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head is bcJd-to, and may be approached to within half of a lafle im
5 fathoms.

gMiHeiu Bay.— The land abont the northern portion of Loehan bi^ is
comparatively low, but has one hill 4 miles from its head which riam t»
853 feet. The shores are generally faced by mud and rocks, drying out
m some phu^ from 1 to 2 miles. The soundings in the bay decrease
gradually from 4 fathoms. There is a large flat rock, usually awash at
high water, in the middle of the bay in 9 feet water, at 2 miles from the
knd where is a hill 330 feet high. The city of Tsi-mi .is 4 miles to the

a«alAer Sin, 644 feet high, a remarkable pointed hill surmounted bj a
mass of granite boulders, and strewed with the same some way down its
sides, rises on the promontory which forms the northern point of Loshan
bay. At its base the land is low and cultivated, and its shore line skirted
by reefs. This hill is a singularly good landmark, presenting the same
sharp form from all points of view. Its eastern extremity is cape

aiaa-taa, or Green* island, 231 feet high, is one mile S.S.W. frtnn
Boulder hill and 1^ miles W. by S. I S. from cape Adkins. It is con-
nected with the shore by a stony ridge which covers at two-thirds flood ;
on its south side are detached rocks, which do not cover and are steop-to>
having 6 fethoms within 30 yards of them.t

JLdMMnm moek, 5 feet above high water, and very small, lies E. by S.
from Mau-tau, and 6J cables S. by W. from cape Adkins. It is steep-to
on the outside, and may be passed at a third of a mile in 8 /athoms.
Between the rock and the shore is a goodj clear channel of 7 fathoms, but
owing to the strong tide the water is generally discoloured.

star Xeef, one mile W.N. W. of Mau-tau, is 4 cables in extent At high
water only three rocks, near its centre, remain uncovered, one of which is
18 feet high. Between the reef and Mau-tau are depths of 3 to 5 fathoms ;
but between it and the shore, 5 cables N.E. by E. of Star reef, is a rock
awash at low water. Between reef and rock is a 3-fathoms channel nearly

• This 18 a grassy island, green in spring and brown in winter.

t The observed latitade of the western point of Mau-tau by Commander John Ward
B.N., H.M. surveying vessel Artteon, is 86^ 22' 87" N.; and its meridian distance west
of Staunton island, by 10 chronometers, 1** 22' 18''.

J Lieut. Bullock stated " that towards the shore from this rock and WJ^.W. of it, a
** rock was seen awash." Perhaps this rock awash may be very near the shore.— Bd.


3 cables wide ; inside the rock are 2 fathoms, gradually shoaling towards
the shore.

A smaller reef, 2 cables in extent and covering at one quarter flood, lies
S.W, ^ W. IJ miles from Star reef. It is steep-to on all sides, and its
position is generally indicated by a break. Between it and Star reef is a
good and safe 5-fathoms channel. Discoloured water has been noticed half
a mile south of this reef, but it was well sounded over during the time of
H.M.S. Swallow's survey, and the depths found even. Cape Adkins open
of the east point of Mau-tau, E.N.E- leads outside of this spot,

AxrCBOSii.GB in Ziosban Bay. — ^H.M.S. Actceon found good shelter
from N.E, winds, in 6 to 7 fathoms, with the south point of Mau-tau East
(Adkins rock being a little open), and Star reef N.W. or N.N.W., but
the ground was found to be very rocky, and it shoals rather suddenly to
the northward.

H.M.S. Swallow and Dove found good shelter in rather less than
3 fathoms, about 3 cables northward of Star reef ; at low water the reef
formed a good breakwater, but at high water an unpleasant sea sometimes
set in. It is an anchorage that cannot be recommended.

