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and the highest land on the south-eastern part of the Shantung peninsula.
Spurs of the range descend to the sea, and the coast along its base is
irregular in outline. At 3 cables off a small head S. by W. of Needle
peak is a reef awash, and there is another at 6 cables W.S.W. of the head.
Between the third and fourth of these peaks (reckoning from the west-
ward) is a small bay one mile across, with reefs off both points, and one at

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the entrance, half a mile S.E. of its western point. The eastern point of
this bajis the southernmost point of the Shantung peninsula, and lies
iSouth of the fourth hill of the range ; at half a mile off it is a deep-
water gully of 10 to 15 fathoms, the surrounding depths being 5 and
6 fathoms.

STAinrroir isXiAITD, or Su-shan tau, lying S.W. by W. 15 miles
from the south-eastern point of the Shantung peninsula, is 6^. miles
S.E. by S. from Tsing-hai-wei point. The island is a ridge of steep hills,
about a mile in length N.W. by W., and half a mile in extreme breadth,
with a low islet off its north-west point. There is a fishing village and
landing place* on its north side, directly under the centre hill, 353 feet
high, which is its highest part. There is also a landing place in a bay
formed by a rocky promontory on the south side, with the summit bearing

cSAmrsK ROCKS lie respectively N.W, by N. 1^ miles, and
N. by W. I W. 1| miles from Staunton island, and are north and south of
each other three-quarters of a mile apart. North Channel rocks are a
cluster of three small islets of a yellowish colour, the centre one being
74 feet high and steep-to, with a small rock one cable South of it. The
South Channel rock is 43 feet high.

The passage between the rocks has 10 to 14 fathoms water, and appears
clear of danger; that between South rock and Staunton island also
appears to be dear, and carries 14 fathoms. The general depths about;
Staunton island are 10 fathoms, but close to its north and south sides the
scour of the tides has deepened the water to 14 fathoms.

TZBBS westward of 8«aiiiiton Iftlaad. — The following observations &ti
the tides were made in 1865' during the survey of H.M.S. Swdtt&w. li is
high water, full and change, at Tau-tsui head, at 3h. 20m., and springs
rise 12\ feet ; at Low poiii4>-ut 3h. '42mi, ^tiid springs ri8e'12 feet ; at Stat
reef in Lodkan bay M 4h;'5ditar.,:Bpi*ing6 rishig*'!! feet andi^ape % feet $
atKyaiH^au bay at 5h.vflprings rising 12^ feet and neapB 9- feet, ^e^
also pages 441 and 445. The flood stream m the neighbourhood 6i
Staunton island sets West, and the ebb East, at'th4 rat^ of 1^ miles all
hour, which sppeans to be the velocity observed all al<ong1^^ coast^f but
between Staimton island and Channel rocks the rate' 'is 3 knots, and off

* See Admiralty Chart of the Gulfs of Fe-chili and liau-tung, No. 1,256, scal0,
m = 0*1 of an inch. The small rock off the landing place on the north side of Staonton
ifiland, is a principal astronomical position. It is in lat. 36° 45' 29" N. (Ward and
Wnds), long. 122^ 16' 19^' £. (Wilds) and on this all the longitudes of places in the
Golf of Pe-chiH and coasts of Shantung depend.

t This is probably the velocity at springs, although it is not so stated.

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cape Tataa 2 knots. At 5 miles soathward of Tau-tsui bead the flood
stream runs W.S.W. and the ebb stream E.N.E. ; and farther southward
the streams appear to follow the general direction of the coast in a similar
manner^ except at 2 miles oatside Outer island where for the first two
boors after low water the stream sets North 1^ miles an hour, this deflec-
tion being probablj caused bj the flood tide setting into Ting-td haxboar.
Eastward of Staunton island the tidal streams which are more complex
are fuUj described below.

