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south part of the large island of Eao-kea-sha next above it.



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880 THB YAKGTSB KIANG. [ghap.thi.

Silver ialaady the soathem channel is always taken. This is scarcely
8 cables acroM» and an exact mid-channel coarse will lead dear between
the dangers in it. These are two^ the ForieoSy sunken rock* of 13 feet
water, lying one cable from the island S. by W. of the summit, and a
8 fathoms rock, terminating some broken ground one cable N.W. of the
easternmost rocky point pn the south bank opposite ; between the two
rocks the depth mid-ehannel is from 6 to 11 fathoms, and between the
8 fathoms rock and the south bank, 4 to 5 fiithoms, passing the point on a
W. by S. course. A quick helm is required in passing through, to avoid
being at the mercy of the whirling eddies caused by the check these sub-
mei^ged rocks oppose to the current.

In 1858 SOver island appeared to be forming a junction with Ta-aha,
eastward of it, and a spit then ran out from the low flat tongue of ground
which has accumulated to the north-eastward of the high ground of Silver
island towards Ta-sha ; while another appeared to be working its way
from Ta-sha towards Silver island, and the channel between the two was
dearly filling up, as the chart of 1842 shows 12 fathoms ; but only
4 fathoms was then found, and the passage had become so narrowed, that
it was not deemed prudent to take H.M.S. Retribution through. There is
no later information concerning the northern channel, which, except at the
part above mentioned, is broad and deep, and Feather islet, the white rock
25 feet high, north of Silver island is bold on either side.

OBZraXAva fv, Treaty Fort, accessible by sea-going vessels of the
heaviest burden, is situate on the right bank of the river, 2 miles above
Silver island and 170 miles from the sea. It is a walled city about 4 miles
in circuit and half a mile from the bank of the river, the space between
having been formerly covered with an extensive suburb, which was sur-
rounded by a wall during the rebel occupancy of the city, so that the
fortifications now extend to the water's edge. The Grand canal winds
past the southern and western faces of the city to its point of junction with
the river .f

The foreign settlement extends along the river side above the city, from
the custom hous6 at the mouth of the Grand Canal as far as Yin-shan, a



♦ See Sketch of Silver island, m = 6 inches, on Admiralty Chart of the Taiigtse,
firom the Sea to Nanking, No. 1,480. The hearings fix)m H.M.S. Furious when aground
on the reef extending to the southward from Silver island were : — Golden island pagoda
W. hy S. J S. ; extremes of Silver island, NJE. \ E. and N.W. by N. At two ships*
lengths south-east of the reef there is a rock with only 16 feet water on it. — Captain
Sherard Oshom, R.N., Novemher 1858. H.M. ships Retribution, Furious, Cruizer,
Dove, and Lee, formed the escort to His Excellency the Earl of Elgin, in the first
expedition to Hankow in November 1858.

t Treaty PorU of China f^, ^20, ^

/



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CHAP.vin.] CHINKIANG.— GRAlfD CANAL. 381

steep acclivity on the west,* where is situate the British consulate, formerly
a Buddhist temple. The settlement is entirely level and divided into 18
lotSf nine of which are on the Bund fronting the river, and separated from
the remainder by a road parallel to it.

The river is deep at this part, there being 27 fathoms at 300 yards, and
15 to 20 fathoms at 100 yards from the shore. The current runs along
the south bank with extreme rapidity, preventing the anchorage of hulks
for floating residences, and rendering it impossible for steamers to anchor
or to lie off under steam with safety. On the north shore the water is
shallower and the current less rapid.

The entire native trade has, in consequence, been diverted from Chin-
kiang to £wa-chau, but in order to restore it, an enormous canal or dock
has been dug out, immediately above the foreign Concession, and a pro-
clamation issued ordering all native vessels laden with piH>duce, salt only
excepted, to anchor within the dock or on the south shore.f

Tlie arand Canal enters at the upper part of the city, passes along its
west and southern sides, where it is now overgrown or fQled with rubbish,
and re-entering the river, terminates at Tan-tu about 4 miles below Silver
island. Its junction with the Yangtse from the north is opposite Chin-
kiang, and on it, a little above, is the town of Kwa-chow, the central
station at which salt brought from the coast is trans-shipped. This trade,
which gives employment to 1,800 junks and 30,000 men, is a Grovernment
monopoly, and foreigners are prohibited by treaty from engaging in it, or
even assisting in it by towing the salt junks. Access to Kwa-chow and to
the course of the Yangtse Above it is facilitated for native boats, which
would with difficulty stem its rapid current in the channel near Chinkiang^
by a line of interior canal connecting the northern mouth of the Grand
Canal with a point some 15 miles below Ghinkiang, but running north-
ward into the interior, so as to form an extensive loop. At the point
where this channel joins the Yangtse is situated the village of Sien-niu-
miao, which gives its name to the creek, and which was the centre of an
active trade en the part of foreigners previous to the openiogof Chinkiang,
and now continues to be a centre for an important section embracing the
cotton export fix)m the producing districts north of the Yangtse.

