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shoals is about three-quarters of a mile N.E.byN. of the Wusung buoy.
The outer shoals have about 9 feet over them with a patch about the
centre which dries, and there is a blind swatchway of 3J fathoms between
the southernmost shoal and the Wusung spit where the red buoy is.

BVSB zs&ABD 8BOA&S extend nearly a mile off along the south-
west shore of Bush island, their north-west extreme, in 21 feet, lying
W.N.W; 4 miles from its north-west point. Their shoalest part is 2 miles
West of the same point, where a 3-feet shoal, 2 miles in extent, lies along
the edge of tke channel, where it is very steep-to. Between these and the
Paushan shoals is the fairway channel midway between the two shores,
1 J miles broad and carrying 6 to 8 fathoms.

B&OBDE SBOA&. — ^Neither in Blonde nor Bush island shoals has
much alteration taken place since 1861. This shoal, which dries, is the
tail of a series of banks bordering the west shore, and its southern ex-
tremity in 4 fathoms is N.N.W. 2 miles from a clump of trees marked
on the chart, and 3J miles West of the north-west point of the Bush island.
Its shallowest part is on the edge of the channel, which is steep-to, and a
difficult part of the channel sometimes to make. Between it and the south
shore is a narrow passage carrying -9 feet..

Tainro-imwa i*kjlt8 border the western side of Tsung-ming north-
westward of Bush island. They formerly extended 3 miles from the
shore, and on ih&m was a large dry bank with a channel inside. The .
outer part of these banks seems to have been washed away of late years
since the main stream has discharged itself northward of Bush island.

BIBBCTZOBS.— -After leaving the red Spit buoy of the Wusung bar,
do not bring it southward of S.W. until the channel is gained in 7 or 8
athoms, to avoid the tail of the Paushan shoals ; then steer N.W. ^ W.
ong the fairway, the deep part of which is a mile wide. When abreast
e north-west point of Bush island, with the Clump * bearing W. by S.,
ml up N.W. to pass between the Blonde and Bush island shoals, taking

* Also called *' Square Clump."

A A 2

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372 THE TANGTSB KIAKO. [chap.viii.

care, with the flood, not to bring the Clump eastward of S.S.E. till the
Blonde is passed, as a yessel is liable to be set on the northern elbow
of that shoal. Should shoal water be struck going up on the ebb, the
yessel will probably haye been set across the stream to the northward,
on which side the shore is not at all steep, when the Clump bears eastward
of Souths

The course for the next 10 miles is N.W« \ N., holding rather nearer to
the south shore, which maj be estimated by the relative distinctness of
the trees on either shore. The uniformlj leyel banks of this part of the
riyer, which are covered with trees, afford no landmark that could be
recognised from description by a stranger, and the height of the embank-
ments causes the houses and other objects in the rear of them to be
hidden. The most prominent and available for cross bearings are Paushan
point and pagoda ; the Clump on the point north-west of it ; the north-
west point of Bush island ; the Clump on Harvey point ; the remarkable
Fork tree and Great Bush on the west shore, and the clump of trees on
Plover point.

Descending the river towards Bush island, beware of being set on its
shoals by the ebb, which inclines across the channel, and makes very
strongly through the channel north of that island.

The above are general directions, the latest particular directions * are as
follow : — ^After rounding the Wusung red buoy, steer north till the water
deepens, and then haul to the N. W., allowing for tide, and when the square
clump of trees bears W.N.W., the mast will be seen about N.N.W. Pass
this about a mile to the westward, and shape the course about N.W. ^ N.,
so as to keep Lao point open on the port bow. Proceed thus for 13 miles,
and when abreast of Lao point, which may be known by a high tree
showing over a peculiar gap in the embankment, keep in a little for Grreen
point. The shore must then be kept aboard, for the Dove*s Nest shoals
only leave a narrow channel which is generally silting. When Forked
tree is abeam steer for ActsBon red buoy, passing close to it, and
thence towards the north bank, about a mile past the buoy, before steering
for the Centaur blcick buoy. From the latter stand W.N.W. for Plover
point, passing it about 1^ miles off, and when the creek opens, steer West
for a conspicuous one-armed tree, and when this is brought to bear S.S.E.,
alter course for Bjioll red buoy, passing it at one cable to the westward ;
thence steer for Langshan light-vessel.