Tmas «r the »ba»nmg Vramontorj,* — It may be stated as approxi-
matelj correct^ that on the southern side of the Shantung peninsula, the
flood stream sets westward, whilst on its northern side it sets eastward.
This, however, is not stricllj true, nor would it form anj guide to deter-
mine the time of the change of stream, for the times of high water at
various parts of the peninsula, &om Tsing-hal baj to Wei-hai-wei, alter
considerablj at short interrals of distance^ whilst the tidal streams change
almost simultaneously at short intervals of distance. The change of
stream has therefore been referred to the change tide of one particalm:
place, namely, Sang-kau bay on the south-eastern face of the peninsula
(page 464).

Sang-kau bay has been adopted both because it is the place on which
the tidal wave first strikes on the coast of Shantung, and its establishment
has been more accurately determined than that of any other position on
the coast. Here it is high water, full and change, at Oh. 55m., ancl springs
rise 7) neaps 4| feet.

To the south of Sang-kau bay. — ^It is high water at Staunton island at
Ih. 30m., and springs rise 8, neaps 5^ feet; at Shih-tau bay at Ih. 30m. ;
at Chu-kia-kiuen (Wangkia bay) about 2h. 30m.

To the north of Sang-kau bay. — It is high water at Aylen bay about
2h« 30m. ; at Litau bay about 3h., and springs rise 6, neaps 4 feet ; at
Shantung promontory, about 4h.; and at Wei-hai-wei, at 9h. 30m. There
is a peculiarity in the a.m. time of high water at Staunton island, Shih-
tau, and Sang-kau ; the a.m. tide, instead of occurring 12h. 24m. before
the p.m. or change tide, takes place respectively at those places at lOh. 45m.,
lOh. 30m., and lOh. 15m. before it.

At the time of high water in Sang-kau bay, the stream is at its strength
round the Shantung peninsula running to the southward, from Alceate
towards Staunton island, as it is also during the 1st hour of the ebb. At
2nd hour of ebb it slackens at Alceste ; at 3rd hour ebb the stream has
made west at Alceste, and is slackening off Sang-kau bay; at 4th hour ebb

♦ It is thought probable that further observations may determine that the turn of the
tide at these various places is more nearly simultaneous.


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it slackens at Staunton island ; at 5th hour the stream has made eastward
at Staunton island, and is then setting right round the promontory to
Wei-hai-wei, and so continues until the 2nd hour of flood, when it
slackens at the promontory and changes, and a little later at Sang-kau ;
at the 3rd hour flood the stream slackens and changes at Staunton island,
and is then ranning out of the gulf of Pe-chili all round the promontory
from Alceste to Staunton island. And by observations made south of
Leu-kung island at Wei-hai-wei the stream at that place would appear to
change about the same time as at Alceste island."*^

The velocity of the stream off Staunton island is 2 to 2^ knots at
springs, and from half to one knot at neaps. This is also about the aver-
age rate of the stream along the coast northward, except off the Shantung
promontory and inside Alceste island, where it is much stronger, probably
3 or 3^ knots at springs. In the bays the stream is weak and changes
generally an hour or two before the regular stream outside. Eddy tides
are found in some of the bays, and there is also an eddy tide close to the
south of the promontory. The stream at Staunton was accelerated by a
fresh breeze, and the contrary stream retarded both in duration and force,
particularly at the neaps ; on two occasions the stream ran 8 hours one
way and 5 hours the other. The stream runs East and West, but it once
set N.E. and S.W. without any apparent cause.

ACTZOW 8BOA&. — ^A dangerous shoal, lying southward of the Shan-
tung promontory, was sounded on by H.M.S. Acttson, 19th February 1860,
The least depth obtamed was 22 feet in lat. 36°31i'N., long. 122°28'E.
approximately, but less water probably exists.

As the shoal was approached from the southward, the soundings gradually
decreased from 12 fathoms at 8 miles south of the shoalest part, to 10, 8,
7, and 5 fathoms, and then rather suddenly to 22 feet ; it then rapidly
deepened to the northward. The land was in sight occasionally through
the haze, but was not sufficiently distinct to get bearings of its extremes.