The Grand Canal became first impassable in 1851, when the Yellow river
changed its lower course from the eastward to the northward, and the
subsequent series of inundations of the river have caused the damage to
he canal to be almost irreparable.

* TbjB is the true Yin-shan or Silver hill, a name which has been erroneooslj applied
» the island of that name in the river below.

f By Li-hung-chang, acting Govemor-Greneral of the two Kiwag provinces. J. M.
Kskly, Esq.



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882 THB YANGT8B KIAKG. [osix*. Tn



difierenoe between Chinkiuig and Shanghai bnt the hilly surrooiidings
of thiB port are an adyantage Shanghai does not possess, and are an-
doubtedly condncive to health. Fever and dysentery, the diseases
inseparable iW)m sitoations of this kind, are prevalent daring the summer.
The winter U bracing and game abounds in the vicinity.

The winds observed in January are from NJ^JEL to N.W. with strcmg
westerly breeses. Heavy fidls of snow occur, and some frost. Early in
the month a gale commenced at East, and veering by North, terminated
blowing heavily from West with a snow storm. February brings bright
dear weather, with occasional &11b of snow, and occasionally a strong S. W.
wind and sand storm.

In June the winds are from southward and eastward early in the month ;
then from South and West, force 1 to A ; rain every third day. In
Juty they are southward of East and West^ but generally from S.W.,
force I to 6 be; h few wet days early in the month. In August, generally
from southwardi with occasional east winds ; strong squalls from north ;
force 1 to 8 &r, with occasional wet days. In September, N.E. and S.E.,
and from S. W. at end of month ; force 2 to 9 ocg ; many wet days.

In October, N. and N.E., and occasionally N.W. ; force 2 to 5 3c ; little
rain. In November, variable ; force 2 to 8 3c and oc ; live wet days. In
December, variable ; force 8 and 4 oegqr ; several wet days, snow one
day.

suppUea, Trade. — ^The following is a list of market prices : Beef, })er
pound 8 cents, mutton 12 cents. Pheasants and wild ducks when in
season 25 cents, fowls 20 to 30 cents. Vegetables and fruit are cheap
but of little flavour, and fish of good quality is plentiful. Firewood may
also be obtained. Flour and potatoes are imported from Shanghai, as are
all stores, wine, &c. by the steamers passing two or three times a week.
Accounts are kept in taels.

The early expectations formed of the development of an important trade
at Chinkiang were not at first realized. The destruction of the Grand
Canal, and consequent cessation of the through traffic between Peking and
the great cities of the south, caused the extinction of the trade which once
flourished at this place, whilst the expectation that Chinkiang would
become the shipping port at which seagoing vessels would load the teas
of the interior was neutralized by the opening of Hankow. Since 1870,
however, the resettlement of the country, which had been desolated during
the Taiping rebellion, and the cultivation of tea, silk, and cotton, have given
an impetus to trade, and at its present rate of development Chinkiang bids
fair to become, in a few years, one of the most important emporiums of the
foreign import trade in China. Between 1867 and 1870 the import trade



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CHAP.vm.] THE TREATY PORT OP CHIKKIANG. 383

in cotton goods, metals, sugar, and opium had doubled, and, with the salt
and junk trade added to that reported bj the foreign customs, probably
amounted in the latter year to 8,000,000/. sterling.

There are two coal mines about 20 miles distant, towards Nanking,
quite near a navigable creek, one at Ku-tsze-tan, the other at Pa-whei-li-
miao.

ikVCBOKACUi. — On the left bank of the river, between Silver island
and until abreast the entrance of the Grand canal opposite Chinkiang^ a
bank of mud and sand runs off, covered at high water even when the river
is low. It is about half a mile broad at its greatest breadth, which is near
a canal on the left bank, abreast a high bluff on the opposite shore on
which is a small iron pagoda and some houses.*

The best anchorage is on the north sidet ^^ *^® river, just westward of
this bank, abreast the western corner of the city, in 5 to 9 fathoms, for
there is less tide on the north side than near the city. The only anchorage
on the city side, on account of the great depth of water and strength of
the current, is in a small bay formed between Golden island and a bluff
about half a mile eastward, where near Golden island the depth is
9 fathoms ; abreast the city it is not less than 15, suddenly deepening to
25 and 27 fathoms, and off the Concession the ground is rocky, and there
is chow-chow water. The strongest winds are from North and N.E.

