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object, for it may be seen in clear weather about 30 * miles ; it has a
remarkable white cliff, which shows when the island bears N.W. by N.,
and in thick weather any cast below 30 fathoms will point out that the
vessel is in the vicinity of this or the neighbouring islands, provided she
be southward of the Great Yangtse bank, page 345* The most remarkable
land to the southward of Video is the island of Chukea, ou which there is
a round- topped peak 1,164 feet high ; and eastward of Chukea are several
islets (page 308), of which Tongting, the outer one, is about 40 feet high,
with detached reefs south-west of it.

If unable to turn to windward, anchorage will be found on the southern
side of Ousha island, in the entrance to the Sarah Gralley channel, page 307.
If unable to weather the north end of Chukea, the south side of Footoo ">
island will be found the best stopping place ; the anchorage in 12 fathoms
is under the hill, with three chimneys on it ; the mud bank from the shore
is very steep, shoaling quickly from 12 to 2 feithoms. From this position,
in a handy vessel the best route will be through Lansew bay, and through
the channel between Lansew and Tae-shan islands (page 320) ; but large
vessels had better pass eastward of Video, and enter the archipelago farther
to the northward. If unable to fetch to windward of the Barren isluids,
and should the tide or weather be unfavourable for entering the river, a
convenient anchorage can be found among the Saddle group, which with
other available anchorages are described on page 327.

It may be here noticed that as the entrance of the Yangtse is somewhat
difficult for a stranger to make even in fine weather, the difficulty is greatly
increased if it be necessary to beat up against a contrary wind, especially in
bad weather ; no vessel should therefore attempt to do so without a pilot,
or unless it be sufficiently clear to ensure keeping the islands in sight until
they dip. But with a leading wind and a good depaiture either from
Gutzlaff or the Amherst rocks, together with strict attention to the
course and distance made good (^see tides) a vessel may stand in for the
light vesseL



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CHAP.vin.] DIEECTIONS FOR ENTERING. * 356



i the irorttiward or Bastward. — Vessels bound into the Yangtse
from the gulf of Fe-chiU are recommended to make Shaweishan, not
approaching the coast ^thin the depth of 15 fathoms until mthin 60 miles
of that island, when the water may be shoaled to 10 fathoms with safety,
by which means there will be no difficulty in ftirther making the Amherst
rocks, in daylight. In N.E^ winds, if strong, and the thick weather which
usually accompanies them, there is a great probability of oyerrunning th^
distance owing to the strong southerly set (notwithstanding that the tides
are revolying), and so getting to leeward, and haviug to work up from the
Saddle islands. Although it is better to do this than incur any risk, it is
suggested in such a case that if the Amherst be not made before dark,
especially if Shaweishan or its light be not seen, the vessel should be hoye-
to till dawn, sufficiently far to the northward to allow for drift and a set of
a mile an hour, keeping a careful reckoning.*

In N.W. winds and fine weather, the Amherst should always be made.
In November and December, when these winds prevail, vessels from Japan
should keep well to windward, for if they are of long continuance there
is every probability of being driven to leeward of Video ; in such case
should the weather be thick the Great Yangtse bank, page 345, will be a
good guide in approaching the entrance of the river, owing to the nature
of the bottom, which is of clean river sand.

Whether intending to enter by the main or southern channel, Shaweishan
is the best land&Il to make when bound from the northward or eastward.
By keeping it on a N.N.W. bearing it will lead towards the Amherst
rocks, which may be passed at half a mile on either side. These rocks
bearing E.N.E. astern will lead south of the Ariadne rock, distant 7 miles
from them ; when a west course may be steered till the light-vessel heaves
in sight, making allowance for the state of the tide. Should a vessel in
thick weather find herself being set over to the Tungsha bank, she should
immediately steer South for the channel and anchor.

BVTSSnra tbe RIVB&. — To a stranger the entrance of the Yangtse
in hazy weather is somewhat embarrassing, for after the outer islands are
lost sight of neither land nor marks are visible, but in clear weather the
navigation is not difficult by day, and since the establishment of the
three fine lights on the North Saddle, Gutzlaff and Shaweishan islands,
it is equally easy, if not more so, at night.

