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inside it, but it is apparently connected with the main by a spit, which
runs off from €he low inshore or north part of the island ; the outer or
south part of the island is a bluff 200 feet high.

FzmAC&E KJBLirGfi is on the coast, about 11 miles N.byE. of Lang-yi
tau. It is about 1,600 feet in height, serrated at its summit, and broken in its
descent to the sea into a number of remarkable, rugged hills. This broken
ridge runs about S.S.E., and abuts on the sea at 4^ miles from the summit.
Between this and Lang-yi tau is a large bay with sandy shores. The next
13 miles of shore to the north-eastward has not been explored, but from
thence to Staunton island the coast has been regularly surveyed, com-
mencing from the cape northward of Tolosan. Pinnacle range would
appear to be the Chinese Lingshan.

TO-&o-8JLir is an island 2^ miles in extent, north and south, lying
about N.E. by E. 15 miles from Lang-yi-tau. It is a mountain ridge, the
southern part of which rises to an elevation of 1,700 feet, and is pre-
cipitous, but slopes away towards its northern point, off which is a small
low island. Its position on the chart is pretty accurate.

TAWO-TAV is a peninsula forming the south boundary of Kyau-chau
>ay. From cape Evelyn, its north point, it extends south-westward about
11 miles, and the shore appears to be bordered by long reefs, with depths
of 6 to 8 fathoms at a quarter of a mile. There is said to be a group
of unexplored islands about its south point which is situated northward



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Ifi2 YANGTSE KEAKG TO PE-CHILI STEAIT. [chap.ix.

from To-lo-aan inlftDd, and south-westward fipom Ta-mo-shan, a smooth
outlincMl mounUun, 2^49 feet high, which is also called High Double
OD account of its showing a double summit when seen from the east-
ward*

TOMA^uxv-TAV, in lat. 35 54^' N., long. 120^63' E., is S.S.E. \ E.
16^ milofl from cnpe Ya-tau, the nearest land, and E. hj S. 19^ miles from
Tai-kuni; tau off the entrance of Kyau-chau bay. The island is one mile
in U»ngth N.E. and S.W. and very narrow ; at its centre is a small even-
topiKjd hill, 1H2 feet high, and its eastern end is a detached bluff.

This island is quite different in character from Surveyors' island,
deHCiibcil on page 452, and which lies N.E. i E. 34 miles from it. In the
spring iind early summer dense fogs hang about these islands, even when
the const is perfectly free from them ; caution, therefore, must be observed
lest the tidcH, which are strong at springs and imperfectly understood, set
the vessel out of her reckoning.

TAZ-xmra tav is an island, 341 feet high, 10 miles E.S.E. of cape
Evelyn, the south point of entrance to Kyau-chau bay, and S.W. ^ S.,
16 miles from cajK3 Ya-tau. It is of smooth and rounded outline, and from
all points of view greatly resembles a haycock. "W.N.W. half a mile from
it is a round islet, 103 feet high ; and W.S.W. 6 cables from the islet is
a rock which covers at high water, surrounded by a reef extending 4 cables
to the south-south-west, which at other times of tide is partly dry and
partly awash. It is recommended to give this island a berth of 2 miles
when passing westward of it.

srav-xwG tav, lying 5 miles E.N.E. from Tai-kung tau, and
S.W. J S. 10^ miles from cape Ya-tau, is a large, flat, square niass of
rock rising sheer from the sea to the height of 78 feet, and apparently
bold-to on all sides, with 15 fathoms water at 3 cables' distance.

somrB I8&AWB, 172 feet high, lying South of the west point of
entrance to Kyau-chau bay at 2 miles from the shore, is of semicircular
profile, and conspicuous on that account. About a quarter of a mile west
of it, and connected at low water, is another island, larger, but only
100 feet high, having a level top, and inhabited. Off the east side of
Round islet are two low islets.

BAVOB&OU8 Bocnc, bearing N. f E. 3 miles from the summit of
Round island, and S.E. | S. If miles fi^m the west entrance point of
Kyau-chau bay, is just covered at high- water springs, and has deep water
on all sides.