BASWr Fozirr cuaxvwl, — Harvey point, although no longer the
western point of Tsungming, (Mason point, an island in 1842, being now
joined to it by a low shore,) is still very prominent and easily recognised
from the southward, from which direction a round clump of trees on the

* By Navigating Lieut. Arthur Gore Ponsonby, R.K., H.M.S. Midge, 1870.


point shows conspicaouslj, but which is exceedingly difficult for even a
practised eye to distinguish from the north-west.

If desiring to take the Harvey point channel, ha.ying run N.W. ^N.
about 12 miles from abreast the north-west point of Bush Island, steer
N. by W. for the point, which if not seen, a further run of a mile or two
■will rise it. This bearing of Harvey point will lead through the best
water west of the Tsungming flat, and east of the extensive series of middle
grounds, 15 miles in length below Plover point, the tail of which in 4^
fathoms lies 5 miles South of Harvey point. This tail is shelving^ and
safer to touch on than the Tsungming flat, the edge of which is steep.

Pass Harvey point at three-quarters of a mile, and when the clump on
it, which should be narrowly watched, bears E.S.E., steer W.N.W. until
Plover point is seen bearing W. \ N., and Single tree South, when steer
W. by N. to pass northward of the Centaur black buoy, and about a mile
irom the point. Should the water be shoaled, it is weU to bear in mind
that the flood from the North Branch would probably set a ship on the
northern side of the ActaBon bank, the northernmost of the middle grounds,
which is very steep-to,' and that the ebb would set her against the north
bank, which latter is shelving.

Tbe WORTH BSAVCB, which leads to the sea north of Tsung-ming,
has been closing up at the rate of one foot per year since 1842, so that
it is probable it may in time dose altogether. One of H.M. gunboats
endeavouring to explore it found it so intricate, that she could not
proceed. The flood tide through the north branch, which may probably
make earlier than it does in the river, being so much nearer to the sea,
may be to some extent the cause of the changes which are continually
occurring in the Centaur and Actseon banks.

cowFVcrirs cuaxvwEb, — If proceeding up the river by this passage,
which is along the south shore, continue from abreast Bush island on
the N.W. I N. course, gradually closing the shore to 1 or 1 J miles, and
when Harvey point bears N.E., steer N.W. f W. up to Fork tree, which
pass within a mile. Then steering N.byW!|^W. westerly, with the
Fork tree on the opposite bearing astern, a vessel will pass obliquely across
the channel between the Actseon and Centaur banks, clearing the western
spit of the former in 5 J fathoms and the north-eastern spit of the latter in
7 fathoms. Great Bush kept between S. W. and S. by W. J W. will also
lead through this channel, which alters very frequently, and was in 1866

right angles to the course of the river. Towards low water the banks

5 generally indicated by a " smooth." The lead gives no warning.

BV0T8. — »ove*s Vest Buoy is a red nun buoy, 8 feet in diameter, sur-

Dunted by a black cage, and moored in 5 fathoms on the starboard side of

e channel to mark the Dove's Nest shoals.

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371 THE YANGTSE EIAK6. [chap, tot

is a large* red iron buoy with cage, 11^ feet high,
moored in 3 fathoms on the southern part of the western extremity oi
the Actaeon shoal.

0«BtMw mm,9j is a large bltuk iron buoy with cage 11^ feet high,
moored in 7^ fathoms on the north-east end of the Centdur bank. It is
neccHHary to pass westward of the red buoy and eastward of the black buoy.
A straight course can be steered between them.

TCbOvam vom, about 4 miles west of Centaur bank, has a village on
it, also a small fort or breastwork and a group of open trees. A number
of junks are generally at anchor in a river or creek-opening at this point.
From this, if the weather be clear, Fu-shan will be seen to the westward
in the shape of a hummock crowned by trees and a few white houses ,* a
small fort, like a mortella tower, standing on the slope, may also possibly
be seen.

It is said that at the high level season Plover point cannot be made out
with any degree of certainty, in which case it is advisable to proceed
eantioasly, and feel the edge of the shoals.

nbAW aaa MAMMM, — North-westward of Plover point is Flamer
bank, about a mile in extent and carrying 2 fathoms ; and about W.N.W.
of Plover point, and 2 miles in extent, is a bank on the east and west
extremities of which are Hunter and Southeyt knolls. No reliance can
be placed as to the position of either of these shoals on any chart not
quite recently corrected. Mr. Hockly stated in 1866, in reference to the
Admiralty chart, that they had then shifted close to the south shore where
the 8 to 9 fathoms channel was shown, and that this latter had been trans-
formed into a network of shoals, whilst deep water covered the former
position of the banks. He also mentioned that at the place^ 4 miles higher
up and marked " Shoal water with several dry patches," there was found
4 to 5 fathoms, with the same depth close to the north shore under the
town of Langshan, which in the chart is represented as a continuation of
the Langshan flats. •

The Langshan flats front the north bank of the river for about 15 miles
they are probably a middle ground, very shallow in most places, but
having inside them close to the shore a 4 fathoms channel leet^iiag from
the north branch into the Langshan crossing. The south-western ex-
tremity of these flats is now nearly 7 miles distant from the north shore,
stretching across to within 2 miles of the south bank, and forming a right-
angle just westward of the Southey knoll, which is marked by the North •
bank buoy.

