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the latter, should be entered between the two islands, but great caution is
requisite in entering, and Wade island must be closed within 200 feet
on account of the highly dangerous shoal extending from the upper point
of Gros island, right across to the left bank and 2 to 3 miles up mid-
channel, continuing as a middle ground of 2 fathoms to within 2 miles of
the upper end of Wade island. Great care is therefore required when
coming down not to get too low before closing Gros island. Shoals
extend a considerable distance from the upper end of Wade island ; but
these do not interfere with the channel| from which, through the Pillars,
there is no difficulty.

^KTJLnm za&AarB &zobt is on the island ;* it is a ^xed light of the
sixth order, dioptric, visible 7 miles, and exhibited from a tripod sur-
jnounted by a painted wicker ball.

Susequehanna channel, which generally carries 5^ to 7 fathoms, but not
less than 4 fathoms, is greatly to be preferred to the channel eastward of
Wade island which is not so direct, and of which, in consequence of its
being less used, there is never very recent information. Passing eastward
.of Wade island, deep water can be carried up the latter to Lee island,
west of Tai-ping pagoda, then passing westward of Lee by a narrow
channel between it and Jones island off the upper face of Wade island,
the main stream is gained by the Gallows channel, at the south entrance of
which is a bar of 17 feet over an intricate mass of shoals.

♦ Although the site of 'this light is not specified in the Chinese Official List, there is
every reason to suppose it to be in the same position as the beacon on the west side of
the north point.



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CHAP.vm.] NANKING TO WUHIT. 389



If 4 miles above Wade island, ai*e two rugged, fortified
eminences, 250 feet high, on either side the river, into which the eastern
one projects considerably. The Tien-mun, as the passage between them is
named, is deep and clear up to point Morton,

»oint Morton. 3f miles above East Pillar on the same side, may be
kept close aboard. Abreast it the channel, carrying only 4 fathoms, is
greatly contracted by Dearbome, a flat island 2 miles in length, lying in
the centre of the river. The flood waters of summer find their exit by
Friends channel, a circuitous bend westward between this island and West
Pillar, but this is generally found closed at its upper end in the winter
season.

W77BV RBACB^ — After passing Dearbome island strike at once into
mid-channel to clear a very dangerous rock^ about a cable from the right
bank, with shoal water outside it. The position of the rock, which
uncovers 11 feet in winter, is indicated by the Wuhu beacon and light
erected on the bank abreast it.

'VToba iBight is on the east bank of the river,* 2| miles above pomt
Morton. It is a ^xed light (ship's mast-head light), visible 5 miles, and
exhibited from a tripod surmounted by a painted wicker ball.

The other dangers in Wuhu reach are a rocky ledge 1^ miles below
Wuhu close to the right bank; a shoal off" the fortress one cable off" shore
and parallel to the bank, and which dries in December ; and a large
triangular shoal of 6 feet water above and south of Wuhu, which extenda
from above the entrance of the creek to halfway across the river, with .
5 fathoms on its western edge in mid-channel.

Wuhu, a walled city 52 miles above Nanking, is situated about 1^ miles
inland on the borders of a canal, and behind the hill on which stands a
tail pagoda. It is now in ruins, but thirty years ago it was a place of
unusual wealth and prosperity, and carried on a great inland commerce.
The wall along the river side is distinct from t^e city, and the front of
on enclosed camp, in which are six forts built on natural mounds, the
approaches to which are defended by stockades, and the rising ground
thickly studded with pitfalls. The country about Wuhu is destitute of
trees. The canal is a clear stream of water falling into the Yangtse by
the low pagoda south of the fortress.

Immediately t abreast of Wuhu pagoda the stream sets in strong eddier,
necessitating the greatest care on the part of the pilots, especially at
night. Indeed the river from this to Lang-kiangki or Hen point, a distance
of 90 miles, both from the strength of the current and the intricacy of the
navigation at many parts, pi:e&ents very considerable difficulties.f

* From information received from Navigating Snb-Iicutenant J. A. Jones, B.N.,
H^.S. Ringdove, 1872.
t J. M. Hockly, Esq.



