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considerably by the growth of the banks on both sides. The right bank
has most water under the hilly ground, having passed which, steer a mid-
channel course, borrowing over towards the opposite point when passing.
Futse-kau. A small river enters the Yangtse at Futse-kau^ and leads to
a district of which coal and cotton are the two most important productions.
The coal is said to be procured at Hing-kwoh, 15 miles up this stream, at
the price of 18«. a ton.

XZCBAir smacR is entered at Pwanpien shan or the Split hill, 3 miles
above Futse-kau. The river here becomes contracted, flowing through a

♦ J. M. Hockly, Esq.

t The light is called Huang-lin in the Chinese Official List of March 1784, bat
Hunter island on the Admiralty chart on which there is the village of Hong-luny oppo-
fite the island.

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406 THE YANGTSE KIAKG. [ghap.yhl

hillj ooantry, bat the water is deep aud the navigaticm easy except at the
Havoc rocks and when approaching Kichau. In the summer season,
between Futse-kau and HaTOC rocks, great attention must be paid * to the
helm, for the channel is narrow with steep bluffs on both sides, and the
current being thrown off by the points causes strong eddies, and in some
parts runs from 5 to 7 knots an hour.

mmw9 and «ito«r moeka. — There is a point on the east side^ 2 miles
above Split hiU, on which is a ruin, and off this point are some rock^
llavoc rocks are 4 miles above this, and lie off the left bank in a bight
between two low hilU ; and abreast them, in mid-channel, is a rock which
was uncovered 3 feet in February 1865. Bocks also border the shore in
front of a village on the right bank, 2 miles above EEavoc rocks; keej^
mid-channel here.

From the point above this village, and on which are two small liills, to a
mile above Kichau the mud flats lying off the right bank have increased to
such an extent as to render the channel dangerously narrow during the
winter months ; and to clear them, an isolated rock, on which stands a
remarkable ruined fort^ must be steered for, passing outside or westward of
it within 100 yards, and the shore at Kichau at the same distance. These
mud flats extend some 4 miles parallel to the bank.

MXOUAXr KiaBT, on the ruins of the old fort on the islet in the
river, below the city of Kichau, is a ^xed light of the sixth order,
dioptric, elevated about 70 feet, and can be seen in clear weather a
distance of 7 miles. It is visible when bearing from N.W. by N^. through
north and east to S.S.W. ^ W. southerly.

yKTJkMn KSAOB, which trends about N.N.W., appears to be quite safe
and clear ; the left bank should be neared when passing the hills on that
side, and kept throughout the reach, as extensive sand-banks skirt the
oppodte shore at its northern part.

Xi-tau, or Cock's head, 16 miles above Kichau, may be passed close to.
It is a remarkable bluff on the right bank, rising perpendicularly to a
height of 300 feet, and cannot be mistaken. The right bank below Kitau
has grown out considerably, necessitating the utmost caution whilst passing
the bend.

cocK'8 Rman MaHX.^Light boat No. 5 is moored off this head, and
its position is altered as necessary. The illuminating apparatus is dioptric,
of the sixth order, exhibiting SL^xed light visible all round, elevated 32 feet
above the water, and in clear weather should be seen 7 miles, except where
shut out by the land. Its approximate position is lat. 30° 12' 16" N.,
long. US'" 12'23"E.

♦ Nav. Lieut. Arthur Gore Ponsonby. R.N.

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&ee B^olu. — ^A dangerous bed of rocks^ which uncovered 2 feet in
February 1865, lie abreast some limestone quarries at Shih-wui-yau, a
place on the right bank, 3 miles above the Cock's head. To cleai' them, be
care&l not to approach the right bank, until Cock's head is touching the
low point of the opposite or north shore, when the Lee rocks will have been
passed to the northward. The right bank must now be kept aboaid, for
the shoal off the opposite shore has so extended as to render the utmost
care and circumspection necessary whilst passing this bend.

Three miles above Lee rocks is Whang-shih-kang, a densely populated
little town, with its river wall fmd balustrade of yellow sandstone, situated
imder the northern spur of the rugged limestone range just passed, and
chiefly inhabited by quarrymen.