Subsequent search for this shoal spot was twice made in H.M.S. Act€Bon
and also in the Algerine and the Dove. From the position given above
the ground was examined north-eastward round to southward for a distance
of 5 to 6 miles, with depths of 11 to 12 fathoms, mud; from south to west
from it 7 miles, with the same depths y and between the position and
Staunton island over a breadth of 6 miles with soundings gradually deepen-
ing in that direction from 9 to 14 fathoms. The bottom was everywhere
mud. These soundings show the existence of an irregular 9 to 10 fathoms
bank extending in a N.E. by N. direction for nearly 30 miles, deepening
to 30 fathoms near its southern edge. The part still unexamined is from

* By Commander Chas. J. Bollock, B.N., lS6d.

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Qorib to north-east of tbe shoal patch ; bat on the latter bearing, 23 m£b
distant from the patch, a cast of as little as 12 £ftthom8 ma 'obtained.
Ghravel bottom has also been found eastward of the position.

.o««ttMk^ — Aa there is no reasonable doubt of the existenee ofthis sfaoal,
(which is laid down on Chinese maps south-east of Cape MaeartD£y,BOttli
of the parallel of Staunton island, and called the Siau-sha or SmaE sand
bank,) Tesselsy particnlarlj those of large draught, approaching its yicmity
should keep a careful lead going, and as it maj exist to the east, or more
probably, to the north-east of the position assigned to it, .they shonld at
present not pass west of the meridian of 122'' 48' E., unless they pass ii^de
or west of the position of the shoal.

^tAMO-MJUL SAT, properly Chu-kiarkiuen,* is between the eastern ^d
of the Cha-san range and Mount Otter. It is a small drcular bay or
harbour, with a stream running into it from a yalley on the north-west.
Two islands lie half across the entrance, connected by reefb to the western
point on which is a small town. These islands shelter the bay from the
south, but it is open to the south-east. The entrance, three-qnsrters of
a mile wide, is eastward of the islands in the entrance, which are steep-to,
but a reef lies a quarter of a mile off the eastern point of the bay on
entering. The latter point, high and cliffy, is the southern part of mount
Otter, a flat-topped mountain range 1,355 feet high, having to the north of
it a hunch-shaped peak, 1,240 feet high, a conspicuous object irom the se&
The western side of this bay is low and sandy. The anchorage is ^
3^ to 4^ fathoms, between the outer island and the opposite high shore ,*
or in 13 feet north of the inner island.

From Chu-kia-kiuen a low rocky shore trends j:.N.E. 2 miles to the low
western point of entrance to Shih-tau bay. On this part of the coast, under
mount Otter, are two hills with irregular summits^ 500 feet high, off the
eastern of which is a small island. Reefs extends off the shore, but itmV
be passed in safety at half a mile in 6 or 7 fathoms.

SBiB-TAir BAT is between the mount Otter range, and a lowisla^^
which forms the south-eastern part of the peninsula of Shantung, an^ ^^^
is joined to the main by extensive sands, 1^ miles across. The norfcn
shore of the bay is very rocky, and is under a sharp ragged pea^ ^^^
high, the southern extremity of a range, the centre part of which is a
even-topped saddle 863 feet high, with a temple on itj there is hn
a slight depression between the two summits, which make as one
a N.N.W. bearing. A town stands on the western shore of the bay, ^^ '
ward of a small rocky head, with a gingall fort on it; it has some tra
with Shanghai.

* Kiuen means enclosure.