In the bay, westward of Star reef, are dangerous rollers even after
a gale has subsided, but these were not observed along the coast under

CinrTZOxr. — ^During the summer months it would be highly imprudent
to anchor on this exposed coast, with the chance of being caught in a
south-east or easterly gale. In the summer of 1865 the winds from E.N.E.
to S.E. were very frequent, at times blowing a hard gale, but these gales
are seldom of more than 12 hours' duration. In winter the winds are
from N.N.E. to N.W., chiefly in the latter quarter near the land, but in
the former in the offing, although a S.W. gale of a few hours* duration,
veering to south, is not unknown.

BaiipUes can be obtained from any of the villages along the coast at
moderate prices. Grapes and pears are cheap and plentiful. Good bread
can also be procured, and late in the season hares and wild fowl may be
obtained. Water is not good ; in Loshan bay in August H.M.S. Swallow
watered at a small stream north-west of Boulder hill, but the supply was
poor, and it had to be carried a considerable distance in barricoes. Several
cases of dysentery, one terminating fatally, were ascribed to this cause.

CAPB iLBBZiTB, the north-eastern point of Loshan bay, is a steep,
cliffy head, the smooth summit of which, 239 feet high, terminates a small
range or ridge of hills running eastward of Boulder hill, On the northern
part of the cape, which is rather low, is a small square tower ; the southern
point of the cape is an abrupt cliff, bold-to. A small round islet, connected

FF 2

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with the oiaialand at low water by a spit of shingle, lies one mile N.N.E.
from the cape.

KA^TIS-VIAV, an isolated island, lies off Loshan bay 12 miles E. by
N. of cape Yatao, and about the same distance from cape Adkina. From
the other two islands in the offing, Tcha-lien-tau and Surveyor's i&laTid,
it bears respectively N. by E. ^ E. 17^ miles and W. by S. 22 miles. It
is a small island, 243 feet high, with a smaller island about 100 feet
high, lying 3 cables S. by W. from it, with a passage between carrying
12 fathoms.

•tymvaroB«s n&JurB, 23 miles off-shore, is in lat. 36° 16' 30" N.,
long. 121^24' 15" E. It rises out of 17 fathoms water, and is divided
into two distinct portions by a narrow neck which is perforated; tlie
aoathem and higher part, which is very rugged, being 297 feet Mgh. In
the spring months this island is often obscm*ed by fogs, which are very
prevalent in the offing, although it may be quite clear along the coast.

CAVB ABxnrs to Tnro-TBZ BASBOum. — The coast runs N.N.E.
from Cape Adkins to Ting-tsi harbour, a distance of 11 miles. The
country is hilly, the shore mostly low, and not generally approachable on
account of rocky and shallow ground, and it is fronted by several off-lying
islands and reefs.

N.E. 2^ miles from Boulder bill, and over a point, is a smooth and some-
what flat-topped hill, 561 feet high, terminating a small range, and between
the two is a group of lower and very rugged hills covered with boulders.
To the northward is a deeply indented, muddy bay, almost entirely dry at
low water, and at the back of it the land is low and flat across the isthmus,
which divides it from Loshan bay. Rising over the bay, at 7J miles
N.N.E. from Boulder hill, from a plain on either side, is Temple summit,
820 feet high, on which is a joss house, backed by the Kwanshan range,
the highest point of which. Back table, is 824 feet^^high. On the coast, in
front of Temple hill and S.E. 2 miles from it, is Yuang-shan hill, 266 feet
high, which from some views shows a double summit.

cuff zsiand, 121 feet high, is N.E. by E. 3 miles from Cape Adkins.
S.W. of it is a low island, and another of less elevation to the westward.
These islands are surrounded by rugged rocks, and their northern points
are connected by stony spits to a large, flat reef which dries, and this again
with a low point of the shore under the smooth, flat-topped hill north-east
of Boulder-hill. The outer points of these islands and Cape Adkins may
be approached moderately close in 5 to 7 fathoms, mud, and there is little
difference in the depth for 3 miles farther out, but considering the cha-
racter of the coast it would scarcely be prudent to do so.