'vrhnylnnrU Socks. — ^At the upper part of this bend and on the left
bank, 2\ miles above Whang-shih-kang, and just below where the river
splits round Collinson island, is a small rocky hill, 70 feet high, northward
from which is the Whuylungki, a very dangerous ledge of rocks extending
nearly 200 yards into the river, and more than a mile along the bank.

coxi&nrsoir isiukxi^ XizaBTS. — Light-boat No. 4 is moored at the
lower end of Collinson island from July 1st to December 31st, and at the
upper end of Hunter island from January 1st to June 30th.* It exhibits
a j^xed light, of the sixth order, dioptric, elevated 32 feet above the
water, and visible 7 miles where not obscured by the land.

Light-boat No. 3, exhibiting a similar light in all respects, is moored
at the upper end of Collinson island.*

Coninson zsiana and Bar. — The river proper runs eastward of Collinson
island which is 5 miles in length, and has to be taken in winter. It must
be entered carefully, passing between the Whuylungki rocks and the spit
extending 7 cables from the south point of Collinson, above which keep
along the bight. Off the north end of the island is an extensive sand-
bank, and bar during winter of only 1 1 feet ; the sandbank may be passed
to the north of, by keeping the summit of the Si-shan hiUs at the head of
Paho reach in line (or a httle shut in) with Yan-ki, the first point above,
W. JN., but a careful lead is the best guide here,t for as these banks are
shifKing the above mark might lead over the edge of the shoals to the
northward, which are middle grounds. This mark will lead across to the
right bank, which may be closed, and after passing the small village of

* Chinesfr Official list. Their positions are altered as necessaiy.

t Batly in September 1865 two vesBels, under charge of experienced pilots, groonded
on this bar jast as the water was beginning to fall, and it took five riyer steamers to tow
one of them, the Fire Queen, off.

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408 THE YAKOTSE OAKG. [osap.thi.

Tang-ki, be kept close aboard, tc avoid the middle grounds which are
7 miles in extent, and dry in December.

Ayrea Clhaa—l, west of Collinson island, is a cut-off of 2^ miles. If
proceeding bj it hng the point opposite Whuj-lung-ki, and then pass
through in mid-channel.* This channel is again divided, at its upper
extremity, by Poole island, west of the north end of Collinson, and when
dosed by the bar at its north end deep water may be found in the narrow
passage between Collinson and Poole islands, through which a North
course is steered until the above leading mark is on. If there be good water
throughout Ayres channel keep moderately near the right bank round
Yangki point into Paho reach.

9MMO BHAOS* — ^After passing a small ridge of hills, on one of which
is a remarkable and conspicuous boulder, continue along the south bank^
passing the small village of Tsi-ku-kang, 7^ miles above Collinson island^
above which keep well over to the north side to avoid two rocks 1^ and 3
miles above the village. This reach is almost choked with shoals which
are shifting, and is in consequence subject to constant and rapid changes,
and in some years a bar of 10 feet has formed just eastward of Tsi-ku-kang.
The only description that can be given of these shoals is that they are for
the most part middle grounds, and that their positions are uncertain ; and
the navigation of the reach is only safe with the most recent information
that can be obtained from pilots- or the captains of the river steamers
running between Shanghai and Hankow.t

A small stream enters the Yangtse at Paho, a small town substantially
built of red sandstone on the north bank at the east end of the reach ;
the plain to the northward, where there are some lakes, is inundated
in summer.

»«i»-kwei and "W^ebanr Sooka.— The Peh-kwei rock is N.E.byE. of
Wuchang pagoda, and nearly mid-channel; it dries about 25 feet in
February, and is visible from the middle of November to the middle of
April. The rock off the town of Wuchang is about one third across the
river and dries 17 feet, being above water from the end of November till
the beginning of ApriL

Bjtbesea Cliaanei. — The town of Whangchau on the left bank is 3
miles northward of Wuchang, and abreast it the river divides into three
channels round two narrow islands. Bythesea channel, the western of

* In 1870 the west bank had the deeper water as far as Yangki point, where it was
necessary to cross over and keep along the north shore as far as Wills island, which in
the smnmer is nnder water, bat the lead is a yeiy good gaide.

f From Remarks of J. H. Hockly, Esq.

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the three, is always used daring winter*; the eastern is not navigable until
the river has risen 6 feet, being closed from the middle of December till
the beginning of March ; the centre channel may be used in summer.

The Bythes^a channel, 4 miles in length, requires to be navigated with
extreme caution and boldness, for it is so narrow that a vessel touching on
either side, and swinging across, would ground on the opposite bank, and
have the whole weight of the stream pressing her down. It should, there-
fore, be avoided as soon as the eastern channel is navigable. The right
bank has to be kept close aboard, especially at the southern part of the
channel, and the entrance point should be steered for after passing the
pagoda of Whangchau. After clearing these channels the river is clear
for 4 miles up to Gravener island.

