands,
during the N.E. monsoon, unless there are appearances of bad weather, as
it wiU frequently take all the daylight of the next day to work up to the
entrance. In the summer season, if bad weather is approaching, which the
barometer usually foretells, a stranger should not attempt to run in unless
certain of getting within the bar, or making the light vessel ; but either
an anchorage should be sought under these islands, or the vessel kept at
sea or standing off and on, as it is dangerous to enter the river when a
gale is coming on. It is preferable to anchor rather than to stand out to
sea, as the weather is sometimes thick and foggy, the tides strong, and the
vessel's position not easily ascertainable under such circumstances.

The anchorage under South Saddle is described on p. 327 ; the best
anchorage at the Parker group is northward of Senhouse, the south-eastern
island, in 10 fathoms ; or between Senhouse and Raffles in 6 to 7 fathoms,
all the approaches being apparently steep-to.

VSBMB4 — It is high water, full and change, in the vicinity^ and eastward
of Gutzlaff island, at lib. 30m. ; and springs rise about 15 feet. The
highest tide occurs on the second day after foil and change. At the ligbt-
vessel at the entrance of the Yangtse it is high water at noon, and springs
rise 16 feet, neaps 11 feet, and neaps range 7 feet. At the entrance of the
Wusung river it is high water at Oh. 30m. j springs rise 15 feet, neaps 10,
At Shanghai it is high water at Oh. 40m. ; springs rise 10 feet, neaps 7
feet, and neaps range 4 feet.

The tidal streams at the entrances of the Yangtse from Gutzlaff to
Shaweishan rotate, performing one revolution (with the sun) in 12 hours.
To the southward of Gutzlaff the tides are also rotatory, but not with that
regularity which is observed about the Amherst rocks. There is also
reason to believe, although the fact has not yet been conclusively esta-
blished, that they preserve the same character some distance to seaward,

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and far to the northward.* During its revolution the direction of the
stream changes about two points every hour, excepting when veering from
N.W. to N.E. about the time of high water, and from S.E. to S.W. about
the. time of low water, when the change is more rapid. The northern
stream for the most part makes and completes the flood, and the southern
stream for the most part makes and completes the ebb, although the first
part of the flood is made by the southern stream, and the first part of the
ebb by the northern, called sometimes " tide and half tide."

Direotton and Velocity of Tide. — At 6 miles above the light vessel
where the stream is confined within its banks, the flood sets N.W. by W.,
the ebb S.E. At the light vessel the movement is rotatory, although
somewhat influenced by the direct stream of the river ; they are exhibited
in the accompanying table.

The set on the South bank, which occurs on the last hour of ebb and
first hour of flood, and which was described by earlier navigators as one of
the chief dangers to be guarded against when entering the Yangtse, has of
late years scarcely been noticed at all.

In the river the streams are sharp in turning, the flood making at
Ih. 30m. after high water, and the ebb at 2h. 30m. after low water.f
There is very little slack, the ebb running 7 hours, and at springs, attaining
during that period a distance of 24 miles ; the period of greatest velocity
5 knots, being the 5th hour after high water. The flood runs 5 hours, and
with much less strength, seldom exceeding a velocity of 4 knots, the
distance attained during the whole tide being 16 miles. On the change day
the ebb ran 20 miles, and the flood 10 miles on the whole tide. This was
well within the banks, and therefore in the direct influence of the river
stream. In northerly winds, if strong, the southeriy set at the first of
the flood is frequently felt as high up as the Tungsha bank is covered.

At the light vessel the velocity of the stream seldom exceeds 4^ knots
at springs, or 2^ at neaps ; and the duration of the maximum strength
never exceeds two hours. In the early part of the year it has been
recorded as low as 3^ knots at springs, and 1 knot at neaps, and on one or

* Mr. G. B* F. SwaiB, Master of H.M.S. PUot, 1850, states that the revolving tide has
been noticed as far out as the Saddle islands, whilst others assert that the stream when
fully made there sets N.W. by W. and S.E. by E. These statements ai*e not contradictory.
Lieut. C. Bullock, B.N., found the tides to rotate, 120 miles north of the entrance, at
70 miles from the land.

Mr. George Stanley, Master, B.N., H.M. surveying vessel Swallow. The tide register
t at the light vessel in January 1857, shows this change to take place at from 30m. to
30m. after high and low water, on both tides alike. It may, therefore, be inferred
t when the river is in inundation, the ebb has greater duration after low water than
the winter and spring months ; nevertheless it is still doubtful whether this influence
felt much below the light vessel.

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[chap. TnL

two occasions as slack during a great part of both tides.* The ebb is
accelerated by freshes and during the period of the summer inundation.
N.E. gales and other strong winds may increase or retard the veloglj^of the
stream or its time of making, but it is doubtful whether they seSibly idter
its direction, for it is more probable that the surfiioe water only is affected.

The velocity of the rotatory stream rarely exceeds 4 knots at springs,
and 2^ knots at neaps, the continuance of the maximum rate being for one
hour, or two at most, and abating to about one knot at change of tide ; its
direction is shown in the accompanying table.

To the southward of Gutzlaff, where there is little rotation, the body of
the tide sets W.N.W. and E.S.E., attaining a maximum velocity of 5 knots
Extending seaward, the tides become more rotatory with diminished force,
but towards Hang-chu Bay, they become more direct, and their velocity
gradually accelerated by the immense indraught into that bay.