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CHAP. IX.] sfrvetor's island— the coast. 453

Koxro and BiTB zsZiikM'BS. — ^Long island, half a mile north-east of
Cliff island (with 3 to 5 fathoms between them, leading into shoal water),
is nearly 2 miles long and undulating, its western hill, which is much the
highest, being 180 feet high. Off the projecting points of its south shore
reefs extend 1 to 2 cables. Off the bay on its north side, half a mile
distant, is an isolated reef which covers at one-third flood, but which is
connected under water by rocky ground to the eastern part of the island,
and from which, extending 1^ miles north-eastward, is a spit of 2^ fathoms.

End island, off the eastern point of Long island, and connected with it
at low water, is smooth and grassy, and 68 feet high. The reefs extend-
ing from it all show, and ai'e steep-to in from 3 to 7 fathoms. Outside
End island the water deepens at half a mile to 9 and 10 fathoms, but
shoals again to 7 fathoms at 2 miles' distance.

OVTBR IBXJLITD and Bocx. — Outer island is 1^ miles N.E. of End
island, and S.E. ^ E. 6 miles from Temple summit, described on last page.
It is narrow, smooth and grassy, being at its highest part, which is near
its centre, 116 feet high^ and it extends in a N. by W. direction half a
mile. On its sea face and its north and south points are low cliffs, and
off its north-west point is a shingle spit, 2 cables long, which covers at
high water.

Outer rock, 24 feet high, is on the middle of a reef, 2 cables in extent,
which lies half a mile south of Outer island. E. by S., a quarter of a mile
from this, with the island summit N. by W., is a sunken rock, which
generally breaks at low water. There is a 3 to 4-fathoms' passage between
this reef and Outer island, and a 6 to 7-fathoms' passage between the reef
and End island ; the latter is 7 cables wide, but the water gradually shoals
to the northward, and only 3 fathoms can be carried through to gain
a position inside the islands, on account of the shallow water extending
north-eastward from Long island. Northward of Outer island the bottom
appears to be very even, with a depth of 4 fathoms, decreasing to 3

SBS7 zsibAVB, N. by E. ^ E. 3 miles from Outer island, is 30 feet
high and three-quarters of a mile in extent at low water, but the eastern
part is covered at high water with the exception of two detached rocks.
Between it and Tuang-shan hill, which bears from it W.S.W. 2 miles,
is a large reef half a mile in extent, and the channel between the latter
and Beef island has 2^ fathoms.

AVCBOBAOB in 3 to 4 fathoms may be obtained between Reef island
and Outer island, with shelter from south-west winds ; but there is no
part of the coast for 36 miles north of cape Adkins where there is shelter
from winds between south and north-east.

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k* or Ta-ehiog, 99 feet high and 2 cables in extent, is
7 miles N.N.E. from Oater island. It has a roond, grassy summit^ pre-
senting the same aspect from everj direction, with clifi^ sides Mnged with^
roeks. It lies off the entrance of the Ting-tsi riyer, and as It is inside
the sand banks of its bar, it should not be approached on pasamg mihin
2 miles.

The extremity of a bank, 5 miles in length, and over which is 4 to 6
feet water, lies half a mile east of the island; and on it, S.E. one mile
from the island, is a large patch of rocky ground of 10 to 12 feet. North-
eastward of the island^ nearly awash in some parts at low tide, and from
half to 1^ miles distant, is Vanhear patch. West half a mile from the
island is a rocky patch which covers at 2 feet rise of tide ; and W.S.W:
one mile is a sand patch of considerable extent which dries at low water ;
and W.N.W. one mile from the island js the eastern tail of a sandbag

2 cables wide, which extends 2 miles up W.N. W«, is covered at high water
and forms the north side of the channel of the river.