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890 THX YANGTSB KULNQ. [ooap. ^vm

Steer a mid-efattmel ooane up Wuhn reaeh, and vrhm abreaht tlie fortress
borrow on the left bank^ and bo contmne for about 4 miles after rounding
the point. Then cross the rivei^ with the tall Wuhn pagoda in Ime wii&
the point of the left bank, shutting it in on approaddng I2te Ofpposite wde,
thus avdding some rocks off the bank on the south, andtfae ts^xiff the
Shansi bank on the north side. The Shansi bank, on whidi is a fisnafi
islet and some mud patches at about 1^ cables firom the shore of the left
bank, is north-eastward of a range of hills 700 feet high. These mud
banks are covered in November, but in December they are diy,t 3 miles
in length, and extend halfway across the river. After passing these banks
a mid-channel course nuiy be again followed round Hains point 3 miles
above. The north and east sides of Hains point have extended to mid-
channel, but after passing the point the best water is found on ibe right
bank as far as Tangkeatsun.

Sanshan creek is a cut-off of 2 miles, which may be taken in summer by
vesseb of light draught.' In August 1870 there was a depth of not less
than 17 feet throughout the creek, and a bar of 10 feet at either entrance.
The creek was 1 J to 2 cables wide, and on its banks were two or three
small villages half under water. The lower entrance is north of the
Sanshan hills.



»onra Baaeoa and &untT<-^A dioptric Jixed light of the
sixth order is exhibited from this point. It is elevated 36 feet above the
bank, and in clear weather should be seen a distance of 7 miles.



r, or Kius-hien, is a town on the right bank of the river,
9 miles above Hains point and 3 miles northward of the Ta-wba-shan, a
range about 1,500 feet high. There is good anchorsge in 5 to 8 fathoms
off the town. H.M.S. Retribution^ of 20 feet draught, remained here
during the fii'st exploration of the Tangtse in 1858, and during her stay
some useful information was obtained concerning the tides. To the north-
ward of Eleu-hien is an extensive sheet of water named lake Chau-hu^ or
Chaou, which has two or three outlets on the left bank of the river, the
principal of which is opposite Hains point.

Tides. X — ^From the 24th November 1858, the day the RetribuHtm
anchored off Kieu-hien, there was a daily rise and &11 of 6 inches, but a
steady decreasing of the level of the river until the 18th December, when
the fall — since the 25th November — ^had amounted to 8^ feet. From the

* Off Sukiang on tke right bank .is a ahoal, and 1^ miles above it on the same ride is
a small rooky island, above which as far as the Sanshan ho the water has deepened. —

•f It would appear that tHese banks are liable to shift, for they had disappeared in
1869, whilst at the same time the north ride of Wuhu reach had shallowed.

J William F Hains, Master, R.N., H.M.S. Beiribution, 1858.

7



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<SAF.vm.] KIEU-HI£N.-^JQNSB(mS BEACH. 391

IStk. December, when there ccMraneneed a week's constaai fall of rain
with &efih NJEi and eaaterly windfl^ the river ro&e gradaallj 3 or. 4 feet
a&dithe veaau^ swung occasionally to a flood stream. The flood havhig
been sensibly &lt off Nanking on the 29th December, and also very slightly
off Tai-*ping and Wuhu, it appears ^at the influence of the tide is
perceptible at a distance of 300 miles from the sea.

OSBOXW SBACB. — From Hains point a mid-channel course may be
steered, passing Kieu-hien southward of Barker island, which is a com-
plete flat 6 miles in length. The Governor-General channel, north of
Barker island, is suj^osed to be clear, and if so, maybe used when shoals
form in the Kieu-hien passage. The south-west point of Btffker * island
is a shoal one mile in extent, so that when passing It the right bank should
be closed entering the next reach which runs to the southward, and where,
at the foot of the Ta-wha-shan range, the Fantsi-ki rock rises in a sheer
mass from the eddying stream, surmounted by the gray mossy ruins of a
temple and pagoda embowered among trees. The hills of the range here
rise from the water's edge in grassy slopes partially wooded, with richly
timbered valleys. The Ta-wha-shan range trends to the south-east for
20 miles, to where the Wild Boar hills overlook the river, but the river
runs considerably to the westward of the intermediate part of the range.

A mile above the Pantsi-ki rock is the village of Teih-kiang, with its
three-arched bridge of heavy masonry over a creek with a shoal off it, and
its white but partially ruined houses clustering up the hill side or nestling
among the trees at its base. A mile above the village the river abruptly
leaves the range and takes a westerly direction along the Lauwan bend
for 6 miles. Keep towards the right bank along the bend, the north shore
of which is very shallow at the western part, until the sununit of Ta-wha-
shan over Pantsi-ki bears East, when a vessel will be on a north course,
passing Antelope point in mid-channel.

At 1^ miles above Antelope point the river again bends westward, and
when the large village of Siau-shan-miau on the left bank opens, cross
over, keeping the north bank aboard until after passing it, for the opposite
shore is very shoal, and the channel along the bank very narrow. From
this the course is mid-channel 7 miles up to Buckminster island.