At one mile W.S.W. of it and half a mile off-shore is another rock
which covers at 5 feet rise of tide. Between these two rocks there is a



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CHAP. IX.] TCHA-LIEN-TAU — KYAU-CHAU BAY. 443

passage of 13 fathoms water, with the point bearing N.N.W., but it is
more prudent to keep outside or eastward of Dangerous rock.

8'WiL]«&0'W BAMiL, of 26 feet least water and half a mile in extent,
lies N.E. f N., 4 miles from Round island, and E.S.E. 3 miles from the
west point of entrance. This bank appears to be formed by deposits from
the bay. To pass north of it keep the summit of Sishan touching cape
Evelyn W. by N. nearly. A good mark to lead between it and Dangerous
rock, is the highest and northern summit of Chi-po-san, touching Pile
point a little eastward of cape Evelyn, about N. W. by W.

"wvz HAX or XTAir-CBAU BAT,* the entrance of which is on the
west coast of the Yellow sea, in lat. 36° 2' N. long. 120° 18' E., is a
spacious harbour and one of the best sheltered on the east coast of China,
its area at high tide being about 140 square miles, and the anchorage
perfectly landlocked. It is partially frozen over during the severe winter
season, which sets in at the beginning of December and ends about
March, and the inhabitants say that the ice is then firm enough to walk
across from Potato island at the north part of the bay to Chi-po-san
within the entrance.

There will be no difficulty in recognizing the entrance to this bay in
clear weather, either when approaching from north or south, for at 17 miles
eastward of it, the Loshan mountain, which is 3,530 feet high and extends
north almost the same height for a mile, forms an unmistakeable landmark.
On a nearer approach the rugged top of the Lungshan mountain, 1,146 feet
high, will appear as a prominent and singular feature, and a little farther
westward and immediately over the north side of entrance is Nubble hill,
490 feet high, with a large stone on its summit. At 1 1 miles westward of
the entrance, the Tamo-shan or High Double mountain, of smooth out-
line, rises to the height of 2,249 feet, and is very conspicuous, showing a
double summit from the eastward ; this range runs north and meets tUe
summit of Sishan, a mountain 1,096 feet high.

The general appearance of the land about the bay is barren in the
extreme, and the dry parched soil (yellowish clay interspersed with occa-
sional blocks of granite) has a most uninviting appearance. The entrance,
1| miles wide, is between the bluff of cape Evelyn on the south, and a low
promontory with rocky shores on the north, which terminates in a grassy
island of the same character, Y u-nui-san, 30 feet high, which lies south of
its western extremity. Cape Evelyn is the north extreme of a promontory
extending from the southward nearly 3 miles. Immediately over the cape
is Titimg-shan hill, 618 feet high; south of which the hills are undulating,

♦ See Admiralty Chart of Kyau-chau bay No. 857 ; scale, m =1*3 inches. The local
name is Chiu-chu.



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444 YANGT8B KIANG TO PE-CHILI STRAIT. tcHAP.ix.

and the soathonmoBti 400 feet high, has a conical appearance from sea-
ward*

At 8 miles W.N.W. from cape Evelyn is Chi-po-san island, which is
the first low land recognized after passing the entrance. It is 2^ miles
long in a N.N.E. direction, with an average breadth of three-qnarters of a
mile. There are several extensive villages on it, and its northern or
highest hill has an elevation of 177 feet. Sishan mountain to the west-
ward of Chi-po-san island is very conspicuous, and extending eastward
ftom its summit for nearly 3 miles is a range of hills 700 and 800 feet
high, falling abruptly on all sides. N.W. by W. 8 miles from Sishan,
another range suddenly rises from the level ground, the highest hill of
which, 694 feet elevation, has the appearance of a saddle.

The actual head of the bay, which is its north-western part, has no
distinguishing feature, and the almost level land, about 180 feet bigh, is
£Aced by extensive mud flats, which dry out nearly 3 miles from the shore.
Potato island, forming the northern boundary of the bay, is about 4 miles
in extent east and west, and the same north and south, having its greatest
elevation near the centre, which is about 200 feet high. Its south-eastern
part is the Ting-ge-san promontory, the summit of which, 176 feet high,
and immediately over the east extreme, is easily recognized.