TIDES. — ^At Chinkiang the water in the river begins to rise about
the first week in February, and attains its greatest height about Mid-
summer, from which time until Michaelmas there is a general uniformity
in its rise and fall, and the north bank of the river is sometimes sub-
merged. From Michaelmas it gradually falls till February^ The rise
and fall is about 3^ feet at springs and 2| feet at neaps.

The greatest strength of the down stream in mid-channel off Chinkiang
was 3^ to 4 knots f off Silver island 4^ to 5 knots. It was strongest in
June and July, after which it gradually decreased in strength. The
weakest tides are in December, January, and February ; vessels swing
for a short time to the flood, if there is no wind, until the middle of
February,* after which the tides gradually increase.



♦ The remarks on the anchorage, tides, and winds, at Chinkiang, are by Lieutenant
Fmnklin, and Mr. Panter, 2nd Master, H.M.S. Banterer, 1861. Lieut. Whish, R.N.,
: ^-ords that the flood tide was felt in January 1873 daily for three hours, with a rise

d fall of about 6 feet ; and in February ships in mid-stream swing to the flood for

e same period.

t Consideimble alteration is taking place at this part of the river. The salt junks

ich in 1870 used to anchor at Kwa-chow, H "t^iles up the river, were compelled in
1 to anchor on the north bank, opposite the settlement, in consequence of the wash-
i ^ away of Kwa-chow point and the formation of chow-chow water. Chast Gardner,
. "q., of H.M. Consulate.



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884 THE YANGTSB KIANG. [chajp.vih.

^i t' M tmff iS&AVBt or Kinshauy an island in 1842, but now forniing
4he extremity of a low gi-assy point, is an isolated rock covered with
temples, with a slender pagoda on its summit. The point opposite the
isknd, as well as the bank on that side, may be approached to 50 yards,
but the eddies off this point and above it are very strong *

Martoa BMk» said to lie in mid channel, about a mile W.N.W. of Golden
island, is not more than one-tliird the distance over from the south banl^
and in March had only 4 feet on it, which, allowing for the rise of the
river in July, would agree with 10 feet found upon it at that time by
H.M.S. Raider. In December it is 2 to 4 feet out of water. It lies
abreast a creek on the right bank. Vessels in passing should close
Kwa-chau on the north bank, the islands about which, shown on old
charts, do not now exist, and when a peculiar arched bridge over a creek
on that side is well open the rock will be abeam.

From Marion rock cross over to Saltoun point, rounding it closely, so
as to avoid the long shoal extending eastward from Pih-sin-chau island
down the centre of the river ; then keep the south shore aboard until
past the south point of Pih-sin-chau, after which a mid channel course is
to be preferred until clear of the island, and also through the short reach
to the westward, where the banks extend &om both shores nearly up to
Morrison point, 5 miles above Pih-sin-chau.

yXB.,Bnr-CBAV &zOBTB« — ^On Pih-sin-chau, an island directly west
of Saltoun point and 5 miles in length, are two lights. Pih-sin-chau
light, on the lower or east end of the island, is k fixed light exhibited from
a single pole and is visible 7 miles ; and Bethune point light, on the
upper or west end of the island, is a fixed light, visible 5 miles, and
exhibited from a tripod surmounted by a painted wicker baU. That of
Pih-sin-chau is a dioptric light of the sixth order ; that of Bethune point a
ship's mast-head light.

The passage north of Pih-sin-chau, although more direct, appears to
have irregular depths, and to be filled with sand-banks. During the winter
months the least water in it is said to be 12 feet, but its eastern entrance
has been greatly contracted by the very considerable growth of a shoal
on the north side which is to steep-to. The western end oi the channel
is also rendered difficult by a semi-elliptical shoal, 4 miles in length,
fronting the north shore and extending at its widest part fully half a
mile, to avoid which Bethune point should be closed and afterwards kept
on an E. by S. bearing as far up as I-chang creek. Native boats use this
northern cut-off at all seasons, but the southern channel is always used by
steamers of large draught.

Socks and Bank above z-okingr. — ^Abreast the hills 7 miles above
I-ching, and almost exactly in mid-channel, is a rocky ledge lying

* In 1823, Golden island was on the north shore ; in 1842 it was in the centre of the
river ; it is now on the south hank, % miles from the north shore.