"omuamette ciiaiinei, a cut-off of less than 2 miles, has its entrance at
Tsin-kia-chin, at the western part of the Lau-wan bend, where are some
Donspicuous trees, and a joss pole on the entrance point. It is very ser-
pentine with deep water round the bights and shallows off the points, and
the western entrance is shoal and requires the aid of a pilot for its navi-

* This shoal had disappeared in 1869.



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892 THB YAKOTSB SIANG. [chjlf. Tin

g»lioii** Perkins pointi its upper ontlety is sometimes shallow, and at
other times steep-to. When, having passed out of this channel, the soath
extreme of Backminster island (which ought to be closed) is nearly
abeam, steer for the beacon on the N.W. point of Jefirj island, which can
be passed close to, and its shore,a nd also that of the river when gained,
kept up to Niangshan-kL

Taaffitaff-eiUa ObaBBeit or Cosmopolite channel, is a cut-off of more
than 3 miles, but has two bars at and within its eastern entrance, which
is 1} miles above that of the Williamette channel

mueMMtMmrwm &xobt is on the north extreme of the island of that
name. It is a dioptric, fixed light of the sixth order, elevated 41 feet
above the bank, and in dear weather should be seen from a distance of
7 miles.

^nXD moAM msAOS takes a course nearly south for 15 miles above
Buckminster light. There is high land on the left bank of this reach,
the first rising ground met with on this side the river after passing the
Pillars, a distance of 50 mfles. Buckminster island is 6 miles in length,
and south of it is Jeffry island which also lies eastward of a spit, 2 miles
in length, extending southward of the former. Buckminster passage is
the eastern channel of the river and is deep, but much narrowed between
Jeffiry island and the spit ; it must be used if proceeding by the Williamette
channel, the western entrance of which is 3 miles below Jeffipy island.

The principal channel is west of Buckminster island, the north point
of which is passed mid-channel. About 2 miles northward is the viUage
of Chachau or Tucheau on the left bank half a mile from the river, and
surrounded by a white wall, but ruins extend from the wall to the water's
edge. On nearing this village, close the left bank slightly to avoid some
shallow ground lying abreast it off Chinte-chau, the northern part of
Buckminster island, but gain mid-channel again immediately it is passed,
for there is a shoal off the left bank above the village. The reach is then
quite clear and nearly South for the next 10 miles. Four miles above
Jeffiry island stands a conspicuous bluff, 100 feet high, overhanging the
stream, on the wooded summit of which is the ruined temple of
Niangshan-ki, in passing which be very careful of the helm on account
of the current; close it somewhat and also the fiat island of Tatung
lying between two channels leading to the town of that name. Having
passed the second channel, edge over to the left bank on a S.W. by W.

♦ Mr. Hockly says that this channel curves considerably more to the northward than
it did formerly, and that in the middle of it is an island, to the westward of which
lies the course adopted by steamers. Neither this nor the Cosmopolite channel is ased
after the water has risen 12 feet



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oiur.Tmij WILD BOAB BEACH — ^LIGHTS. 393

course between extensive shoals on both sides of the river. The
remarkable forked tree on the north bank is scarcely noticeable when
going up till nearly abreast it, though conspicuous from above ; for
5 miles above it to within one mile of Fitzroy island, the course is mid-
channel.



&ZOBT is on the eastern extremity of the island.
It is z, fixed light of the sixth order, dioptric, elevated 38 feet above the
bank, and should be seen in clear weather a distance of 7 miles.

Here the river splits into three channels, the main channel being along
the left bank north of Fitzroy island. The most direct channel, between
Fitzroy and Loch island south of it, is the best channel during summer,
but is not used in the winter months for then it becomes very shallow. The
southern or Ma-shao-ja channel leads past the important city of Chichau.
Banks are liable to form suddenly about these islands; in the spring
of 1866, one formed eastward of Fitzroy, having only 4 feet over it and
one mile in extent.

On approaching Fitzroy island close the left bank and follow it round
tiML nearly up to the creek* opposite the south point of the island, when
steer up S.W. for a remarkable tree of somewhat conical form on the right
bank ; the river is again clear above Loch island, and a mid-channel course
may be steered for the next 4 miles above Loch island, to where the river
begins to widen out to a considerable breadth just above a small rise
of 70 feet on the north bank, and opposite which is a small low island
with a shoal extending from it in line with the river bank, nearly up to
Tai-tzu chi, a conspicuous rocky island 30 feet high, which appears to lie
almost in the middle of the river and cannot be mistaken.

