Great Britain. Hydrographic Office.

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On the extreme of the promontory is^a sharp, smooth, conioal hill, 265
feet high, from which a ridge or shoulder runs into the sea, ending in a
ragged broken cliff, on which cable from the point, is a small square
pagoda or tower ; a large temple stands on the southern side of this hill, a
little below the summit. There are two rugged hill masses south-east of
Sharp peak, the outer of which, on the sea coast, forms a projecting cape
on the southern part of the promontory, called Lung-siu-tau, or the
Dragon's beard, which terminates in a flat rocky point with a shrine on it.

There is a tide race for a mile off the extreme of the promcmtory which
is steep-to, there being 26 fathoms at a quarter of a mile, and 50 fathoms
at 1^ miles East of it. This latter depth is at the southern part of a deep
gnlly a mile wide, which from thence runs 4J miles to the N.N.W. and
carries 37 to 50 fitthoms water over sand and gravel, or mud and sliells.
Between about 5 and 13 miles off the promontory is a belt of 17 to 19
fathoms water, which encircles the coast from the northern side of the
promontory to the Actseon shoal, near which the water is 3 or 4 fathoms
shallower; this belt will, with attention to the lead, be found a useful guide
in foggy weather, for outside it the water deepens gradually to 40 fathoms,
and inside it more suddenly to 20 fathoms off the south-east part of the
peninsula, and to 50 fathoms off the promontory.

There is another deep water gully of 19 to 22 fathoms off cape Macart-
ney, which extending to the northward, meets that off the promontory.

The north-eastern face of the Shantung promontory is a rocky indented
coast, 2J miles in extent, the north-west point of which is a steep bluff
(Bluff pomt) 1:^ miles south of Alceste island. Along the shore are low
hills, and several small bays, and many rocks lie off it, diy or covered ; still
it may be termed bold and be safely passed at half a mile in 15 to 20

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Athoma water. There is a heavjr overfall at 1^ miles ncnrth of the most
prqjectiiig pointy where a depth of 10 finthoms^ rockj bottom, was obtained,
hat the spot was not further examined.*

The channel between Bluff point and Aloeste island has 20 to^&thoms
water in it, and is considered quite clear of danger. The two large bays
west of the former were not examined, their appearance indicating that
they were exposed to the prevailing winds, and unfrequented.
' is described on page 586.
>, or Siau-ching^shan, 210 feet high, triangular in
shape, flat*topped, and bounded by clifGi, lies 3^ miles N.N.W. | W. from
the extreme of the Shantung promontory, and 1^ miles off shore. A cluster
of reefs extends 4 cables north from its east point, the outer reef of which
is awash, but the others are higher. There is also a small pinnacLe rock
a quarter of a mile south from the same point, with a small rock awash
dose to the south-east of it The tides are strong inside Alceste.

Manm^mAMNam at ShaBtuisr FrootoBtorjrr— The following are the
safest and most convenient anchorages along the coast just described.
From S.S.W. to S. by W. of Ears rock, in 5 to 8 fathoms, with' the
Temple saddle bearing E.N.E. In 5 to 6 fathoms in the bay between
Ears rock and Flat Rocky point, avoiding the before-mentioned patchee
and reefs. At any part of Sang-kau bay in 4 to 6 fathoms, and under
Shu-a-tau head in 5 to 7 fathoms, with shelter from north-east winds.
In Aylen bay W.S.W. to S.W. by W. of Martha point in 4 to 5 fatlioms,
or in the centre of the bay in 6 to 7 fathoms. In 6 to 9 fathoms, between
Martha point and Shantung promontory; and in the northern part of
Tung-ching bay (only partially examined) in 4 to 7 fathoms.

Small craft can also find anchorage in litau bay, or the inlet on the
south side of Chalk saddle in 3 to 4 fathoms. There is no good anchorage
on the north side of Shantung promontory; but anchorage can be obtained
off its north-eastern face in 5 to 8 &thom8, 2 to 4 cables from the shore ;
and also in the bay on its south-west face one mile from the extreme of the
promontory in 5 to 10 fathoms, with a rock or islet there bearuig North, and
the end of the beach under the rugged hill, W. by N.