Tnro-wi BiVBB Bvnturca, has the appeai'ance of a deep ixilet.
It does not appear to be much frequented, as only a few small junkfr
were seen. On some Chinese maps the river is named Lih ho. At the
head of the inlet stands the town of Ein-kia, formerly an important trading
plaoe. The entrance, 4 miles westward of Bar island, is about 3 miles
across, but the navigable channel is less than half a mile wide and subject
to changes*

Green head, at the south point of entrance, is 4 miles W. ^S. from
Bar island. It is a steep-sided, round-topped hill, with a ruined fort on
its summit, and is the eastern of a range of small hills north of the sandy
plain and shore that lies at the base of the Kwan shan range ; from the
southward it appears almost disconnected from the mainland. Then^
the general direction of the south shore of the river isN.N.W, iot abdut
7 miles, but it is much cut up by deep inlets where, at io^ \tater, the mtu$
dries out from point to point. The most conspicuous hill on this ^br€
is 2^ miles to the westward of Green head, is 617 fee^high, and its sunmdt
has the appearance ^ having once been fortified. The HQorthem shord
pf the river is low with k>Og projecting reefe, and is faced by extensive
sandbanks. Two isdated hiUfe on this shore are very conspicuous ; on6
rising from the level land which forms the north point of entrance, iff
292 feet high, and N. by W. J W. 4 miles from Bar isMd ; the otKer^

3 miles farther inland, W.N.W. is Triangle hill, 540 feet high, an excellent
land-mark, showing a remarkably sharp top from all views.

♦ See Admiralty chart of the Gulfs of Pe-cliiU and Liau-tung. No. 1,256 5 scale »i=0-i:
of an inch.

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lUver Zsiety 30 feet high, is on the north shore, one mile northward of
the narrow promontory extending north-westward from Green head. The
north bank of the river, hereabout, is steep mnd, and its direction
N«W. bj W. for about 8 miles, the river channel having a bi^eadth of
5 cables, and a depth of from 4 to 6 fathoms. Westward of Triangle hill
is an inlet 4 miles deep which is dry at low water ; above this the river
faas not been surveyed.

Viie Bar. — The river is barred by a long spit, 2 to 4 cables in width,
which stretches in a E.S.E. direction from Green head nearly 4 miles, and
then curves northward, its extremity being 4 cables east of Bar island.
The depth on it at low water is 4 feet, deepening on both sides to 3 and 4
fathoms ; it mainly consists of sand bnt is in some parts rocky. Between
the tail of the spit and Bar island is a passage of 7 to 8 feet, and between
it and Vanhear patch a depth of 12 feet.

3>irectioii«ri — At high water springs, a direct course can be steered in,
with a depth of 15 feet, across the Bar spit, with the summit of Green
head W. by N. J N., and just open to the southward of the more con-
spicuous hill behind it, which mark also leads clear and to the southward
of the sand-patch one mile W.S. W. of Bar island, and which may generally
be discerned by the discolored water. When Bar island is E. by N. ^ N.,
haul up N.W. to pass between the shoals off Green head and the narrow
sand bank, very steep-to, which commences one .mile W.N.W. of Bar
island, and extends in the same direction for 2 miles. Hiver islet may
tihen be steered for, and anchorage, good and perfectly sheltered, be
obtained southward of the islet in 4 to 6 fathoms. But a greater depth of
water, 7 feet at low water and 18 feet at high water springs, may be
carried in by steering direct for Bar island on a W. by S. course, and
when at 2 to 3 cables' distance from the island changing the course to
S.W. until the leading mark, given above, is brought on.

Tiie COAST now changes its direction from N.E. by N. to E. by N.,
and continues in the latter direction up to the Shantung promontory, a
distance of 60 miles. For the first 12 miles the shore, as far as the town
of Hai-yang, is low and sandy, broken in three places by projecting ledges
of rock, stretching out some distance, and off the western of which, at
one mile from the shore, is a detached reef; this shore cannot be ap-
proached, for the depth is only 3 fathoms at 3 miles' distance. Three miles
inshore is seen a flat-topped range, 796 feet high and N. by E. 9 miles
from Bar Island, a spur of which stretches towards the sea.