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Small vessels may anchor in any part of Shih-tau bay at half a mile off
fihore. There are 21 to 22 feet water, east of the town, and right across
the bay, and between the outer points are from 5 to 6 fathoms, the bottom
a tenacious mud, except near the shores, where .there are rocky patches.
The bay is open to south and south-east, but in the prevailing northerly
winds, it is a good and convenient place for anchoring, to wait for tide when
beating round the Shantung promontory. Anchorage can be obtained
in 6 to 10 fathoms, to the westward and outside of the bay, at from 1 to 4
miles distance from the land.

SOUTB-BAST FROMOITTOVT is the name given to the low island
2f miles long, N.E. and S.W., and half a mile broad, at the south-east
extreme of * the peninsula of Shantung. The western end is a bluff of
90 feet elevation, having a conspicuous Pinnacle rock, 70 feet high, a quarter
of a mile West of its south point. Low cliffs bound the sea face of the
island, which elbows out a little at 1^ miles east of Pinnacle rock, where
there is a small islet scarcely disconnected from the shore. Extensive
reefs, some detached, border the whole shore, which is of the most
dangerous character, and should not be passed at less than a mile, except
off the western bluff, nor in less than 9 fathoms water. A 6-fathoms
rocky patch (there may be less water), lies one mile off shore, with the
extremes of the island bearing West and North.

Cape Macartney, the north-eastern point of this island, is low and
sandy, and half a mile E.S.E, of it are two rocks 8 feet high, off which
shoal water extends 7 cables, to where there are 5 fathoms. It is, how-
ever, recommended not to pass this cape within the distance of 2 miles
in 1 1 or 12 fathoms, sand, for an 8 fathoms cast, rock, was obtained at
1 J miles East of the two rocks, and other soundings taken indicate a
ledge in that direction. A good maik to clear this is, Flat Rocky point
bearing North, or the south head of Aylen bay kept twice its width open
to the eastward of the Ears^rock. There is also a rocky patch of 15 feet
one mile N.E. of cape Macartney.

BAST COAST Of PROMOWTORT. — ^The coast of the eastern face of
the Shantung peninsula is 30 miles in length, and all its prominent points
are in line about N.N.E. Good anchorages abound (page 468), the
tides along its shores are regular (page 460), and the coast can be safely
approached with proper caution.

There is a deep water gully of 19 to 22 fathoms off the S.E. promontory
at 3 to 5 miles' distance, outside of which the depths decrease to 16 and
to 12 fathoms at 16 miles off-shore. This gully runs right along the
promontory, and nearly parallel to it, but is very narrow off Aylen bay,
where it is only 16 fathoms deep, but northward of this it again deepens
to 23 fathoms.

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9iff«etiMM« — For sailing vessels bound from the southern to the northern
ports of China, which, owing to the prevalence of northerlj winds, will
often have to beat to windward along this coast, which can seldom be done
in less than two days, it is considered that the better courae to pursue is
to keep in shore, taking advantage of the favourable tide and anchoring
during the adverse, rather than beat up in the offing against the short
chopping sea which prevails*

MMMM moos, lying N.£. by N. 3 miles from cape Macartney, is 60
feet high, and, in some directions, has the appearance of an ass's ears.
It is rocky on all sides, the reefs being elongated to a quarter of a mile
north and south of it, and also towards a low point of the coast 1^ miles
to the W.N.W., where a dry reef was seen half way to the shore. TJbere
is abo a reef which dries North 8^ cables from Ears rock, but the ground
about it has not been examined.

Ears rock can be passed safely at a mile in 10 or 11 fathoms, or per-
haps at 3 cables in 8 fathoms. A partial examination of the bay between
this and cape Macartney indicated that it was dear of danger.

v&AT SOCKT VOXVT or Pu-ka tau, is 4^ miles N. ^ E. of Ears rock,
and all the coast between it and cape Macartney, 7 miles to the southward,
is low. The point is very low, flat, and three-quarters of a mile in extent
east and west, and when first seen makes like an island, being only joined
to the coast by a narrow isthmus of sand, 2 miles in length, on which is a
small village. There is also a small village and temple on the inner part
of the point.