Leaving the Saddle islands keep North Saddle bearing S.E. by E. J E.

sterly until Gutzlaff bears South, distant 16 to 17 miles, recollecting

at if Shaweishan shows plainer than Gutzlaff, the vessel is too far to

* H.M.S. Dove, thus hove to, bore up at daylight to make the Amherst rocks distant
9n by reckoning 30 miles ; at daylight they were distant only 9 miles.

z 2



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366 THE TANGTSB KIAKG ENTBANCE. [chap.tiii.

the northward, and in danger of entering a false channel through the
TnngBha hanks 5 to 7 miles northward of the fairway, and maj be
dangerously near to the Ariadne rock, in which case the Amherst rocks
wiU abo be yisible. Gntslaff, 210 feet high, when first seen, will appear
like a small round lamp, and its lantern, which is mounted on a tripod
painted white, may not be risible. Shaweishan, 196 feet high, a little
kuger than Gntzlafl^ and surmounted by a lighthouse painted black, is
not often seen when a vessel is in the right position for approaching the
bar and fairway.

With Gutslaff on the above bearing and distance, if the day be clear,
the light-vessel will be visible from the mast head (she is rarely seen
beyond 7 miles from the deck), when steer for her between th& heanngs
of W.N.W. and N.W. to cross the bar, making due allowance for tide, the
channel course being N.W. by W. As long as North Saddle and Gutzlaff
are jn sight, the reckoning should be tested frequently by cross bearings,
so as to verify the allowance made for tide, and thus give greater confidence
in entering the river.

In working up from the Saddle islands, do not bring GutzlafT eastward
of South, until 16 miles northward of it, when it may be brought to bear
S. by E. The vessel will then be on the edge of the South bank, and
may. now stand to the westward, nearly into her own draught, bearing
in mind the direction of the streams (page 352). All vessels should
keep as near as possible to the South bank, the edge of which, from below
the light*vessel up to Kintoan beacon, appears remarkably even.

The foregoing directions are for vessels of about 18 feet draught, and
will lead over not less than 20 feet at low water springs ; small craft may
close with the South bank when Gutzlaff bears south, distant between 12
And 15 miles, and steer up with the lead for their guide, for the edge of
the South bank is very even and may be depended on nearly up to Kintoan
lighthouse. Or, having passed Gutzlaff island, if the weather be fine, a
vessel may safely steer in with the island bearing S. by E., astern, and this
will lead over the eastern edge of the South bank in about 15 feet at low
water, or 31 feet at high water springs.

Too much attention cannot be paid to the set of the streams at the
entrance of the Yangtse, and also to the lead. So long as the weather is
dear Gutzlaff forms an admirable mark, and it has only to be kept
westward of South until it is distant 16 miles, when a vessel may steer
N.W. by W. for the light-vessel ; but in thick weather and a working
breeze with a variable tide under her lee, it is difficult to ascertain when
16 miles have been made, and she will be liable to be horsed over to the
Tungsha banks, where several vessels have been wrecked. These hanks



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caiAP.vin.] DIRECTIONS FOR BNTERING. 357

should alwajs be approached with caution, as their southern edges give
no waniingy unless it be hy the lead indicating hard bottom ; and, as the
tide may be setting across and not into the rtvery it will be as well to
ascertain the vesseFs true rate over the ground by using the deep sea
lead for a ground log instead of the log-ship, and taking the opposite to
the bearing of the line as the course made good.

Whepever the ground log is not used, it is recommended to allow hourly
for the tides, as given in page 352, both as to direction and velocity.
Experience has shown that the light-vessel can be made by following this
method, always being careful to verify the ship's position by bearings of
Gutzlaff and the Saddle islands as long as they remain in sight. The
break on the head of the Tungsha banks will sometimes be seen after
passing the Ariadne rock, but in thick weather the southern side of the
channel is no doubt the one to border on. At night or in thick weather
the lead will be a useful guide. The bottom on the north bank is hard
mud with sparkling grains of sand, but soft in a few places. On the
south bank the bottom is soft^mud with dark gray sand.

Mr. George Stanley R.N., remarks that the nature of the bottom is
very little guide, for after six weeks' sounding* it was impossible to detect
any difference between mid channel, and the North and South banks ; the
only positive diflference being that sand with black specks may be found
on the Tungsha bank, but never on the south bank. A stranger taking
it as an infallible rule, that sand with dark specks are to be found on
the North bank, would at once be in doubt if the lead showed two or
three successive casts of brown mud.

Captain Charles Cribble remarks that, although there may be little or no
difference in the appearance of the bottom on the North and South banks,
there is a difference in the feel of the bottom, that on the South bank being
Tery soft, that on the North hard.