^ZMMOTZOVB Iter passlna sma&tiuia Froocioiitory. — Vessels bound to
the northward into the gulf of Fe-chili in the spring, are liable to pass

* The Slanej shoal on former charts, does not exist, nor, taking into consideration
the configuration of the bottom which has been well surveyed, can it exist. Thorougb
search has also been made for it without finding any indication whatever of its
existence. This led to an investigation of the circumstances by Lieut. Com. Bevao
B.N.,of H.M.S. Slaney, and it was then ascertained that the leadsman, who called these
soundings of 5 to 8 fathoms over an extent of nearly two miles right across the
deep water gully off the promontory, had called ehoal soundings on two other
occasions which were altogether unreliable.

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Sbantnng promontory in foggj weather, without making it. It has been
generally observed that the efiect of the tides is nearly neutral, as regards '
being set east or west in a two or three days' ran ; nevertheless, in round-
ing at such a time, a vessers position may be ascertained if there is nny
doubt about it by constant use of the lead. In regard to the Actaeon shoal,
page 461, circumstances of wind and weiither should be taken into account
in deciding on which side of it to pass, for it is clearly a danger for large
vessels. Thick weather is not of unusual occurrence here, and this^
together with the strength of the tidal streams (described at page 459),
renders it prudent to keep the vesseFs position fixed by cross bearings,
as [the coast between the promontory and Wei-hai-wei cannot always
easily be identified, and it sometimes becomes necessary to anchor at

X — ^From the high land of the Shantung promontory
a low sandy coast, broken by rocky points, trendy W. by N. 14 miles to
Wei-hai-weL The island of Ki-ming or Nlin-ming tan, 9 miles W. i N.
of Alceste, lies one mile off a rocky point which projects considerably
froiA the shore. It is 370 feet high, fiat-topped, surrounded by extensiye
reefs on three sides, and joined to the shore by a rocky fiat over which are
not more than 3 to 4 fathoms, but the island may be passed to the north-
ward at 2 cables in 12 fathoms. A large lagoon (salt) opens into the sea
eastward of this point.

"wai-BAi-^rBZ SA&BOum,* 23 miles westward of Alceste island, is
formed between Leu-kung-tau, an island 510 feet high, and a deep bight
of the coast, and is the most eastern anchorage on the north shore of the
Shantung peninsula. It is easy of access and capable of affording shelter
to a considerable number of vessels of moderate draught, but the anchor-
age is contracted for large vessels. It has two entrances, one on the west
the other on the east side of Leu-kung-tau, thus affording a facility for
access or departure with almost any wind. The town of Wei-hai-wei
stands on the side of a hill on the west shore of the bay, its wall enclosing
as well as the town, a considerable space allotted to gardening purposes.
The population appear to be fishermen and agriculturists. Large fleets of
junks come from Lai-chau-fu on the south shore of the gulf of Pe-chili,
and from the neighbouring localities, in the spring of the year, to fish,
when the herring Beakon commences.

The western entrance, although much narrower than the other, has the
deepest water, and should be used by all vessels drawing above 18 feet.
The soundings in it are 10 and 12 fathoms, but when abreast Observatory

* See Admiralty Plan of Wei-hai-wei harbour, Vo, 2,S23 ; scale, m = 2 inches.


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470 YA2(0XSB KIANG TO PS-CHIU 8TBAIT. [csbaf.ix,

idind (a low rbokjT iafet near the woat extreme of Leiir*kni|gp-tau>» tiiejr
• laereMe «addenly te L7 fatbomfly bui decrease .i^;aiQ . i«f«4Iy W^ ftttiomt ;
after wl^ch the depth gradoaUlj deoreaaes toward i3b» eentheeDi flhoir% ^uid
mto the weetern part or bight of the bay where the town fa ritmt^ •
*' Rooftd idiaad and throe or fimr adijoiiiiag-'rocsks' lie off ^the w>rtheni
{Mint of tiM weatem entrance. Theooter rode, Idfwt^higlkttdsteep-tOk
is three^narten of a nule EJ7.£. from the point ; between it wiBooiid
Maad is a rocky patch which coders at high water $ no other .M^dei
dangers are known. At half a mUe IS.&E. from the eaaterd end of Leo-
knng-taoy is a reef of rocks^ steep-to, hot as a portion of them always ahows
above water, they may be easily avoided.