* Chinese Official List, March 1874. The buoys are sut feet in diameter,
f Both reported to have disappeared.

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cmossnro commences 6 mifes above Plover point. It is
* so called from its leading across from the south to the north side of an
extensive series of middle grounds which occupy the bed of the river from
Plover point to Keashan point, a distance of 23 miles, and also from its
being abreast a conspicuous landmark, a little inland on the north shore,
the Langshan hill of two summits, 370 feet high, on the western of which
is a pagoda. Since the survey of Mr. W. Blakeney, R.N., of H.M.S. Actceon^
in 1861, this crossing has undergone many alterations, for the river at this
point, still flowing through an alluvial plain, opens out to a breadth of 9
miles, and as a consequence the channel and shoals are subject to constant
change. The latest modification* was caused by the singular extension
of the Langshan or northern fiats into what had been the fairway, and
which led to a re-survey f previous to the re-arrangement of the light
vessel and buoys, and since the establishment of these the navigation has
not been considered difficult.

vortli Bank Buoy is a large red iron buoy with staff and conical cage,
11^ feet high, moored in 8 fathoms on the south-west end of the North
bank or Langshan fiats. After rounding the buoy a straight course may
be steered for the Langshan light vessel.

Waterman Buoy is a large black iron buoy with staff and cage, 11^
feet high, moored in 6 fathoms on the north-eastern edge of the Waterman
or Middle bank.

Vine Feint Buey is a large red iron buoy surmounted by a cage 11^
feet high, moored in 5 fathoms on the edge of the shoals south-eastward of
Vine Point. . •

Kanffalian CreMinf &IOBT VBSSB& is moored in 4 fathoms on the
eastern edge of the Waterman or Middle bank. She exhibits 9k fixed light
of the sixth order, dioptric, at an elevation of 36 feet above the sea, which
in clear weather should be seen a distance of 8 miles. The vessel is painted
red, with one mast and ball. Her position is frequently altered as the
channel changes.];

Wertb Tree lA^tkt is on the north bank of the river above Vine Point,
in lat. 32*" C 27" N. It is a fixed^ dioptric light suspended from a single
pole, is visible 7 miles, and can, it is said,§ in clear weather be seen from
the Langshan Crossing light vessel.

* J. M. Hockly, Esq., 1866.

t By Commander Homey C. Blake, of the U.S.S. Alaska,

X Chinese Official List, August 1872. All other buoys have been removed. Captains

id pilots passing are requested to report any damage done tothebuoysv and any changes
1 the portions of banks or shoals.

§ Ctunese Official Xw«, Marct 3l8t, 1874. On 29th May 1874, this light was moved
bout 500 yards North of the above position, in consequence of the washing away of the
Iter embankment of the river.

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376 THE YAKGTSE KIANO. [chap. Tin.

I. — It 18 low water, fall and change, at the Langshan Crossing
at 10 h. a.m.,and high water at 1 h. 40 m. p.m., or a few minotes later.
Springs rise 12 feet, neaps 8 feet ; and neaps range 4 feet The Bood
at HpringA comes in with a slight bore, the velocity of the stream being
5^ knots. At springs there are onlj 3 hours rinng tide, and 9 lionrs
Adling ; at neaps 4 hours rising^ and 8 hours falling^ and which it is well
to bear in mind in view of taking the ground. This does not refer to the
stream, concerning which we have no precise information. It has been
said that the flood stream makes at low water, but continues to flow some
time after high water, but this is not very probable. In April the a.m.
tides are higher bj one foot than the pan. tides.

vamifmojKB t&t l^myhan OroMlBff. — ^Pass Plover point at a mUe,
and steer westward according to the latest information that can be obtained
regarding this part of the channel, which is the subject of such constant
alteration that the chai-t can never be relied on. A run of 6 mllea will
then bring a vessel up to the North bank buoy lying off the south-western
comer of the Langshan flats which forms the east point of entrance to the
Crossing. Fass westward of this red buoy, and tlien hauling to the north-
ward pass in succession eastward of the Light vessel and Waterman buoy,
and westward of Vine point buoy. The buoys on the eastern side of the
channel are red, those on the western side blach A straight course may
be steered between the two last named buoys, and thence on past the
North tree beacon and light ; and the North bank, which is steep-to round
the bight, may be kept for 7 miles above Vine point.