Banrers. — On the north bank about 1^ miles above the 70-feet.ri^, is
a small tributary of the Yangtsc, on passing which steer to pass within a
cable westward of Tai-tzu chi, to avoid a dangerous shoal (dry in December)
which fronts the west shore and bight of the river for an extent of 3 miles,
and the edge of which is in mid-channel.

T.AX-TKV CBZ ZiZOBT, is ^ fixed light (ship's mast-head light), elevated
15 feet above the summit of the rocky islet ; in clear weather it should
be seen 4 miles.

BBir VOZWT &ZOBT is z, fixed light of the sixth order, dioptric. It is
elevated 33 feet above the point, and in clear weather should be seen a
distance of 7 miles. This light would appear to be at the joss house on
the left bank, opposite Hen point.
■■ .. . • ■ — .

Remarks of Archibald T. Miller, Master, B.N., H.M.S. Slaney^ ]866.



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Le08 than • mile above Tai*tEm chi is a bed of rocks extendvig &qm
Ibe south bank^to olear which keep the islet.on a N.E..be«ruig,^ bxiogiog
ity when past the point at the bend of the riyer, in line with the point, and
80 cross over to the left bank to avoid the strong eddies and rocks, of
Lang«kiang*ki.

lUUro-BlAVO-JLit or Hen point, 100 feet high, is a mile above where
the river bends back to the south-east, and the river here is rendered
excesuvely dangerous by a large barrier of rocks extending from this point
half way across towards the west bank of the river^ the tops of which rise
out of it like so many stepping stones. In December the outer rock of
this barrier is dry, but may be seen a month earlier marked by a bosh
which is sunk on it. Mr, Hockly also states that there is a spit jast
above a low point nearly opposite Lang-kiang-ki. To avoid this dangerous
spot the Chinese have made a cutting or canal on the eastern bank called
the No-yang ho.

In rounding Hen point there are very strong eddies, and great care is
necessary with the steerage in passing through the chow-chow water,
which has been known to nearly turn a large vessel round and run her
ashore before the helm could take effect The eddies are strongest at
the upper part of the passage about abreast the rocks. Keep the left bank
aboard, and when past the rocks, or when Hen point bears East, make
good a S.E. course across to the opposite or left bank of the river which
is steep, and should be kept aboard on a nearly S. by W. course for the
next 4 or 5 miles.|

xrura-AOOvo socx ana XiICHIT.— A very dangerous sunken rock,
over which was a depth of 15 feet § on March 9th 1873, exists right in
the fairway, a little below Hen point. From the rock, Hen point bears
E.S.E., Tai-tzu chi islet N.N.E. } E., and the lighthouse S.S.W. By
keeping Tai-tzu chi well open of the point until the lighthouse bears
S. by W., the rock will be avoided. This rock, which is probably the
outer danger of the ledge off Hen point is well westward of the centre of
the river.

A fixed red light, suspended from the walking-beam of the engpuie of
the Kiang^loong steamer, which was wrecked upon it, at an elevation pf
40 feet above the water level of this period of the year, is shown at mght,
except during very boisterous weather when the keepers are unable to visit
the vessel.



♦ The 70-feet rise in line with Tai-tzu chi would probably be a good leading mark.

f Meaning " Bar river hen."

X J. M. Hockly, Esq., and Nav. Lieutenant A. T. Miller, R.N.

§ The least water reported on the rock is 9 feet.



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cayp,vm.] HEN POINT— NaANKING BEACH. B&li



vfMk3va»Y€iir»»A.Q^^-*-QppQsit& the. lower end Qf.sQme ^aadalone cliffs
po^fljr ^.iip^.^boyeHen^.poHiiy'NgankjLQg'^raaGh.ma^ 1)6 entjored bj a
ohaimel nortb ol'^o^lj:^. iel^x^.wluob is genially, uaed in auHimeraad
^eanries ,15 te^Avamg tbe winter months. . The. maUi chaiu^l of the river
is so^tli of JooeljFii iidand, ^ miles in leogth, and wl^ieh is bordered by
shoals 'r l^eep the right bank aboard which is steep, and when clear of the
western spit of the island continue the same course across the river, or cross
with the pagoda W. by N. ^ N., striking close under the city wall^ and
following the bank close round till abreast two small trees 2 miles above
Nganking, thus avoiding the extensive shoals and mud flats which extend
from the other bank so far across the stream ae to make the navigable
channel extremely nanTow.