Aaohorai^.— The best anchorage is near the west point of Lea-kang-
tan, in 5 to 7 fathoms on excellent holding ground of mud, sheitered by
llie island from the north-east. H.M.S. Aciaon, April 1860, anchored in
5 &thoms, with the summit of Len-kung-tau N.E. by N., a small gingall
fort N.W.^W., the west extreme of Observatory island NJN^.W^ and
centre of Chaanel island, S.E. | E. This position is only open from
&£.byE.iE. to E.^S., while to the westward the mainland is well
overl^ped by Observatory and Len-kung-tan.

BvvpUes- — ^No bollocks could be obtained at Wei-hai-wei ; although
at several parts of the coast, a little way inside the first range of hills,
numerous droves were seen. A few ill-conditioned sheep, and a small
simply of ponllry were procured, and some pigs ; fish (hernng -and cod)
were in great abundance, and there was a fair aopply of shdl fish. (X
vegetables only a few onions were obtained. The grain grown is wheat,

bock- wheat, miUet, Ac.


Water in small quantities was found in April at the well of a village on
Leu-kung-tau. A small stream waters the eastern wall of Wei-hai-wei
in the rainy season, but in the months of March and April, with the
exception of two or three little pools, into which trickled k very small
stream it was quite dry. Another stream in precisely a similar condition
-was found running through the first village south of the town.

Fuel is not to be obtained, the natives having barely enough wood and
straw for their own immediate culinary necessities. A small quantity
of charcoal is consumed by them. No coal was seen, nor did the peasantry
appear to know of it.

»■•<-— In Wei-hai-wei harbour it is high water, t^ and change^ at
9h. dOm.y and springs rise abQut 9 feet, neaps 6\ feet The tidal stream
-outside the harbour changes about the same time as at Aleeste island, Me
page 460,

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OHA»./ix.] .. / - :TWBII*HiAJ[-aTBI TO:,OHIPU. 471

^-«MWhen boimd to 'Wei-^hairwei. hacrboar'£ro(Di theeast-
vrwdy a£ter Kmnding tfae Shantuiig) prcNBontdiy^ and jgiving Aloeste uland
a berth of one mile^ the coarse and distance for Channel island, a dmall
roni^' rocky Meji* in the eaetem ^ntranoe of the haFbour^ 40 feet^highy is
-W'*-!^'^^''^^*- /This will lead 1^ nules north x>f Ki-xning idand^iand
dear of ^> known dang^i up :to. Channel island, wl|ich may bi^ aa&ly
.9I>iMr<>ftjQhed to a quarter of a mi)^. From iM^ thet soundinga wil^ deor^aae
vto dt^;^d 3 fathonas at Ipw. wa^rj OTsr an extensiye flat «tretchii\g >acroBS
.from Xieu-kung-tau to tilie xnim shore, bnt they, will increase.. again as .tho
;We9t.^id of Leu-kuog-tau isi^pproachedf

In working in through the eastern entrance . the lead may be safely
trusted, there being no hidden dangers known. The shore of the
mainland may be approached to a mile^ and that of Leu-kung-tau to

3 cables.

Vessels of large draught running for this harbour from the eastward
should steer to pass about a quarter of a mile northward of the north point
of Leu-kung-tau; and thence, if intending to. anchor under Observatory
island off the west end [of Leu-kung-tau, they should round the west end
of that island at about 2 cables, and then steer for the anchorage.

Eound island and the adjoining rocks are conspicuous marks for the
west entrance, when approaching it from the north-westward. The outer
rock is ste^p-to, and its east side may be passed at a cable.