Utbt veMel to vgrwuvat^ Biver. — The light vessel is moored over
against the North side of the channel, off a bight in the North bank, and a
mile below is a 9-feet spit of the Tungsha, the extremity of which in
17 feet is half a mile E.S.E. of her. Vessels should therefore pass to the
south of the light vessel, from which the channel course is N.W. by W.;
but if beating up after passing the light^vessel, tack in 3^ fathoms when
standing towards the South bank. The deepest water is near and along
the southern edge of the North bank, but in standing towards it do not

ut for the second shoal cast to go about. Generally the edge of the
forth bank is lined with heavy fishing stakes, planted in 4 and 5 fathoms,
ith only a few feet water a ship's length inside them.

♦ Daring the survey of 1S64.



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358 THB YANGTSE KIAKG EKTEAKOE. [chaf.tul

The house on House island and the light-vessel are excellent marks for
fixing a ship's position bj cross bearings until Rintoan lighthouse is wdl
in sight, irliieh it will be when the hull of the light-vessel is just dipping.
At night bring the light- vessel astern on a S.E. byE. bearing, and keep it
so till the light dips ; this will lead well over on the noriii ^de o! the
channel, but in the best water oppoMte Beacon spit, E.^S. from the
Kintoan lighthouse, where the channel is much contracted.^ Here the
south shore will be plainly in sight. When the lighthouse bears W. by S.
steer W.N.W., so as to pass about half to three-quarters of a mile south
of the Blockhouse shoal buoy, and then- stand up channel again on a
N.W. } W. course, bearing in mind that the edge of the South bank is less
steep than that of Blockhouse shoal. As previously mentioned, the
channel above Kintoan is reported to be shoaling and the banks to be
constantly shifting, so that a stranger must trust rather to the pilots tlian
the chart.f

At night it is preferable to hug the south shore near the lighthouse,
passing it at a mile. When about 1^ miles above it the white light of the
small beacon will be in sights and if in mid-channel it will be found to
' change to red when Kintoan light is S.S.E. Cross bearings should be
frequently taken. Blockhouse island will soon rise after passing Kintoan
lighthouse, having at first the appearance of a cluster of fishing boats, and
gradually showing itself a low island covered with bushy trees. When the
large house on this island bears North, the vessel will be in the narrowest
part of the channel, which here is only 4 cables wide.

After passing Blockhouse, the south shore, the bank of which is steep-to,
should be gradually closed to not less than a mile, and kept at that distance
until the marks and buoy for Wusung spit are seen, and should not be
approached under 5 fathoms. It is then necessary to keep well out into
the channel and get Paushan pagoda, a peaked tower near the small walled
town westward of the entrance, on a W. by N. ^ N. bearing, which will lead*



♦ In 1869. The only information subsequently receiyed concerning the alterations of
the channel, is contained in the following extract : — '* The first sign of land will be three
remaiicable trees on the soath bank of the river, 7^ miles below Kintoan Ifghthoose and'
marked * Clomp ' on the chart. To the south-westward of House island the spit ex-
tends in a S.E. direction, the bottom on tiiat side being hard. Blockhouse sboal has
extended in a S.E. direction, and also on its south-west side. When close to Kintoan
lighthouse keep the south shore about three-quarters of a mile distant, and follow
the trend of the land until the red buoy on Wusung outer bar is sighted." — Bemark
Book of C. H. Stuart Douglas, Nayigatiag Lieutenant, B.N., H.M.S. Avon, M&y
1871.

f These directions refer to the channels as they existed in June 1869, and as they are
shown on the Admiralty charts corrected to that date^



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CHAP.vm.] ENTRANCE OF WUSITNG RIVER. 869

up to the Wusung river, juSt dearing the dangerous Bhelf which bwders
the j^ore eastward of the entrance. Wusung lighthouse will also be in
sight just over the point after passing the Blockhouse shoal, but the red
light it exhibits at night down the channel of the Yangtse is not visible
more than 5 miles. If bound to Shanghai, the directions are continued on
page 862; those for continuing the voyage up the Yangtse kiaiig are <sn.
page 370.

WUSUNG RIVER AND SHANGHAI.

The Wusung river,* on which is situate, 12 miles from its entrance, the
great commercial port of Shanghai, is about 60 miles in length, and is the
lowest tributary of the Yangtse kiang. It flows from the lake Tien-shan
or Miau, through which is a water communication with the Grand canal,
leading northward to the important city of Suchau, and southward to
Hang-chu fu. Its real name is the Wongpu or Hwangpu, but it has taken
Hs commonly received name from the small town of Wusung situated
about a mile within the entrance of the river on its left bank, and on the
north side of a creek also leading to Suchau.