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HAF.vni.] CHINKIANG TO NANKING. 385

longitudinally between the 26 and 12 fathoms soundings on the chart*
There is also a shoal 2 or 3 miles above .these rocks with 4 fathoms on it
deepening to 7, with Ning-gan-shan pagoda N.W. ^ W. and the remarkable
tree on a hill on the right bank S.W.f

Avoiding the above shoals a mid-channel course may be kept to Comwallis
bluff on the south bank, 12 miles above Morrison point, but on passing the
next point opposite and 1^ miles above the bluff, keep rather to the north-
ward of mid-channel, to avoid an outlying rock said to exist between the
Yen-tze-ke hills and the entrance of Tsauhia creek. The northern shores
of Tsauhia island have greatly extended, and the water has deepened along
the north bank which must be kept as far as Ping-shan pagoda, south-
ward of which it is shoal, but the centre of the river is quite clear up
to Nanking.

Theodolite point, the south extreme of Tsauhia at the upper entrance
of the Cut-off and immediately below the city, may be approached closely,
the beach being steep-to, and so also may the two forts on the right bank
erected on the detached tongue of land in front of the city walls. Above
Pukau point, on the opposite side of the river, is also a small battery with
shoal water extending off both it and the point. Vessels forcing a passage
should keep close in to the right bank of the river. After passing Nanking,
a mid-channel course may be steered.

Tsavbia Creek, known also as the Nanking creek or Cut-off, and which
saves 3^ miles of distance, has good water through, even when the river is
lowest in winter. It carries 6 to 8 fathoms in most places, and not less
than 4 fathoms at the shoalest part near its lower end. On both sides of
the channel at enti'ance (a formation said to be common to all the creeks
and canals) are banks extending 200 yards which are visible in winter,
but require caution to avoid in summer when the water is high. By a
recent regulation this creek has been closed to foreign vessels, and is now
used only by native craft and vessels flying the Chinese flag.f

VAmLZVO,§ or Kiang-ning fu, the provincial capital of Kiangsu and
the second city of the empire, is 44 miles above Chinkiang, 198 miles
from Shanghai, and 230 from the sea. Although not at present a treaty
port, it is nevertheless specified in the French Treaty, concluded at Tientsin



♦ J. M. Hockley, Esq., R.N. Would therefore be 2 miles W. by N. of Morrison

int or thereabouts.

t Bemark Book H.M.S. Slaney, 1866.

t Com. C. C. Rising, R.N., says that this regulation only alludes to merchant or any

ge steam vessels, as in some places the turns are rather sharp, and many junks have

en run down. A notice in Chinese characters is posted up at each end of the creek.

§ f.e. " Southern Capital."

80251. B B



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886 THE YANGTSE KIANG. [chap, yuj,

in 1858, among the river-ports eyentnally to be thrown open^ and on this
acooont claims a brief description.

Nanking was till the commencement of the 15 th centorj the metr(^M>iis
of the empire and the seat of the Chinese court, for whidi by ltd situation
it is eminently adapted, and the ruins of an ancient wall which can be
traced for 35 miles in circumference testify to its former mi^nificenee.
It became famous in modem times, in 1842, when the Chinese were com-
pelled to submit to the terms of peace* imposed by the British force; and
still later as the head quarters of the Taiping rebellion, the leaders of
which took the city by assault on the 19th March 1853, and continued to
hold it until 1 9th July 1864, when Major Gordon, RE., having successively
crushed all the outlying rebel forces, it was recaptured by the imperial
troops under the Viceroy Tseng-kwo-fan.

The city is surrounded by a wall of in*egular, triangular shape, 17 nailes
in circuit, and from 50 to 70 feet high. Of its 17 gates, all but six have
been built up. The north-west gate is about a quarter of a mile irom the
river at the entrance of the Cut-off, the space intervening being occupied
by moats and ruined suburbs partially walled in by the Taipings, and
some batteries thrown up on the river bank. A very small part of the
space enclosed has been built on, and there is much park-like woodland,
and waste within the city. The inhabited portion of the city lies towurds
the east and nearly 5 miles from the river.

There are hills of some elevation, particularly on the west side of the
city, where the scarped sides of the crooked line of heights form a natural
wall of red sandstone. Between the west wall and the river are a series
of moats and fishponds. A moat also runs from the river to the west
gate, and continues along the wall to its south-west angle ; the south gate
is more easily gained by this ; it is under the steep hill without the city
near the site of the once celebrated Porcelain pagoda. The Taiping gate
is on the north-east side, under the hills, where are the remarkable tombs
of the Ming dynasty, near the east end of a large sheet of water, banked
in by masonry.