WTtT-H fk I'Virmt to CBzrv, — The land north-westward of Wei-hai-wei,
and which forms the harbour on that side, is a hilly peninsula, 900 to
J^OO feet high, with rocky shores. Its northern point is cape Cod, 4 miles
from Leu-kung-tau. Eddy island. If miles W.N.W. from cape Cod, is
somewhat low with scarped clifls, and lies one mile N.E. from the extreme
of a narrow, jutting peninsula, 2 miles in length, on which is a remarkable
peaked hill with even slopes. From this the coast recedes south-west-
ward for 7 miles to the mouth of a little stream which small junks can
enter, and then bends westward again, skirting a low sandy plain for
16 miles farther to White rock point, which is 6 miles E.S.E. of Chifu
harbour. There are a few isolated, prominent hills of moderate elevation
1 to 3 miles from the shore line of this coast, backed at 10 miles inland by
a [rugged mountain range, from which a spur descends to the sea shore

4 miles eastward of White rock point. One mile eastward of this spur
is an opening that small junks can enter, and from the western point of
which a long sand spit stretches, on which one of H.M. ships, mistaking

'White rock point Tor Kdng-kungtau' at the entrance of Chifu harbour,
was totally lost. x *

CMuitioiid— The course irom Eddy island to White Bock point is W. | EL
21 miles, and the shore between them should never be approached to a

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\0m d&pOk than 9 to 10 Aiilioms. If not tore of the poeition »t nighty
the ahip thoold be anchored in that depth, w her head pat off ahore until

waiVJi BOOL 9MVT, a low hiUj pointy so named from Hie white
rock off Ity ifl the north-eastern extreme of the narrow island of Ynag-mar
tan frfiieh nins S.W. bj W. 4 miles from the pointy and forms ti^e eastern
horn of the eztensiTe baj, the western part of which is Chifu barbooF.
Two ooDspicnoos hills of equal heighty 875 feety the southern of wbidi is
Taahan, rise at the south-western part of the island, the other bilk on it
being low. Yung-ma-tau is bold of ap|«x)achy and may be passed in
7 fathoms at half a mile.

L*— Yung«ma-taa is joined to the mainland by
eztenaiTe flats of mud and sand 'which at low tide are left dry, wiih the
ezeepdon of a channel which has been formed by the scour of the tides.
This channel, which is 7 or 8 miles long, leads up to the town of Ning-
hai-chan, the position of which is indicated by a pagoda visible from the
sea. Its entrance is south of Ya-ma-tauy and 18 feet was carried in at
low-water springs in 1860 by a passage one cable broad, over a bar
situated 3 cables S.W. of Tashan point. In 1867 there was less water,
but the depth oyer the bar is probably variabley so that it should be
examined and buoyed before taking in any vessel larger than a gunboat.
For upwards of a mile within the bar the channel is nearly a cable broad
with a depth of fix>m 21 to 28 feet water, and is so well sheltered &om
all winds that vessels might be moored in tiers. The landing place is at
Temple point, the south extreme of the island, which is steep-to, and
where the principal village is situated. The best position for a stranger
to anchor in is with Temple point N.E. by N. and Tashan point N.W.

This little harbour was subsequently visited in 1867 in H.M.S. Insolent^
when it was found that its entrance was greatly altered since the survey
of 1860. This may be partially due to the effect of N.W. winds which
cause the bar to shoal to 10 feet, and the sandbanks on either side to
increase so as to leave the channel only half a cable in breadth. The
best place then found for a gunboat to anchor was just above Temple
point, in 4J fathoms, with a very short scope of cable.

xmro^xmrG is&AVBBf are a group of islands ^ond rocks, of
moderate elevation, straggling over an extent of 7 miles, situated at the
north-western part of the extensive bay south-eastward of Chifu, and

*** See Admiralty Plan of Long-man harbour, No. 2,846 ; scale, m = 9 inches.

t iSice Admiralty Plan of Chifu of Yentai harbour. No. 1,260; scale m=l inch.
Also pLin of the anchorage on Admiralty Chart of thegul£s of Pe-chili and Liau-tung
No. 1,266.

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giving 9><^lter to the spacious harbour of the same name which it forms.