On the eastern side of the bay, 6 miles inland, is the Tung-lau-shan
mountain, 1,924 feet high, which from its singular formation has a most
striking appearance, the summit, as its name indicates, greatly resembling
a tower. Gau-shan or Harbour Hill, 333 feet high, on the eastern shore
of the bay, and 6 miles inland, is connected with the rugged range of
Lungshan to the south-east by an almost level ridge 350 feet high.

Saj" moek, covering at 3 feet rise of tide, lies W. by N. ^ N. I^^ mUes
from cape Evelyn, and S.W. | W. nearly 2 miles from the south point of
Yu-nui-san. This rock may almost be called a hidden danger, as it is
covered at low-water neaps. To pass north of it, keep Tai-kung-tau well
open of cape Evelyn.

Bone Blioe Book is the most off-lying danger on the east shore of the
bay, from which it is distant half a mile. It covers at 5 feet rise of tide,
and from .its north-west horn the west extreme of Yu-nui-san hears
S. by W. J W. 2 miles, and the summit of Chi-po-san W.S.W. 3^ miles.
The summits of Tung-lau-shan and Gau-shan in line, and open westward
of Woman's island, N.E. ^ E., lead 3 cables to the westward of it.

ll7omaa*« Island, 15 feet high, and on the same shore of the bay, is
nearly 2 J miles S.W. ^ W. from Gau-shan summit, and 2 J miles N.W.^N.
from Nubble Hill. It north and west sides are fringed with rocks which
dry at low water, and it is connected with the mainland by p-n extensive



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/

/



CHAP. IX.] WEI-HAI, OR KYAU-CHAU BAY. 445

mud flat. At 4 cables S.W. by W. ^ W. from the centre of the island is
a rock which covers at 10 feet rise of tide.

Supplies. — ^Almost any necessary supplies can be obtained at the village
of Ching-tau-kow, which stands in a bight on the north side of entrance
of Kyau-chau bay, one mile west of Nubble hill ; also at Nui-tse-kow,* on
the north-east shore of the bay. The third village of importance is Ta-pu-
tur at the head or north-west arm of the bay, 7 miles from the nearest
anchorage, and distant 8 miles from the city of Kyau-chau. Each of the
above villages has a custom-house. There is a large junk trade carried on
with ports to the north and south; their cargoes are principally grain,
fruit, and vegetables. Ta-pu-tur is situated in a marshy plain full of
lagoons, and is very unhealthy.

Clear and good water can be obtained by digging above high water
mark in the sandy bay on the east side of Chi-po-san and south of its
summit. H.M.S. Swallow watered at this place during a period of two
months in the snmmer.

TZBES. — It is high water, full and change, in Kyau-chau bay at 5h,,
and springs rise 12^ feet, neaps 9 feet. The turn of the stream is very
regular, taking place at high and low water by the shore, both inside the
harbour and at the entrance. The direction is generally towards the
mouth of the bay, and the rate 1 to 2 knots, increasing to 3 and 4 knots
near the entrance, after which the rate is much diminished. There are
tide ripples off Pile point eastward of cape Evelyn and also off Yu-nui-
san, the north entrance point.

DntfiCTZOxrs. — ^Vessels navigating in the vicinity of Kyau-chau bay
may soon find shelter in heavy north-easterly gales. Having made out
the land it will be best to hug the shore to insure smooth water, and if
necessary, anchorage may be found in 8 to 10 fathoms, muddy bottom
anywhere between the entrance of the bay and Lo-shan harbour, which
is S.W. of Lo-shan mountain. The low islet Chuen-si-san, about 15 feet
high, lying three-quarters of a mile off the shore, in a S.E. direction from
the summit of the Lung-shan mountain, and 8 miles eastward of the
entrance, should always be left to the northward.