OVTSR BAR and 'WTrsuxra 8VOT. — The outer bai* of the Wusung
river commences about a naile from the entrance, carrying not less than
20 feet at low water springs, with occasional deeper soundings, over a
narrow channel between the shallow and extensive mud flats which border
both shores of the river at its mouth. The north side of the bar channel
is marked by the Spitf buoy on the edge of the western shoal about half a
mile above its extremity. This is a large red and bla4:k, vertical striped,
nun buoy, 8 feet in diameter. It lies in 21 feet at low water springs,
with Paushan point N.W. by W. and Wusung lighthouse S.W. by W.

Vessels should cross the outer bar with Wusung lighthouse bearing
S. W. by W. \ W. westerly, so as to avoid the dangers on either side, the
chief of which is the Lismore wreck,J in 2 fathoms, on the edge of the
south flats. The channel subtends an angle of about 13^° from the light-
house, so that a course on a S. W. by W. J W. bearing of it will hug the
northern flats, and a course on a W.S.W. bearing of it the southern.

WUiiUJi O KzaBT and Kelt Bank. — The western side of the mouth of
the river has a grassy embankment pierced with embrasures, with a ruin at
the point of entrance ci^ed Fort A. A quarter of a mile above Fort A. is
Wusung lighthouse, a square tower of brick 45 feet high, with a total
hdght of 58 feet. It exhibits a fixed light, showing white over the outer

♦ See Admiralty Chart of Wusung river, with enlarged Plan of Entrance, No. 1,601*;
scale, m ss 3 inches,
t Now named Wusung buoy. Chinese Official List, 1874.
X Over this wreck is a beacon, a mast with ball, painted black. Ibid,



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860 THB SHANGHAI BIVBB. [cBip.Yin.

bw and navigable diannel of the entranoe, between the bearings of
S. 67t W. and 8. TOl"" W. ; red to the aonth of the channel ; green to the
north of the channel, between the bearings of S. SV W. and Soath^
and wkiie again between South and [the west bank of the mer. It is
eleyatod 60 feet above the sea, and in clear weather the white light shonid
be seen from a distance of 12 milesy and the red lights which also shows
over the Yangtse to seaward, about 8 miles. The illaminating apparatus
is dioptric, of the fourth order, and the tower is painted black.

A yellow joss house with poles about a mile above Fort A. marks the
village of Wusung, situated on the northern side of the creek leading to
Sachau, and another mile up is the French coal depdt and flagstaff, and just
above the latter the Chinese customs' station, a conspicuous square white
building surmounted by a turret and knob, and in front of which is the
mast or signal staff, from which is exhibited, by flags and balls, the deptb
of water on the inner bar. Abreast and just above the custom house is the
best anchorage for vessels intending to remain, in which case they should
moor, but quite clear of the fairway of the bar, in order to avoid the risk of
collision, as the flood tide sweeps along this shore, requiring rather a sharp
turn to be made to cross the bar. Vessels waiting for tide only to cross
the inner bar should anchor lower down off Wusung.

aast Bsak of aiver. — ^This shore at entrance is very low and not
approachable, being the shallow side of the river, and bordered by mad
flats, which to the northward extend nearly a mile. Here several ships
have been wrecked. Over these flats the Wusung light shows red. At
the outer point is Fort B., a small ruin, from which upwards the margin of
the shore is reedy as far as Pheasant point, a sharp elbow, alK)ut a mile
above ; this point is steep-to.

MMMmm TLAM^ BeaooBs and Ugiits. — ^The inner bar is above Pheasant
point, and appears to be formed by the eddy which that point causes on
the flood. It presents no obstacle to vessels drawing 11 feet water, for the
passage over it, with that depth at low water springs, is 2 cables broad.
But for another foot of depth the channel is very narrow, a matter of
importance to vessels of deep draught crosaiug. Its entrance is abreast or
immediately above the custom house, and the leading mark for the best
water, 12 feet at low water springs, is two poles on the bank of the river,
1 J miles above Pheasant point, kept in line E. | S. The front pole is a low
one with a pyramidal top ; the back one, a little removed from the bank, is
a high pole with a rectangular top. At night a red low light is exhibited
on the river bank, with a high white light on the low pole behind it,
indicating the same line of direction. These lights are visible 2 miles in clear
weather. The bar channel shifts occasionally and varies slightly in depth.