OBAVBVBR iSAAini, round which the river turns by a sharp bend to the
eastward, is nearly 5 miles across. Vessels always pass this way in winter
(for the cut-off channels are then closed) and enter the channel whicli
bends at right angles to the east, by first closing the San-kiang-hau cliffy
opposite its mouth, and then standing across and along the south side ot
Gravener island f until the course becomes E.S.E., after which cross ovei
into the bight and keep the left bank close aboard around the bend, whiel)
is deep as far as the bar, until the course becomes about W.S.W., for tho
island is bordered by sandbanks.

The passage becomes difficult north of Gravener, where are the bar ol
and shoals extending from the island, on passing which the north bank
should be closely kept until a double-roofed joss house on the same side
bears N.N.E., when the river has to be carefully crossed on a nearly
S.W. by W. course between sandbanks on either hand ; but on approaching
the south side of the river haul up to pass northward of the low earth
cliffs of Pau-hia-ki, which are bold-to and stand at the entrance of Lo-
koh-hi reach.

&iaRT. — The Kate or No. 2 light-boat is moored at the upper end ot
Gravener island, j; and exhibits a fixed light, of the sixth order, dioptric,
which is elevated 32 feet above the water, and is visible from a distance
of 7 miles where not obscured by the land.

Cut-off ciiaaneLi. — There are three channels west of Gravener islaud
which cut off 6, 8, and 9 miles of distance respectively. The first between
Gravener and Wills island, is not now considered safe, for it was closing

• In February 1873 Bythesea channel was closed to all but very small boats. — Re-
mark Book of Lieut. Whish, B.N., H.M.S. Leveiu

t Thus aToiding the shoal off the opposite point which jforms the south point of entrance
to the •hannel.

J Position altered as necessary. Chinese Official List, 1874.

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410 THE YAKGTSB KIANG. [ohap. vm.

in 1866 ;* the second, west of Wills island, is not navigable until the river
has risen 12 feet, or fh>m the beginning of December until the last week in
March ; the fourth and westemmosti a new channel which opened in 1866,
is onlj a summer boat channeL The right bank of the river westward
these channels is very low and inundated in summer.

MMB#B-ai BBAOSy or Washington reach, as originallj named, is
foul, having several middle grounds and the south shore being rocky. The
course now adopted is firom Pau-hi»-ki cliffs S.W. by W. ^ W., crossing
the river again, between a shoal on the north side off Yang-kia-chau and
the lower middle grounds, into the deep water along the north shore.
Porpoise bluff, 300 feet high, may be rounded mid-channel, being carefol of
the tide eddies, also the Six Chicks rocks N.W. of the bluff, and some rocks
off Lo-koh-hi, which extend nearly 200 yards [^from the right bank, also
of the sandbank off Bouncer island, which forms the north side of tlie
channel, and which has extended considerably into it. Pih-hu shan or White
Tiger hill, a prominent elevation of about 400 feet and 2^ miles westward
of Porpoise bluff, is also kept aboard. W.N.W. from Porpoise bluff is the
entrance of the Huquang channel, north of Bouncer island, a cut-off of 1^
miles, which may be used when the river has risen 12 feet.

OamtioD. — Even when the current above Kiukiang is feeble, at the Six
Chicks rocks it is found from 3 to 4 knots, and a vessel passing must keep
the light-vessel on the sand spit opposite close on board, to avoid being
set on these rocks during the winter months.

TAva&O itSAOB.-*At 2 miles above White Tiger hill is another crossing
above Bouncer island, the right bank having shoaled out a considerable
distance,! but upon passing the 200 feet hill to the westward, a N. ^ W,
course for the ruined temple on the spur of a hill of the left bank, a con-
spicuous object, escapes this danger ; above this the reach is free from any
impediments. Yanglo, a small town a mile above the ruin, may be ap-
proached close to, but not the point north of it, for off it is a rock which
would be covered after April.

Boiuioer Xsiaaa uiaBT.^— Light-boat No. 1, moored} at the lower end
of Bouncer island, exhibits b, fixed light, of the sixth order, dioptric, which
is elevated 32 feet above the water, and is visible 7 miles, where not
obscured by the land.