The first anchorage where junks resort is S.E. 2 miles from Tungshan on
the north side of the entrance in Ching-tau-kau bay. Small vessels can
anchor amongst the junks, but vessels of large draught should anchor
in 8 or 9 fathoms, muddy bottom, with the small island on the east
side of the bay bearing about N.N.E. one third of a mile.

The large bay on the south side within the entrance, between cape
Evelyn and Chi-po-san island, which might be considered an outer harbour,

* Or New-kow, the seaport of Tsi-mi, a city 13 miles to the north-eastward, about
4 miles firom the head of the southern head of Lo-shan bay.



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•jHO TANGTSE KJJLSa TO PE-CHILI STEATT, [chap. n.

aflbitb excellent shelter from easterly winds, round sontb to N.W.
Si-ot-Mu-Hhan hill, 359 feet high, is over a point which extends to the
north-east and divides this bay into two smaller ones, both affording good
anchorage for small vessels in 2 to 3 &thoms. In the eastern of these
bays is a rock which covers at 8 feet rise ; it lies S.E. by S. three-qnarteTS
of a mile from the extreme point of Si-ot-su-shan, 4 cables off the middle
point of the bay, between which and the rock is a passage of 2 fathoms
water. Bay rock described above, is in the very centre of this bay.

The Swallow rode out several heavy gales from North round to N.E.,
about three-quarters of a mile to the north-west of Bay rock, with the
summit of Chi-po-san bearing N^W. by N., in 9 fathoms, mud. As the
water at this position shoals suddenly, it is almost impossible to drag the
anchor, but a vessel is liable to part her cable, as the sea has 10 miles drift
from the northward. This cannot therefore be recommended as a good
anchorage in the winter months, owing to the prevalence of northerly
winds. If a vessel wishes to proceed farther into Kyau-chau bay, the
points of entrance just shut in S.S. E. is a good mark to steer by. There
are numerous shoals about the bay, which would necessitate much caution
if proceeding up the bay without a chart, but as a rule it is recommended
to anchor eastward of the junks, as they are generally on the edge of shoal
water. Small rivers fall into both arms of the bay.

Kyau-chu or Glue city, the local name of which is Chiu-cha fu, stands
at the north-west pait of the western arm of the bay, about 8 miles above
the entrance of a small river (where stands a village with custom house),
and was formerly the principal emporium in the east of Shantung. Teili-
mei-heen (Tsi-mi) or Black Ink city, about 28 miles to the eastward, and
on the bank of the small river which runs into the north of the eastern arm
of the bay, at the mouth of which is New-kow, its seaport, is said also to
be a place of considerable trade.

OHiHO-TJLir-MOW, already mentioned as a place where supplies may
be procured, stands on the bay at the north side of the entrance to Kyau-
chau. It consists of a few houses only, with a large sandy basin in the
middle, where large numbers of pigs are slaughtered and cleaned for
salting. It has a brisk and not inconsiderable trade with Shanghai. At
the time of the visit of H.M.S. Dove in December 1861, there were not less
than 80 junks loading and discharging their cargoes. Salted pigs and
Shantung cabbagges are the chief articles of export, also radishes, ground
nuts and cotton. Fire-wood and charcoal are very scarce on this part of
the coast; the former was obtained at 6^ dollars a ton, the latter oi
excellent quality at 30 dollars. Fresh water is brought off in regular
water boats, which supply the junks.

Anohopagre.— Ching'tau bay is open to the south and south-east^ but



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CHAP. IX.] CHING-TATJ BAY — LOSHAN HARBOUR. 447

a small rocky islaiid in the bay gives some security in a sort of inner
harbour, where, lying in 1 to 3 fathoms water, junks obtain shelter in
southerly winds. In December 1861 this bay was so crowded with junks,
that the Dove was obliged to anchor in 9 fathoms outside them in the
roads, nearly 1^ miles from the town, where a heavy ground swell rolled
in from seaward, although the wind was off shore, and from north-east.