SAZ-TAira (hien), a walled town one square mile in extent and
governed by a petty mandarin, stands at a projecting point of the coast,
half a mile inshore and partly on the southern slope of a hill, 399 feet

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high. The point is low, and from it extends, in a S-^E. direction, a
ledge of locki one mile long above water, and another mile under water.

Northward of Hai-yang the country ia mountainous. From flai-jang
hill an irregular chain of hills runs first in a northerly direction for 4 miles
and then extends eastward, and at 10 miles north-east is the con&pknoQS
dome-shaped summit, 1864 feet high of the Lung-shan range wbic\i,m
appearance, stretches south-eastward towards the sea and terminales in the
long, projecting headland of Tau-tsui. Between these ranges and the
coast line is an extensive plain.

Low Point (Laou-lung-tau), is 7 miles E. by N. of Hai-yang point, and
between them is an open bay, with sandy shores, marked near its centre
by two points, with rocky ledges, 1 J nules apart Low point, whichw
South of Lung-shan dome, is a T-shaped promontory projecting onemUe
from the coast line, and the sea face of which, running E.N.E. H ^®^'
is formed of alternate sandy bays and rocky points. From its easteni
extreme a reef extends three-quarters of a mUe; from its westextre^
the low water rocks extend in a broad ledge south-westward one mite, with
uneven, rocky ground for another mile southwards

JV-SSAV auLW, a large bay running back 3 miles, is formed between
Low point and Arthur head 6^ miles E. by N. Arthur head is an ifiW
connected with the main by flats which dry at low water ; its southern
face is bold and cliffy and over its western part is a sharp, conical sumnu,
416 feet high ; and off its western extreme is an islet about 150 ee
high. Central islands Ue in the bay 3 miles west of Arthur head; th^
are close together, joined by a sand bank, the outer and higher being
feet high. East 3 J cables from the smaUer island is a rock which covers
at high water. There is no passage between Central islands and the s o
as they are joined to the shore by a spit which dries at low water.

The bay is shallow having about 4 fathoms between the points, wi
even bottom decreasing gradually. At its head is the Ta-ho i^ >
either side of which the shores are hilly.

Ta-ho inlet is an arm of the sea having a deep water channel >

formed bv the scour of the tides. Its entrance is 2 miles nortn or

^hfl sand spi"'
islands, and is approached on a N.N.E. course so as to clear tne »»

which joins those islands with the east point of entrance ot ^

The opening of the inlet is 3 cables wide and easily made ou , ^

between the two western of three very conspicuous hills, the cen

of which is a remarkable hill 702 feet high N. by E. of Central ^^^^

and has been described as tusk-shaped, and also as an irregular ti'

cone. The eastern sharp and conspicuous hill, 598 feet higli> ^^ , ^

same range, 2 miles E.S.E. of the remarkable hiU. The west poi^^

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entrance of the inlet is 145 feet high, steep-to, and westward of it is a very
distinct summit, 649 feet high, above which rises, over the head of the
baj, an extremely rugged range to the height of 1,166 feet.

It has no bar, properly speaking, for the approach is generally deeper
than other parts of Ju-shan-kau bay, but it is necessary to cross a depth
of 2 fathoms at low water springs to enter the inlet, which depth will be
met one mile north of Central islands, and carried for nearly a mile.
The water then deepens suddenly to 7 fathoms outside the entrance.
Three-quarters of a mile inside is a small rock 10 feet high, off a point
on the east shore, from which the inlet takes a N.E. by E. direction for
6 miles, but only carrying a depth of 4 fathoms for one-third of that
distance. The velocity of the tide at springs in and out of the harbour is
said to be considerable.