If, when coming down the river, the buoys should be displaced after
passing Vine point, a cross bearing of Langshan pagoda taken when the
summit of the Muirhead hills comes in line with Fushan S.S.W., will
indicate a vessel's position. The Muirhead hills are an isolated range
770 feet high, rising from the plain south-westward of Plover point, and
these and Fushan and Langshan pagoda are admirable marks for cross
bearings. Should the weather be thick the Crossing cannot always be
taken with safety.

CAVTXOV. — During the summer inundations, the downward stream
often attains a very great velocity, and sometimes sweeps away buoys and
beacons ; the channels then frequently undergo great changes and shoaU
are converted into islands, or the contrary, and the strong tides appear to
be actively and constantly engaged in removing some banks while others
are being formed. The navigation at such times is rendered extremely

&AV08BAV to XBA8BAV poziTT. — The posltion of the North tree
and beacon light may be recognised by a broad creek 4 miles above


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Langshan pagoda. At 6 miles above this, edge anvay from the north
bank, for this side begins to shoal, and at 8 miles above the creek is the
commencement of Couper bank, a growing shoal, dry at lew water, outside
Green island. On the south side of the channel, the disconnected shoals
laid down on former charts have grown into a line of islands, with deep
water close to, and which extend westward close up to Keashan point.

Keashan point is wedge-shaped and very conspicuous when seen from
tlie south-eastward, the thick end 90 feet high being towards the river ;
pass it about mid channel.

Tides. — H.M.S. Styx experienced a strong ebb all night when at
anchor off Keashan point in June 1854, and it was supposed that the
flood stream had no existence 10 or 15 miles below this point ; this,
however, must be considered to refer merely to that period of the year.
From the fact of the river then having a large body of water in it, the
downward currant would naturally have greater weight, and check the
flood stream ; but in November 1858 the level of the river was lower, and
the influence of the flood was felt much higher, and on 29th December,
the level of the water being still lower, the flood stream was sensibly felt
as high as Nanking.

Mita»A'Mr poiirr to szAva Tzir. — ^After passing Keashan point
the most anxious and dangerous part of the navigation of the Yangtse
may fairly be said to have been accomplished, for in no other portion of the
river do we find the same rapid alterations in the bed as in the vicinity
of Fushan and Langshan. Above Keashan point is Mud island ; pass along
its north side where there is a light. Above mud island the river becomes
dear and deep, and a mid-channel course may be safely pursued, steering
for the high-land of Hwang-shan, which, from Keashan point, looks like
an island in the centre of the river. The hills in the vicinity range from
250 to 300 feet high.

The river narrows to less than a mile north of the point of the Hwang-
shan hills, but immediately afterwards becomes wider. One mile S.W. of
this point is the entrance of a creek leading up to the walled town of
Eang-yin, a mile inland in which is seen a pagoda. From the mouth of
this creek, and extending 16 miles westward, the south bank of the river
is bordered by a mud-flat nearly a mile in breadth.

I &XOBT. — On the north side of this newly formed island,
, miles from the upper end of King island, is a tripod surmounted by a
icker ball, from which is exhibited a dioptric fixed light of the sixth
der, visible 7 miles in clear weather.

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378 THE TANGTSE KIAKG. [chap, tih*

TWCHTO-TV &IOBT is on the north bank of the river.* It is Vkjixed
light (ship's mast-head light), exhibited from a single pole, and risible
5 miles in clear weather.

Tmas. — ^The rise and fail of tide off Hwang-shan is December 1859
was from 4 to 6 feet.

XXAVCHTXV to SX&VSB Z8&AVB. — From Elang-jin, keep the left
bank or north shore of the river aboard, in order to avoid the broad flats
off the south shore, which are steep-to, the water shoaling from 1 1 fathoms
to 6 feet. When about 1 i milesf above Kiang- jin, the shore need not be
kept so closely, and between Bate and Collinson points keep mid-channel
for both sides are very shallow. Above Collinson point are Starling
island on the west and Fishboume on the east, both low, and occupying
the centre of the river, which at this part is very broad. Hermes channel^
carrying 7 fathoms, and which alone is navigable, is along the east bank,
and should be steered for as soon as it opens out N.N.W., but not before.
Extending northward 1^ miles from Fishbourne, is the Manila bank, on
the extremity of which is the wreck^ of the vessel of that name, which
was totally lost on it when coming down with the current.

nsMSOimra is&awb XiIOMT is on the east bank of the river, one
mile from the extreme lower end of Fishboume island. It is 2, fixed light
of the sixth order, dioptric, visible 7 miles, and exhibited from a tripod
surmounted by a painted wicker ball.