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CHAP. Yin.] WUSUNa BARS. — TIDES. 361

Any deep draught steamer requiring to cross the bar at night, maj, bj
making application to the officer in charge of the customB* station, arrange
to have a light hoisted on the signal staff, to show when there is water
enough for her to cross*

Uiier Bar uignmMm. — ^The depth of water on the bar is shown, during
daylight, from the flagstaff, 100 feet high, at the custom house. In dear
weather these signals may be seen by vessels over the land before crossing
the outer bar. The flag employed is square, half red and half white, in
combination with one or more black balls, distinguishing the depth, aa
follows :*—

Red next mast, no ball .

Same , black ball over .
Same , black ball under.
Same , balls over and under
Same , two balls under .
Eed over white, no ball .

Same , black ball over .
Same , black ball under.
White next mast, no ball .

Same , black ball over .
Same , black ball under
White over red, no ball .

Same , black ball over .
Same , black ball under.
In addition, a double cone is hobted at the cross trees when the water i&
rising.

Buddie Chroimd. — Extending from the Inner bar 3 miles up the river is-
the Middle ground, a shoal which divides the river into two channels, and
which is rapidly increasing in height. A great portion is visible at half
tide, and a considerable patch of reeds, Gough island, never covers..
Between it and the eastern bank of the river is the narrow ship channel
leading to Shanghai. Junk channel, south-west of the Middle ground,
saves hal£ a mile in distance, but its upper en<], at the tail of the Middle
ground, is very narrow, with only 6 or 8 feet at low water, so that it should
only be taken with a rising tide.

Above the Middle ground the banks are of the same low character as at

the entrance, and there is nothing deserving of more particular description

an can be mentioned in the subsequent directions on page 363.

TiBas. — ^At the entrance of the Wusung river -it is high water, fall and

Jhange, at Oh. 30m. ; springs rise 15 feet, neaps lOj feet, and neaps range

* The code (coloured) can be obtained at the Harbour Matter's office, ShAngbax*



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. 13 feet.


. 24


99


. 14


»


. 25


99


. 26


99


. 17


99


. 22


9>


. 18


9f


. 15


99


.23


99


. 16


99


. 19


99


. 21


99


. 20


99



362 THE SHANGHAI BIVEE. [gsjlp. vm.

6 feet At Shanghai it is high water, fiill and change, at Oh. 40m. ; springs
rite 10 feet, neaps 7 feet, and neaps range 6 feet. Yesseb drawing 18 feet
can cross the Inner bar at any high water, but if of larger dnught the/
will generally have to wait for spring tides. The greatest draught ev^r
brought up to Shanghai was H.M.S. Imperieusey drawing 24 feet, but a
Tooool of that draught would necessarily have to wait for the springs to
pass either up or down the river. See note to Tide Table, page 588.

SimaoTaoiWft.—- As pibts are always in attendance at the entrance, it
would not be prudent for a stranger to enter Wusung river without one,
for itA shoals are constantly undergoing changes from the allnvial deposits.
Approaching the entrance, a peaked tower or pagoda near the small walled
town of Paushan, and just seen over, will be observed to the westward,
and this pagoda must be kept W. by N. ^ N. (but nothing to the northward
of that bearing) to clear the shoals off the river's mouth, until the Wusung
lighthouse is brought S.W. by W. \ W. westerly, on which course vessels
should steer in over the bar by day ; at night the white light is visible
over the channel, a change to red or green denoting that a vessel is out
of the channel and in danger. In entering pass close eastward of the
Wusung buoy (leaving it on the starboard hand), for the deep water
channel here is narrow, and composed of hard* substances.

Standing into the river keep well over to the western shore, and keep it
aboard as far as Wusung creek, when a mid-channel course may be steered
rounding Pheasant point. Vessels, except of very shallow draught, should
never be tempted by the apparent breadth and clearness of the channel to
pass on the east side of the junks, which s<»netimes lie thickly anchored in
the fairway below Wusung, but should' pass through the midst of them or
by the western shore, which is steep-to.

As vessels of large draught are obliged to cross the Inner bar at high
water, whilst the flood tide is still running strongly, care must be taken-
to alter course in good time, say, when the beacon poles bear E.hy S. \ S.,
and not to allow the high pole to come to the southward of the low pole,
for they are very dose together. This caution applies with peculiar force
to sailing vessels, for the flood sweeps up the river and towards the Middle
ground with^great strength, 4 knots at springs and 2 knots at neaps. I£