Tikir-TBVZ BSAB, 4| miles east of Arthur Head, is a bold headland
at the extremity of a hilly promontory jutting out from the mainland for
about 2 miles in a north and south direction. The neck of land to the
north of it is low. The highest part of the promontory is a hill on its
east side 367 feet high and 1^ miles from the head. The sea face of the
promontory extends 2^ miles westward from the head, and off it are two
islands ; the large island is one mile south-west from the cape, 174 feet
high, and connected .with the shore by a sand bank, the smaller 120 feet
high, lies one mile farther west.

The bay between the promontory and Arthur Head appears capacious
fi'om seaward, but there is only a small basin, having 12 feet water within,
with an entrance, one cable wide, between extensive ledges of rocks from
either side.

siTTBzaiKAirD Bocx, 24 feet high, lies 3 miles S. by E. from Tau-
tsui Head, E. by N. ^ N. from it is another rock awash at low water.
Between the rocks and Tau-tsui are even depths of 8 to 10 fathoms de-
creasing to 6 fathoms when the promontory is passed, but outside the rock
the ground has not been sufficiently examined and it should not therefore
be passed within a mile.*

KAaro-wmrikXflr miLU. This bay, north-eastward of Tau-tsui, is too
shallow and exposed to afford good anchorage ; the bottom is even, de-
creasing gradually from 4 fathoms towards the shore. The east shore
of Tau-tsui promontory is bold ; the north-west part of the bay, where a
small islet liesj has a depth of 2 fathoms. The island Wu-li tau, standing
on a reef 2 miles in extent stretching out from the shore, forms the north-

* The latitude of this rock by N. and S. stars, observed by Commander John Ward,
B.N., is 86<5 41' 63" N.

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eMfeni point of the bay ; it is 85 feet high, and wedgenshaped with clifis
to the east.

• — From Tau-tsni to Tsmg-hai-wei
27 miles E. by N. is a long stretch of low sandj coast falling back in a
bight, with hill ranges some miles inshore, with the exception of one con-
spicuous peak which rises from the shore 10 miles N.N.E of Tau-tsui.
This is mount Daris, 1,177 feet high, which is also 27 miles W. by N. | N.
from Staunton island« Between Tau-tsui and Tsing-hai the depths ace
only 4| to 4 fathoms, which about midway is 8 nules from the coast ; the
soundings decrease evenly and the bight is very shallow.

Talag^taai Ba^* formed westward of the point on which stands the town
of Tsing-hai-wei, is too shallow to be navigated except by boats. Off its
western point of entrance, which is a low hilly point of the coast, N.W. \ W.
18 miles from Staunton island, are Red islets, a group of small rocky islets,
connected by reefs and sandbanks with the shore, and spreading over an
extent of 1^ miles. There is a small fort on the islet next the point, and
east of the group is a sharp pinnacle rock. The water is very shallow
about them. The outer islet, 120 feet high, which is separated ftora the
others by a 10 feet channel, has a reef extending off its south point, and a
detached rock 30 feet high at 3 cables to the south.

The entrance is 7 miles wide, but there are only 3 faUioms across it
except close to its eastern point, under which small craft may find shelter
from east and south-east winds. This point is rather low, and roc^ ex-
tend half a mile to the south-west of it, to a low island which is steep-to
on the outside, in 4 fathoms. The walled town of Tsiug-hai-wei stands
on the hills at the back of the point.

Westward of Tsing-hai bay is another large bay, 4 miles across and
5 miles deep, but it is entirely dry at low water.

^Am» of Tsnro-SAZ-iraz the low iMid extends 2 miles,
skU^ted by reefe, when the hills begin, the western of which is oupola
fihaped, 600 feet high, with a large reef off it ; thence the coast trends
E. by S. 6 miles under a mountain chain, called Chanshan.

This high mountain chain has five well defined peaks, o£ heights
decreasing from Needle peak, 1,818 feet high, the western, to the eastern
which is nearly detached and 1,050 feet high. Needle peak is very sharp

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