♦ In Febroary 1878 this passage was completely closed.— Lieat. Whisk, E.N. The
same officer states that although the crossings at several parts of the liyer are con-
tinoally changing slightly, the sandbanks are yeiy c<»Teotly laid down on the Admiralty
charts, and he was able to proceed in H.M.S. Leven, drawing 8^ feet, £rom Chmkiaiig
to Hankow at this season without a pilot, the river being then at its lowest

t J. M. Hockly, Esq.

% Chme$e Official Li$t corrected to Kazch 1S74.

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abow Point XJ[OBT. — On Low point, above and opposite Yanglo and 8
miles above White Tiger hill is ^ fixed Hght, exhibited from an elevation of
43 feet above the bank, which in clear weather should be seen from a
distance of 7 miles. It is a dioptric light of the sixth order. The erection
is 58 feet high. It is ^^red^ visible from S.E. round by South to N. by
E. \ E.'

PAKXVOTOir RBAOR. — Shakau is a village under a flat topped hill, and
lying in the bight north of Low point, which bight is rocky ; and between
Shakau and the creek above it, the shoal extends about half a mile off the
north shore, whence keep the left bank well aboard through Pakington
and Hankow reaches right up to Hankow, for the south shore is bordered
by an extensive shoal which contracts the channel for several miles,
especially at a part where Einshan, a remarkable bluff one mile inland
bears South.

LO\7 HSACR is clear as far up as the British Concession at the
lower part of Hankow 13 miles above Low point, although the right bank
is shoal. Hankow is situated on the left bank and immediately below
the mouth of the Han, which flows into the Yangtse from the north-

The river Han, sometimes called the Siyang ho, is the largest tributary
of the Yangtse on the north. It rises in the south-west of Shensi, and
drains the south of that province and the whole of Hopeh, in its course of
500 miles ; its basin is estimated at 100,000 square miles. The city
of Siangyang, about 200 miles up its course, is the port of transhipment
on the route to Fekin and Tientsin.

Above the Han, the Yangtse passes through a group of hills isolated
on the vast plain through which it here flows. On these hills on either
bank are the walled cities of Hanyang fti and Wuchang fu. Hanyang, on
the left bank, is inconsiderable even with its suburbs. It is conspicuously
situated, its walls passing over a barren ridge, called the Ta-pieh, " the
great dividing mount," the summit of which, overlooking the Han and
crowned by a pagoda, commands the three cities.

Wuchang, opposite, and on the right bank, is the capital of Hupeh,
where the Governor General of (he two provinces Hupeh and Hunan
resides. It is fortified, and has a double-bastioned wall alnng the margin
of the river. A ridge runs through the centre of the city, commanding a
view of the whole space within the walls. The population of Wu-chang is
not openly unfriendly to foreigners, but the troops occasionally quartered
there, as also the students periodically assembled for examination, have
more than once given cause of complaint by acts of rudeness and even of
violence towards foreigners passing through the streets.

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412 THB YAN6T8B OAKG. [chaf.tiix.

MMMm&Wt or Hwikiii is 134* nautical miles above Kiokiang, 586 from
Sliaiif^iai, and upwards of 600 from the sea. The position of the sand«
bank south of the Han entrance and east of Hanjang pagod% is lat.
W 32* 61" N., long^ 114*» 19' 66' E.

"Jliis dtjf the highest treaQr port on the Tangtse, and first in importance,
is the most odebrated of the native marts of China, and ranks amongst the
five cAAt or principal commercial centres of the empire.f It is said to
command the most extensive network of river communication on the face
of the globe, which has given it prominent commercial importance from a
very earl j period*

Hankow extends for a mile along the left bank of the Yangtse, and 2|
miles along the Han, but occupies no great depth inland. Two streets,
crossed bj other curved streets leading to the waterside, traverse the
entire length of the city in parallel lines. The custom house is at the
lower extremity of the town, near a fort, also the foreign concession
ground and consulate. Thrice destroyed by the Taipings, the vitality of
Hankow as a great mercantile emporium is remarkable, and strikingly
points out the value as well as necessity of this locality for commercial
purposes. In 1863 a defence wall$ and creek were constructed, enclosing
a rectangular space of about four square miles. The population has been
estimated of late years at 600,000, and that of the three cities at about

Thm Britlab O o a e— t o« is at the lower extremity of Hankow, having
a frontage of 800 yards, with a wide bund along the river side accessible
by five jetties, whilst above and beyond its limits the various mercantile
houses, whose steamers run between Hankow and Shanghai, have esta-
blished .wharves for their accommodation. The consular buildings occupy
the lower part of the British Concession, next are those of the Chinese
maritime customs, and beyond, the French and other foreign settlements.
There have been three hospitals established, one by the foreign community,
a second by the Wesleyans, and a third by the London Missionary Society.