At 7 cables S.W. by W. from the point are two rocks, from which a
ledge, which uncovers at low water, extends 4 cables to the E.S.E. The
bay to the south, only partially examined, appears clear. Reefs extend a
cable or two off the east and south sides of the point, which may be safely
approached, but a rocky spit extends a mile from the north side, to clear
which do not bring Boulder island in Sang-kau bay to the westward of
W. by S. The northern shore of the sandy isthmus is also shoal, and
7 cables off the village on it lies a reef which covers.

SAJTG-XAV BAT, between Flat Rocky point and Shu-a-tau head, 7 miles
to the north, has on its west and south shores two hiUs, both isolated and
of the same steep rugged character. The one on the west shore, Rugged
Bay hill, 500 feet high, bears N.W. by W.| W., 7^ miles fit)m Flat Rocky
point, and the other, Laou-ma-shan, 395 feet high, W. by S., 5^ miles.
Boulder rock, W. J N. 4^ miles from Flat Rocky point, is S.E. by S. from
Rugged Bay hill in the south-western part of the bay at the entrance of a
deep arm or inlet, 2^ miles long and with 9 feet water at its head. The
rock is a mass of large boulders, 40 feet high, steep-to on the outside in

Digitized by Google ; (] SAKG-KAU BAY. — ^LITATJ BAY. 465

3 fatbom£f, and has a reef extending from it S.W. half a mile. At about
a mile off shore north of the rock, is a reef 2 miles in length, north and
aouihy on which only a few rocks show at high water. The northern
shore of the bay has a low cliff bordering it, from which reefs extend
1 to 3 cables ; thence a low sandy shore runs S.S. W. towards Rugged Bay
hill, north of which a small stream issues from a lagoon ; fronting the^
lagoon are sand banks, and a reef 5 feet high, at 6 cables off shore.

Shu-a-tau head, the northern point of Sang-kau bay, has a sea face a mile
in length, bordered by a broken and irregular cliSy shore, fringed with
reefs 2 or 3 cables in extent, on one of which is a large sphynx-shaped
rock 25 feet high. On the northern point of the head is a rather con-
spicuous, reddish, smooth-topped hill, 240 feet high, with a long slope
towards the southern point, which is a flat head 100 feet high.

AT&BV BAT is on the north side of Shu-a-tau head, between it and
Martha point which lies N.E. by E. 3J miles from Shu-a-tau hill, and
13 miles S.S.W. from Shantung promontory. Within its entrance the
water shoals from 8 to 5 fathoms, mud. Half way along its north shore
is Middle point, a rocky head, 100 feet high, with reefs lying a cable or
two from it ; this divides the shore into two bays, with 3 to 4 fathoms
water in them, which are fair anchorages in north-easterly winds. The
head of Aylen bay is a low sandy valley.

Martha point or Hai-pih-tau is a low flat rocky cape, forming a double
point with a small bay between, and reefs off both points. The Long reef
off the northern projection of the point dries out in some parts half a mile
]Sr.E. by E., and there, is usually a heavy tide race off it. The point
should be given a berth of 1^ miles, and not passed in less than 12 fathoms
water, until farther examined, for the ground is very une.ven to the east-
ward in from 12 to 20 fathoms. •

&ZTAir BATw-— From Martha point a low coast, lying under the spurs
of the hills, trends N.W. by N. 6 miles, and reefs project from 2 to 4
cables off every point. There is a sandy bay south of a low rocky point,
at 3 miles N.W. of Martha point, and a mile W.N.W. of this point is
a steep hill over the sea, 340 feet high, which also overlooks the town and
bay of Litau on the north.

liitau is a small town 10^ miles S.W. ^ S. from the Shantung pro-
montory. It stands on the south side of the bay, and has a considerable
coasting trade. Many junks lie here. The bay is rather shallow, and
exposed to north-east winds, but sheltered from the eastward by two
islands, a quarter of a mile apart, which are connected with each other
and also with the shore by reefs dry at low water. They are from 120 to
150 feet high, with gravel cliffs, and appear bold-to with the exception of
30251. a a