Nganking, the capital of Nganhwui, is an extensive walled city standing
upon the left bank, upon ground considerably raised above the surround-
ing country. There is a substantially built, isolated stone fort on the Iqw
ground of the bank just below the city, in which is a fine pagoda- The
river fauce or south side of the walls is fully 1^ miles long. Extensive
suburbs, which once existed, are now in ruins.

aaoaui xs&avb azobt is at the south-west point of a small island
on the left bank formed by a creek. It is a ^ed light, of the sixth order,
dioptric, elevated 41 feet above the bank, and in clear weather should be
seen a distance of 7 miles.

Opposite Eagle island light is Sandy point, 4 miles al>ove Nganking.
There is a very conspicuous tree inside or westward of the point which is
a good guide to a stranger, as it can be seen almost immediately after
passing Nganking, for the land is extremely low and bare. Sandy point
has a spit which must be approached with much caution as it is extending
eastward ; a S.S.W. course from the two small trees above Nganking will
clear it.

CSBtzsTMAB Z8&AVB and &ZOBT. — ^Immediately above Eagle island
the river divides round Christmas island, 4^ miles in length, and the most
direct course is eastward of this island. In taking this channel keep the
right bank aboard, avoiding the north-east point of the island, but closing
the south-eastern part after passing the Red sand bluffs.*

Abreast the south-east part of Christmas island and south of the Bed
sand blufifs, a low island, 2^ miles long, has formed pn a shoal which greatly
contracts the channel, which at this spot lies close to Christmas island.

The light is on the south extreme of Christmas island; it is a fixed
dioptric light of the sixth order, elevated 40 feet above the bank, and in
clear weather should be seen a distance of 7 miles.

* In 1870 there was better -water near Low island than near Christmas island. There
is always deep water in the channel



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806 THS TANGTSS KIANG. [chap. Tin.

The roandftboot channel westward of ChriBtmas island is never taken
now,* and little is known concerning its present state. It was formerly a
deep channel with the coarse nearly west from Sandy point till after
ronnding Bover island, when it was again to the southward, gradually
approaching Christmas island, the southern point of which was to be passed
about 1^ cables, to ayoid some mud flats lying near the left bank, which
did not dry till December. Rover island was also passable on the east by
a 6 &ith<ftis channeL

Tmr«&iv BBACV* — Stand into Tangliu reach with the west extreme
of Christmas island bearing N. by W. ^ W., which is a mid-channel coarse,
borrowing over to the Bed bluffs of Whangshih-ki, 3^ miles above, and
gradually gaining the right bank, which may be followed up to Tanglia,
Above Christmas island there are flats on both sides, but above the bluffs
the deep water is along the east bank, and nearly the whole reach is filled
with a succession of middle grounds, westward of which is a channel
preferred and more generally used in summer, but which from Bed
blufls to a mile or two above Tungliu is too shallow to be entered at
other seasons.

Tunglia,! a third-class city, with rather formidable looking walls, built
on the right bank, stands a little back from the river, from which it is
separated by a plain half a mile broad. The wall dips and rises over
undulating ground, and finally descends to the waters of a lake which half
encircles the town, and is fringed with trees. The surrounding country
produces wheat, millet, rice, cotton, hemp, potatoes, and inferior tea.
A pagoda of eight stories stands on a point of the river north of the town.
Give this point a good berth, as, although shallow water was not obtained
there, a great commotion was observed in the stream, apparently caused by
some rock or other check to its even course.

After passing the pagoda, continue throughout the reach along the right
bank, thereby avoiding an upper series of middle grounds, dry in December,
which extend from 2 to 10 miles above Tungliu. These dangerous banks
will have been passed when abreast Whangyuen-chin, where there is a
custom-house with joss poles. On one of them, at 4^ miles above Tangliu,
is a sunken ledge of rocks, of only 4 feet water in February, upon which
vessels have grounded, and to clear it the course lies within 150 feet of the
right bank, and it is not possible to use too much caution as rocks % s^ found
close in shore, about 2 miles farther up. Between Whangyuen-chin and

* 1866. This is really the main channel of the river.

t See Admiralty Chart of the Yangtse kiang,Sheet4, Tungliu to Hankau, No. 2,695 ;
scale m^O'5 of an inch.

% About 3} miles above Tung-liu is Spencer rock, 100 yards from the right bank
baring only 6 feet water over it in February.



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CHAP. Tin.] CHRISTMAS ISLAND TO LITTLE ORPHAN. 397

Dove poinf at the upper extremity of this reach, which is 26 miles above
Christmas island, a large shoal has formed, but the point itself is steep ;
the right bank must therefore be kept throughout the reach.

On the right bank of the river here are high ranges, but the left is quite