This anchorage is probably a safe one at all seasons, as the wind rarely,
(it was stated) if ever, blows strong from south-east or south ; but from
these winds, except in Kyau-chau bay, there is no part of the coast where
shelter can be obtained. During the summer months, however, winds
from E.N.E. to S.E. are very frequent, at times blowing a hard gale.

The COAST, eastward of Kyau-chau bay which extends W. by N. 22
miles and terminates in cape Ya-tau, is the southern face of a mountainous
peninsula which is indented with several bays and has many off-lying
islands and reefs, but there is anchorage all along at a moderate distance
from the shore, the soundings for the most part decreasing gradually. In
one of the bays is the town of Fushan which is probably identical with
liOshan harbour described below.

SBD Bocx, so called from its appearance, 34 feet high and a cable in
extent, is N. ^ E. 5 miles from Siau-kung tail, and W.S.W. 7 miles from
cape Ya-tau. On all sides of it are depths of 8 to 10 fathoms within a cable.
It marks the entrance to Loshan harbour which is directly westward of it.

KOBBAir BikSBomi, is 14 miles from the entrance of Kyau-chau bay
and 8 miles from cape Ya-tau. It is one mile wide at entrance where
is 4 fathoms, gradually decreasing towards the north-western part of the
bay, but towards the north-eastern inlet there is a deep hole of 10 fathoms
abreast the passage north of Fau-tau tau inside which it suddenly shoals
to 2 fathoms.

Fau-tau tau, 258 feet high, and forming the eastern side of the harbour,
is an island half a mile north of Red rock ; close off its north-west side is
a small round islet, 15 feet high. Fau-tau tau is separated from a steep
promontory, projecting considerably from the coast, by a 7-fathoms
channel, 1^ cables wide.

Fort point on the west of the harbour, is 199 feet high, and extending
S.E. by E. half a cable from it is a reef partially dry at low water. It
is the eastern termination of a high range of hills falling from an elevation
of 1253 feet, and at the back of it, about N.W. 1^ miles, is Horn hill which
is very conspicuous when seen clear of the high land on account of its
singularly sharp top.

The head of the harbour is divided by a bold projecting point, 258 feet
high, and on each side are conspicuous sandy bays which ai^e very shoal,
the north-eastern drying out one mUe.



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4rl8 TANGT8E KIANG TO PE-CHILI STBAIT. [chap. ix.

The harbonr may be entered by the narrow channel between Fau-tan tan
and the promontory, but the tides at springs are probably rapid, also
between Red rock and Fau-tau tau where the depths are 17 to 20 fathoms.
Entering from the southward, the reef off Fort point may be well cleared
by keeping the middle point of the bay northward of N.N.E., on which
com*i«e the water will be found to shoal gradually, and if Red rock be kept
open of Fau-tau tau the deep 10-fathoms guUey may be avoided, although
it affords good and secure anchorage with the narrow channel open east.
The junks lie northward of it in 2 to 3 ilEtthoms, good holding ground.



> lfl&A«9» 114 feet high, is 1^ miles eastward of Fau-tan tau,
and W. by S. ^[S. of Cape Ya-tau ; off its northern side are detached rocks
which cover at high water.

IVffffW^^ or VXVBSAWf a lofty mountain range extending 10 miles
N.N.W. and S.S.E., is the highest land on the south coast of Shantung. It
is of the most rugged character of the mountain limestone, deeply indented
and broken into precipitous ranges. Its highest peak, 3,565 feet high, is
8 miles from the coast whence the range runs northward the same distance
with little difference of elevation. To the sea it descends in broken ridges,
one peculiarly hooked peak, 1,859 feet high, being 3 miles E.S.E. of the
summit.

CAVB TA*TAir (or Ta-tua), 22 miles eastward of the entrance of
Kyau-chau bay, is the eastern extreme of the south*eastem ridge of
Loshan, 1,165 feet in height, which when seen from the north-east or
south-west makes like an island. It terminates in a perpendicular cliff
about 300 feet high under a sharp well-defined hill, 747 feet high, the
southern face of which is precipitous. Between Loshan harbour and cape
Ya-tau, with the exception of a conspicuous sandy bay north of Steep
island, the coast is bold and rugged, with 11 fietthoms at a short distance
from the shore. Vessels are liable to be becalmed under cape Ya-tau,
even when a strong northerly wind is blowing, which comes off the
mountain in variable flaws and squalls.