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the e«0tcfm point of the ovter island, which has a reef off it. The idiores
of the hay are very rocky ; a large flat reef, always above water, lies one
adle N. by W, of the outer island and 8 cables off the northern point o£
the bay, from which point rocks dry half way oat towards it

One mile north-west of Litan bay is another small bay of slnnlar
character. Its northern point is a steep narrow headland, on which is
a rocky summit, 200 feet high ; there is a small islet off the head. A low
island snrroonded by reefs lies nearly in the middle of the bay, off a point
to which it is attached by reefs, which dry at low water.

9^^-mwrAmm yonrr. — South of the sandy plain which ^tretches across
the neck of Shantung promontory is a projection, named Ma-shan point,
formed by a rugged ridge running into the sea and which terminates in an
abrupt cliff. One mile W. by S. of this point is a smooth topped biill,
Chalk saddle, which is not white, though excellent chalk is found there.
A mile south of the saddle is a low point with a shrine on it, off which is
a flat rocky island lying at the north side of entrance to an inkt running
in 2 miles to the north-west.

There are 4 fathoms in the entrance of this inlet, decreasing to 2
fi|thoms at 8 cables within the island. The inlet is only open to ihe
south-east. Eastward of the flat island, and close off the low point of the
shore, is a rocky patch above water ; and S.E. 4 cables from the island is a
2 fathoms rocky patch which may be connected with it. Sharp peak open
of Ma-shan point, N.N.E. | E., leads eastward of the latter patch, unless it
extends much farther out than is supposed; and a point on the north-east
side of the inlet, a mile above the flat island, open of the west point of the
latter, N.W. by N., clears it to the southward.

Ellen rook, lying 7 cables E. by S. of Ma-shan point, is 6 feet high,
steep-#o, and may be passed at a cable in 8 fathoms. Beefs which always
show, extend 4 cables towards it from Ma-shan point.

XOimrT WADS is the highest of several flat ranges whidi stretch
across the Shantung peninsula. From its summit, 1,860 feet high, the
two principal of its ridges run N. W. and E. by S. for several miles ; on the
latter ridge, 1^ miles from the summit, is a sharp shoulder, and 2^ miles
lower down a curious thumb-shaped peak at the foot of the ridge. T^ese
lower spurs are useful landmarks when the summit is clouded.

Tinri>-OBnro bat. — An extensive sandy plain from 2 to 6 miles
across, separates the Shantung promontory from the high land of the
peninsula. South of a sandy eminence on it, 200 feet high, is the walled
town of Yung-ching (or Yang-chu-chi, fish-breeding-pool), with large
lagoons on both sides of the town. Yung-ching bay, which lies between
Ma-shan point and the southern projecting cape of the Shantung pro-

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moniory, is 4^ miles wide and affords shelter from northi-eaBt winds in
4 to 8 fathoms, mud* There is a small rocky point, with, a shrine,
on the low sandy coast about the centre of the bay, A lagoon opens into
the sea^ jiist north of Ma-shan point.

PROMOWTORT. — ^A chain of high peaked hills, 2 to 3
miles in breadth, rises eastward of the sandy plain of Tung-ching and
running 6 miles in an easterly direction, forms the Shantung promontory,
the eastern extreme of which is in lat. 37° 24' N., long. 122° 42' E. These
hills when first seen from N.W. or S.E. make like a number of pointed
detached islets of peculiar appearance. Five of them are very prominent :
the highest, called Ta-ching-shan, 910 feet high, (which is also the Chinese
name for the promontory) is the western peak; it is very pointed and
precipitous, except to the north, on which side it has a gentle slope.
Sharp peak, 680'feet high, half-way between this and the extreme of the
promontory, is also remarkable, with deep valleys on either side.