Four miles north of Fishboume is Cruizer bank, connected with the
east shore ; a small island has recently grown up on its western edge,
which is steep-to. Just above Cmizer is Pottingec island, 3^ miles in
length, and between it and the west bank of the river is the channel
carrying deep water (6 to 8 fathoms) throughout. For this § there is
a good leading mark, a large tree on the north bank opposite the northern
extremity of the channel, and close to, on ^e beach, the wreck of the
steamer Surprise.

yoTTZiroBR is&AWB XiiOBT is on the north extreme of the island.
It is 9k fixed light, of the sixth order, dioptric, visible 7 miies, and exhibited
from a tripod surmounted by a painted wicker ball.

* Chinese Official List, 1874. It is not stated where this light is situated, but it
would appear to be on the low point opposite Eiang-yin.

t The wreck of the Santa Cruz lies in the middle of the channel, 11 mUes above
Kiang-yin creek, at a spot marked 13 fathoms on the Admiralty Chart. J. M. Hockly,

t Captain Palmer, of the Fenumdex, August 1862, states that frmu the wreck of the
Manila, Chu-san pagoda bore N.W. by W.

§ J. M. Hockly, Esq., 1866.


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Just above Pottinger is Kiying island, a narrow strip 6 miles in length
close to the east shore, abreast which the channel is between two
shoals * ; and 4 miles above Kiying is Parker pointf on the south side, pro-
jecting from which, westward, are shoals which extend nearly across the
river. The narrowest part is abreast a creek-opening, after passing
which it is necessary to sheer off from the north shore on account of a
sbeli* lying a little above the creek. Four miles above Parker point is a
hdlly point under the conspicuously elevated Chusan pagoda,:^ and two
miles above this is the Espiegle rock, 2 cables off a projecting point of
the south bank. Pass this spot in mid-channel, for the opposite shore is
bordered by a shoal, steep- to, and extending 1^ miles below the custom*
house. Keep the noi'th shore for 2 miles above the custom-house, and
close past the mouth of an arm of the river leading to the northward, and
when about half a mile above this arm, edge over into mid-channel again»
having thus avoided the Calliope shoal extending from the south bank
more than half way across the river. When 2^ miles above this arm, the
Calliope will be passed, after which the (fhannel is clear up to Silver
island, but it is well to keep nearer the south shore owing to the changes
which are taking place on the northern side of the river. §

TAiTTV &XOBV is on the south bank opposite Siau-sha, and near the
village of Tantu, probably at the entrance of the Grand canal. It is a
Jixed light (ship's mast-head light), visible 5 miles, and exhibited from a
tripod surmounted by a painted wicker ball.

Between Kiang-yin and Chusan pagoda the banks are flat and ex-
cessively monotonous, the only rising ground being the Keunshan hill, on
which are some houses, seen nearly ahead from the reach below Fish-,
bourne island.

8Z3bVXR zs&Aira or Tsiao shan, at a bend of the river 12 miles W. ^ N.
of Chusan pagoda, is the first island met in the Yangtse which is not
altogether alluvial. The eastern end is flat, but the western is a wooded
hill or bluff, 225 feet high, surmounted by a low pagoda. In passing

* If proceeding without a pilot great care and caution are necessary, as the islands and
shoals are very difficult to define, and are known to be constantly shifting and extending.
S. Spencer Smith, R.N., Lieut, and Com. H.M.S. Cockchafer.

t In 1870, instead of steaming along the north shore opposite Parker point; the
Hsien-yi-mew creek between Parker point and the island westward of it was navigable,
carrying 5 to 7 fathoms. Small vessels could then keep as close as possible (by the

\) along the south bank up to Silver island.
The Sha-yo-ho, a creek leading from this point to Starling island, and which for-

rly carried from 5 to 7 fathoms, is now reported to be closed.

] Sian-sha, the lowest of the three alluvial islands below Silver island, and formerly

dies in extent, ha4 been nearly washed away in 1869, together with a large portion of

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