Table showing the direction and velocity of the tidal streams at the
entrance of the Yangtse kiang.

Time of


8 Miles North
of Gutzlaff.

Lightship at



outer Bar.







At H.W.


N.N.W. li

N.N.W. li

N.W. 4

N.N.W. 2i

1st hr. ebb


North U

N.byW. 1
N.N.E. U


North 4

2nd „



North Ih

N.E. 2

Srd „


E.byS. 2

E.N.B. If


E.N.B. 2i

4th „


E.S.E. 3J

E.byS. 2


E. byS. 3

5th „



E.S.E. 2i


E.8.F.. 2

6th „


8.E. 2i

S.E.byS. 1}
S.byW. 1



At L.W.




South 1

Isthr. flood


S.byB. li


S.S.W. 8

2nd „

S.W. 3

W.S.W. 2

W.byS. U

West li

S.W. 3i

Srd „


W.N.W. 3

W.byN. 1}
W.N.W. 1|

W.byN. 3

W.S.W. 3i

4th „

West 4

N.W. 2J

West 3

6th „


N.W. by W. 2

N.W, 4

W.N.W. 2i

6th „


N.W.iN. 2i


N.W. 4

N.W. 2

Also at the Amherst, 1st hour flood S.E., 2nd hour South, I knot.
The foregoing table compiled from various sources will afford the best
guide to a knowledge of these rotary tides, and will be found valuable
should it be deemed desirable or necessary to stand in and make the light
ship in thick weather. If a good departure be obtained before the outer
islands or lights are lost sight of, the entrance may be confidently steered
for, provided the course and distance run be kept corrected each hour, or
oftener, by making allowance according to the table. Perfect reliance may
be placed upon the direction of the stream, as given therein, which will

* llde register kept at the lighl^vessel, by P. Bobinson, Master, for the Office of
Maritime Customs, Shanghai, 1856 and 1857.

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<»AP. Tin.] TIDES. — ^PILOTS. — ^DIBEGTIONS. 353

seldom be a point in error, but the rate of the stream is a matter of
judgment, and though capable of much precision, can only be correctly
a|>proi|i^ited by a carefhl consideration of all the attendant circumstanees,

vtaboiS. — ^Properly qualified pilots are licensed by the harbour master of
Shanglfaai. No sailing directions can do away with their usefulness to the
stranger, where the safety of the vessel depends so much upon a correct
knowledge of the tides. The pilots can be obtained day or night, except
when all are distributed on board vessels, when the schooners anchor near
Ihe light-vessel.

The cruising stations are : Outermost Station — between Leuconna island.
Barren islands, and East Saddle island : Middle Station — ^between North
Saddle island, Elliot island, and Amherst rocks: Inside Station — ^from
the light-vessel to 8 miles outside.

The charges established under a code of regulations, by agreement
between the Chinese government and the foreign ministers, and which
came into force on the 1st January 1867, are as follows : —

For steamers or sailing vessels in tow, to or from the light-ship, for each
foot of draught, 4 taels ; for sailing vessels not in tow, to or from Gutzlaff,
5 taels, and to or from the light-ship, 4^ taels. Two-thirds of the above
rates respectively, shall be charged upon vessels proceeding from sea to
Wusung only, or vice versdy instead of to Shanghai.

The Shanghai pilot company's schooners are known by a black bcUl with
' number underneath in foresail and mainsail ; flag white and red horizontaL
The Mercantile pilot company's vessels have white hulls and the same
flag with the word ** Pilot '* on mainsail*

BIBXC7TIOV8. — Vrom tbe Soutbward* — If bound to the Yangtse during
tiie S.W. monsoon, endeavour to make the island of Video (page 323),
and haying passed eastward of it at the distance of a mile or two, steer
about N. by W., making some allowance for tide, which (although in this
locality little is known accurately respecting it) may be taken to set west-
ward on the flood, and eastward on the ebb. This course will lead 2 to 3
miles eastward of Beehive rock, 13 miles distant, and a further run of
18 miles will bring a vessel up to the passage between the Saddle and
Parker Groups, which is the most direct route into the Yangtse kiang.
To avoid the Caimsmore sunken rock (page 328), the only known danger
in the passage, hug the Bit rock, from which to the Tungsha light- vessel
the course is N.W.^ W., dose along the south bank, and across the centre
o' 'he bar.

preferring for any reason to pass outside the Saddle islands, a E.
c se should be steered from Video, the only danger to be avoided being

* There is no information on the subject of pilot boats later than 1S65.
80251. Z

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351 'npi YANQTSE KXiLKG BNTBANCE. [<mp. yhi.

CbOden rock ({Mige 827)» 4^ miles south of the south-eastem extremity of.
East Saddle, The Saddles may he rounded as convenient, and after passing
the North Saddle light it may be brought to bear astern S.E.b7E. ^E.
Easterly, the opposite course to which will lead through the fedrway of the
bar up to the light-yesseL

During the N.E. monsoon, if not intending to call at Ning-po, Yessds
should pass eastwvd of Chusan, and enter the archipelago to the northward
of that island. It Is best, however, to endeavour to make the Saddle
islands as being the most weatherly land-faU, but if imable to fetch so £»
to the northward, and the parallel of 30° N. has been reached, the high
dome-shaped island of Video, 500 feet high, will then be a conspicuous