BuppUea, TraAe, Ae^ — ^The markets are well supplied with beef, mutton,
and poultry, and game is abundant in the cool season. Prices do not vary
much from the rates prevailing at Shanghai. Several foreign stores are
established for the supply of imported articles. The river water, if filtered,
is said to be both pure and good. Excellent iron is procurable. Hankow
had once an extensive salt trade, which recently has shown signs of

* 145 miles by the bends of the riyer.

f These are Hankow, Fatshan near Canton, Siangtan in Hunan, Kingteh in Eiangsi,
and Singan fa in Shensi.

t The wall is of stone, 13 ftet in heigbt and 4 miles long ; a brick parapet raises the
Btraetnre to a height of 18 feet


The native coal brought to market has improved in quality of late years,
and most of the steamers running on the river take supplies of it. It comes
from the adjoining province of Hunan where there exists an enormous coal
field near Kao-ching-fu, extending over 30,000 square miles, supplying the
greater part of central China.

Although the anticipations of foreigners in regard to the trade were not
at first realised in consequence of the competition and combination of
Chinese merchants and compradors, of late years it has been progressing
steadily, owing to the increase of the direct importation of goods. In 1871
the native produce exported amounted in value to 5,578,258/. sterling, of
which tea has formed the staple, and constitutes one-half the total value.
Silk, drugs, hemp, oil, tobacco, timber, coal, wax, tallow, &c. are also chief
among the exports. The imports, foreign and native, have amounted in
value to 6,756,631/., embracing cotton and woollen goods, opium, sugar,
paper, seaweed, &c., and copper cash necessary for the purchase of teas.
There entered, in 1871, 380 British and other foreign vessels, and 450 '
cleared, tiie excess being due to chartered jimks, flying the British flag,
which leave the port but do not enter it.

Exchange is confined chiefly to drafts upon Shahghai, and three foreign
banks have agencies here. The standard of sycee silver is about 2^ per
cent, higher than at Shanghai, and much debased silver is in circulation,
but all sycee can now he officially tested. The Mexican dollar passes
current, but accounts are kept in taels, of which 97^ are generally equal to
100 Shanghai taels.

There is regular steam conununication with Shanghai and the inter-
mediate ports three or four, times a week. The up journey occupies about
4^ days in September, the return passage 2^ days.

Tbe Climate is dry, and hence &r healthier than that of Shanghai
notwithstanding the yearly inundations. The summer is hot, but not so
trying as on the coast, although the degree of heat recorded is frequently .
far higher than any ordinarily reached at the more southern ports. The
hot weather may be said to last until the middle of September, and from
this period to December, highly enjoyable weather prevails, the thermo-
meter gradually falling to freezing point, which it usually reaches towards
the new year. Snow and ice occur during most winters, but are of no long

The following particulars of the weather have been recorded : — *

January. — ^Prevailing winds N.E. and E. round to S.E., fine and cold.
Three N.E. gales occurred, accompanied with heavy sand storm, one
continuing 3 days.

♦ Remark Book of Commander C. C. Risipg, B.N., H.M.S. Midge, 1871.

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[cHAf . vm.

February.— IVeyailiug winds N.E. with three strong gales from same
qoarter, being occasionally io N.W., accompanied with rain ; light winds
from other quarters on 8 or 4 days.

March.*-PreTailing winds N.E. to N. with one strong gale, southerly
and calm on 10 days^ and rain on 7 days.

ApriL— Prevailing winds N.E. to N.W. with cahns, three strong gales
from KJC veering to N.W., blowing hardest with fine weather, and
becoming overcast and rainy as the wind moderated ; oontinnous rain on
8 daysi S.E. and S.W. winds on Id^days.

In June and July the wind is from N.E. or up the reach^ sometimes half
a gale.

In the early part of August the weather is wet and very unsettled.

In September the winds are generally N.E. and North, with occasionai
calms and light idrs from S.E. to West ; N.E. winds are usually accom*
panied with rain. Temperature, 87^ to 70°.

In November the same winds prevail for two-thirds of the month, with
scarcely any rain. A north gale may set in suddenly and last for three
days, but the barometer gives good warning. After a strong blow it is
necessary to lift both anchors, as otherwise they get buried by the mud
and sand brought down by the increased current. Temperature, 6T to 48^

In December light north and N.E. winds prevail, and there is little rain.