KOBBAV BAT. — This extensive bay, 8 miles in depth, lies north-east-
ward of Loshan mouutain, its extreme points being cape Ya-tau and cape
Adkins, 17 miles NJE. by N. The western side of the bay is along the
base of the Loshan range, the first 6 miles of which, extending N. \ W,,
are bold and* rugged with small sandy bays at intervals. The northern
extremity of the range terminates abruptly in a sugar-loaf bill^ 858 feet
high, in front of which is Centre head, a hilly promontory which divides
the bay into two nearly equal parts. The depths over this great baj,
except off cape Ya-tau where they deepen to 30 fathoms, are generally
even, decreasing from 7 fathoms, at its outer part to 2 fathoms at about



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CHAP. IX.] CAPE TA-TAU — ^LOSHAN BAT. 449

2 miles from the northern head of the bay, where in some places the mud
dries out a considerable distance ; but on the west side 3 fathoms may be
tsarried close into the shore.

Matterson ZslanO, N.E. 7^ miles from cape Ya-tau, is the easternmost
island in the bay. It is 6 cables long, north and south, and 2 cables
broad, and its summit, about 200 feet high, slopes evenly to the sea on all
sides, and when seen from north or south appears as a lump. There is a
small reef off its northern end, but otherwise it is bold-to with 6 to 8
fathoms around.

A sunken rock of 6 feet at low water lies S.W. by W. of it, three*
quarters of a mile, with a passage of 7 fathoms between it and the island ;
it only breaks in heavy weather.

Bobbit Island, 2 miles West of Matterson, is a mile in length north
and south. The body of the island is a hill, about 300 feet high, appear-
ing double in some directions ; its northern end is narrow and low. A
rock, which covers at high water, lies 3^ cables S.S.W. of its south point.
There appears to be a clear passage of 8 to 7 fathoms water between
Bobbit and Matterson islands.

Sarris and Boable Zslets. — ^Double islets, close together, the higher
and western of which is 105 feet higli, lie S.W. by W. 1^ miles from
Bobbit. The depths about them vary from 5 to 9 fathoms, and there is a
broad 6-fathoms channel between them and the shore. Harris islets are
two, lying on a reef dry at low water, the eastern and larger being
100 feet high and 1^ miles West of Bobbit, with a good^channel between.
There is a rock which covers at 5 feet rise half a mile N.N.E. ^ E. from
the larger idet.

sata Hock is 2 miles N.W. ^ N from Harris islet. It is 5 feet above
water, and apparently steep-to on all sides. There is a good channel
between it and the shore.

Say Zsland, having a round summit 230 feet high, is N.N.W. | W.
3f miles from Bobbit, and 2 miles from Tillage point which is the northern
extreme of a small promontory, 150 to 400 feet high, 2 miles in length,
north and south, and detached from the mountain range. Between them
is a good channel. A small islet lies 3 cables S.S.W. of Bay island ; and
Neilson rock, awash at low-water springs, is N.W. by N. one mile from
Bay island, with the small hill on Village point S.W.

Centre Bead is nearly 3 miles northward of Bay island. The outer
part is rather low, but over it rises a double-topped hill, 542 feet high,
and a mile behind it a conspicuous dome-shaped hill, 780 feet high, behind
which again 4 miles W.N.W., is the Sugar-loaf hill. The town of Ngan-
shan-wei, or Niu-shan-wei, stands somewhere on this promontory, but
appears to have little or no trade.

80251.' p P



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450 YANGTSB DANCt TO PE-CHILI STBATT. C^a^*-"-

The deep-looking inlet, 4 miles across between Centre head and Village
point, is divided into two sandy bays, and has an even betUnn Aomiing
gradually from 4 fathoms ; it is very shallow at its head, dijing oat
between the inner pcmits more than a mile from the shove. Centre



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