Kimp^^^S ^^f *^® largest of the group, is even-topped in character, and

hi^ on its summit, 200 feet high, a lighthouse which heats N.W. ^ W.

t^ miles from White Rock point. The south-west point of Kung-kung
tau is a small rise, but the central part of the island, which was the site of
the French dep6t during the last China war, is low and sandy.

Bast Band-spit, which shows at low water, and greatlj shelters the
anchorage from easterly winds, extends three-quarters of a mile from the
south-west point of Kung-kung ; from the extremity of the spit, which is
steep-to in 4 fathoms, the lighthouse bears N.E, | N. 1^ miles. The leading
marks to clear it are given in the directions for entering the harbour.

Aroona Bank* — The German man-of-war Areona, when passing Chifu
harbour, observed a shoal apparently about one mile long, on which
4^ fathoms were obtained. From the shoal North rock bore W. by N. ^ N.,
South-east island W. by S. i S., and White rock S. by W. J W.

vortb Sock, the outer and north-eastern islet of this group, bears
N.E.J E. 4| miles from Kung-kung tau lighthouse. Approaching it from
the eastward it appears round, with a smooth top sloping southward, but
when seen from the northward and westward it is wedge-shaped. A small
rock just awash at high water, and therefore nearly always visible, lies
N.E, by E. ^ E. 3 cables from North rock, and is steep-to, there being
9 fathoms close outside it.

Bonble Sock, S.W. by W., 2^ miles from North rock, when seen from
the eastward appears, as its name denotes, to be double, the northern part
like a wedge ; the southern part, which is much the higher, 198 feet, is an
irregular mound, rather elongated to the westward.

BJB. Island, 60 feet high, bears from North rock S.W. | S. 4J miles,
and is l^ miles S.E. by E. ^ E. from the lighthouse. This and the two
islets just described are safe of approach, and with the exception of the
small rock lying off North* rock, appear to have no detached dangers.
Three high rocks lie between S.E. island and Kung-kung tau, but no
hidden dangers near them have as yet been discovered.

Vinirer Sock, Btick-up Sock and Mound. — ^Finger rock, the shape its
name denotes, is half a mile north of Kung-kung tau lighthouse. Stick-
up rock^ of similar form, lies to the north of the western islets of the
group/ Mound islet, where was situated from 1861 to 1867 the British
Naval coal store and depot, is the second islet from the westward. These
three are usefril leading marks for clearing East sand spit, and approaching
the anchorage under the islands.

XJCOBT. — ^A light is exhibited from a lighthouse 45 feet high, erected
upon ;the highest part of Kunk-kung tau. It is a ^xed light, elevated
242 feet above the se% is visible all round, and in clear weather should be

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8oen a duitoiMe of 22 miles. The illmninating app«u»tas Ia ^^^^ptac, of
the first order. , . ./

, aboai 60 miles wesiwaard of iUoerteidMidliB^fae e8b4;0|i
I oC a moonUinoiM p^>««yi^ ooxmected with the mmnlftiid bj a lov
seek of knd of eooBideraUe extent* This peninjiiliy whieh: is ^sulyeftloiig,
EJ3.E. and W^^.W., and extends in a narrow ridf^ paraUdl to the coast
lines is high and steep, and when seen from the distance iH^dsrs Jiike. an
island. Chifu peak, at the oentie of the ridge^ is 980 feet highland has
a dooble top. One cable S.E. of Chifu ci^ is Sentry rook, wbidi msi^ be
closely rounded in 9 fSathomSi and the ci^ is equally held*

cnsnv* sr TBWVJLX sabbovb^ a treaty port, and the onlj eae
between Shanghai and Tientsin, is formed in a bight of the eoast between
the peninsula of Chifu and the Kung-kung group of islands, which, being
t miles In extent, constitute a magnificent, natural breakwater to the
harbour, sheltering the various anchorages from north and east. The
anchorage space in the harbour, comprising a depth of from 6 to 7 fiitbomsy
is 4 square miles, and for a depth exceeding 4 fathoms, 9 square miles,
whilst a depth of 21 feet can be carried up to within 800 yards of Tower
head, which bears W. ^ S. 6^ miles from Knng-kung lightheose. The
town of Yentaa, where the foreign settlement is, stands on the san^ shore
of a smaU interior bay westward of Tower head. It is built without
design or regularity. On the slope of the hill, fiidng landward, are some
European houses, the highest <^ Which is the British consulate.- -The
summit of Town hill is occupied by a Chinese fort and jngnat station.
Thera is a Chinese customs' estaUishment, which is in aU req>eets similar
to that at Shanghai.