Although converted, immediately after its re-capture in 1864, to its
former position as the seat of the vice-regal government, Nankingf shows
comparatively little sign, of revival from the state of desolation in wMch it
was left by the action of so many years' continuous warfare. It has,
indeed, been made the seat of a large military force, and also of an arsenal
for the manufacture of cannon and other warlike stores on European
modelsf, under the direction of Chinese officials aided by foreign employes ;
but even the slight importance the city formerly possessed as a centre

* 29th August 1842, f Treaty Ports of China, p. 428.



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CHAP.vra] CITY OF NANKING. 387

of trade and native manufacture has not been revived. Ab a place of trade
for foreigners* Nanking presents no features of advantage, and labours
under the drawback of a peculiarly unhealthy climate. During the stay of
H.M.S. Centaur from the 28th February to the 27th September 1861, the
weather during July and August was extremely trying, the thermometer
99^° under a double awning, and at night 90**, with myriads of musquitoes.
The crew of the Centaur, from being one of the most healthy on the
station, became quite the reverse, having from 40 to 50 daily on the sick
list, and many deaths from dysentery and fever.

AjroBORiLOB. — The anchorage off Nanking is on the right bank south
of Theodolite point in 7 to 10 fathoms, muddy bottom, good holding* ground
and room for 5 or 6 large vessels within 200 yards of the beach. At 100
yards outside this there are 15 to 20 fathoms, and a much stronger tide;
on the opposite shore 4 to 10 fathoms, with little tide. It is advisable to
have two anchors down to prevent sheering in strong N.E. or N.W; winds.

TXDBB, and levels of River. — During the Centaur's stay at this
anchorage, from 28th February to 27th September, the time of high water,
full and change, could never be accurately determined, one day it would
be at noon, and the next day it would be low water at the same time ; the
rise and fall was about 6 inches.

Between 6th and 22nd March the river fell 5^. feet ; winds mostly from
East, E.S.E., and N.E., fine dry weather. On the 22nd, the wind was S. W.,
force 5, and on the 23rd the river rose to its old level. On 24th May the
river began to rise rapidly till the latter end of June, when it had risen 12
feet, the surrounding country being mostly under water, whilst at Chin-
kiang it rose only 6^ feet. On 14th July a change was perceptible and
the water slowly began to recede. On the •27th September it was but
5 feet above its usual level.

ABOVB VAjrxxwof the reach, 13 miles in length to Shanshan bluff,
is clear if a mid-channel course be steered, taking care to give a good
berth to the shoals which extend one mile south-westward from Wyllie point,
the upper end of the large alluvial island of Me-tsze-chau. In summer
the tide is said to sweep past Wyllie point with excessive force, causing
much chow-chow water. The creek eastward of the latter carries good
water except at its upper outlet opposite Wyllie poiut, where is a bar of
9 feet, probably hard bottom.



^ The site chosen in 1865 for the foreign concession is at Theodolite point, near the
Chinese custom house, bat no steps ha^e yet been taken to open the port

t See Admiralty Chart of the Yangtse Kiang, Sheet 3, from Nanking to Tung-liu ,
No. 2,678 ; scale, »i=s0 • 5 of an inch. Also, Boute of the British Embassy in 1816, from
Nanking to Foyang Lake, No. 1,402 ; scale, m«0' 1 of an inch.

B B 2



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888 THE TANGTSE KIANG. [chaf. ynr.

aftoor mmMcm* — ^Hea Shanshan is a bluff on the right bank, 350 feet
high, and abreast it the left bank has shoaled to nearly mid-channel, bat
about a mile above is steep with deep water close in as far up as the next
rising ground on the same side.

Between Sanshan and Rocky point, 4 miles higher up, the shore is
reported rocky, and it is becoming very shallow on the western side of
the three low islands above the latter, fully halfway across the river*

■irslna B««k is 70 yards off the point of the left bank in front of a
small bluff on which stands a conspicuous watch-house, 10 miles above
Sanshan, and immediately below Gros island, at the entrance of the May
Queen channel As this channel is not now used and is reported to be
closed, vessels which may be hugging the shore should sheer off on a
S.S.W. course before this hill bears west.

—a f iiamia duumeu— Gros island is 5 miles in length, and abreast
it the river is deep close up to both banks. Immediately above is Wade
island, 7 miles in length, and the Susquehanna channel, which is west of