ismpyliea^— Oontractors supply excellent beef and fair mutton, and
there is an abundance of vegetables <^ good quality, and fruit in season.
Game and wild duck, in great variety, abound in autumn and winter.
Oysters are plentiful and fish, especially cod, and about the «id of Mar^sh
the herring fishery commences, affording occupation for the whole fishing
population of this and also more distant parts of the coast. Native shops
have been opened for the supply of provisions and stores to Europeans
and to the^ shipping, and one or two foreign stores supply certain kinds o£
foreign imports, but clothing and other necessaries of the kind and luxxiries
are usually procured from Shanghai and Hong Kong.

* Sm Admirally plan of Ghifd harbour, No. 1,260; 8cale,m=:l inch. Chifii has
been adopted as the Treaty port in preference to Teng-chan where there is only an
open roadstead. The name of Chifd which has been improperly applied by j&reigners
to the port, is derived from a smaU place on the same bay not in any way connected
with the port. The description of the port has been mainly taken from the *' Treaty
Ports of China and Japan," supplemented with the remarks of the captains and
narigathig officers of H.M. ships who have risxted it up to 1S71.

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'. C^ can be olbtf^iaod-from eoxg^raptors^ t]|e iiAy«l doj^t 9,% MqiwI islet

Afti^g been remove^ It :is.»oW; impottad 4k^ from Eagtond and

^AttstlK^ as T^dl as ^&^i!ia- For9a4>8a , aad Japan. Water .is tbe- great want

ai(fii?«| the :wAoleiof this part^of the eoaati <rf Sbanta»g% . CJom.-

i{»rador9 now jtupplj Q3ci)ell0nt water brought fecim the iskterior •t2to2|

<dol)ar8 ek Um, but the w%ter obtained near .ib^ Ihore is unwholes(»ne, and

'Pi:ftdiioe&di«rrh€Ba( and dysentery, .When, water* 19 required i^^^^

[to heiat signal-flag 'Ho. .1 M tiiie fore^ At Moni^d hi^ there m a well> but

'i^e winter is brackish, and atihe yiltoge in^de Qhifu .^^ii^e there $re wells,

A>ut itm water^is of veaf^y inferior qnality. Accoimts ar^ 'kept in taels, and

p^^tj transactions in ca^h. The dean Mexican dollar, passes current, but

at a considerable discount, yiz. 8 to 15 per cent. The standard of Sycee

silyer-acceptedatthe Chineae custom house is 4 per oeint. higher than

that prevailing at Shanghai.

TMAe, »roa«otieiis, «fcc. — The exports, which oonsist chiefly of peas,
beancake, silk, prawns, drugs, dates, oil and wheat, amounted in yalue to
>7l7,d51/. sterling in 1871. The knports, consisting of cotton and woollen
fiibrics, metals, opium, seaweed, &c. amounted to 1,954,976#. There were
408 ships entered and 4B9 cleared, of which 42 per cent, were British*
The proyince of Shantung, in which Yentai is situated, has an area
^calculated at upwards of 65,000 square miles, and a population of 28,000,000.
.1%e interior, with the exception of a central tract, is almost an unbroken
plidn, through which £k)ws the great Yellow riyer, besides numerous small
aayigable atreams. The i»roductions of the Great plain are cereals, pulse,
•tobacco, drugs, inferior silk, &c», but the staple articles of trade are peas
4ttd beancake, yermicelli, and straw braid, for the shipment of which to
southern markets Chifu is the principal port.

The position of Chifu is highly advantageous for trade with the northern
ports of Japan, Korea, and the Russian possessions. As it is the only