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harbour open in the north of China from December to March, during
which time the Pei-ho remains frozen up, this port becomes during winter
tiie centre of a, busy trade, as aU merchandize which is intended for Tient-
sin is landed here and conveyed by interior routes. The mails for Tientsin,
Fidking and Nieuchwang are sdso landed here by fortnightly steamers, and
conveyed overland by native carters, who occupy about 12 days in the
•transit Europeans have frequently proceeded by the same route," a cart
for the journey, with driver, being hired for about 1^ dollars a day.

There is regular steam communication about two or three times a week
with Tientsin and the southern ports, but chiefly with Bong Kong and
Shanghai. The voyage to Shanghai occupies about 3 days, that to Taku
about one day.

Climate. — ^In point of climate this port is undoubtedly the most salubrious
of aU those open to the residence of Europeans on the coast of China

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476 TAK0T8B KIAK0 TO PS-CHILI STBAIT. [ghj^. xz.

IwciWBftnf ilie eombmed and notable adTmatages of a dry atmosphere, a
tlKNftwgUj bradng wmter, and tea air and bathing. The summer^ which
does not, however, kuH mndi more than two months, is hot, bat the degree
of warmth indicateil bj the thermometer (rising to 85° and 9(f) is t^mp^red
bj the strong br eca es whioh constantly preyail, and which are sometimes
found nnpleasantlj boisterons. January and February are very ccUd
months, with much snow ; April is generally wet ; May is a lovely month
of genial spring weather ; June €ne and warm, with rain ; July and
August hot, and more or less rainy with squalls; the begining of Sept^nber
still warm, whilst the end of this month and throughout October dry and
sunshiny, but cool weather constitutes the autumn. November and
December are cold, with much snow in the latter month. The usual
minimum temperature is about 20^. Owing to its invigorating air, absence
of tropical heat and discomforts, and facilities for exercise and sea bathing,
Chifu has already been resorted to as a sanitarium by individuals from the
southern ports, and bids fair to attract much attention in this respect
henoeforwanL Its principal drawback in a sanitary sense is the prevalence
of rheumatism due to the violence of the winds. In this respect at the
same time attention has been drawn to a locality some 50 miles distant
where hot springs called Tung Tang are known to exi^t, and are resorted
to by the Chinese as a cure for this disease.* It is also affirmed that
Europeans long resident at Yentai suffer much from fever and dysentery,
and this may in some measure be due to the inferiority of the drinking
water. The summer temperature ranges from 85^ to 100°, that of the
winter from 30° to 15°. The climate of the province of Shantung resembles
that of northern Europe, or perhaps still more closely that of the northern
States of America, and on that account is favourable to Europeui

The winds in a general manner follow the courses and periods of the
monsoons. The summer winds are chiefly from the south-eastward and
light but very changeable ; the winter winds are from the north-westward
strong and often violent, but although they are intermittent they are more
constant. See page 435.

cmxru AVCHO&Aaa. — The harbour although affording ample depth
of water for all classes of ships is exposed to the disadvantage of violent
north-westerly and northerly gales which prevail through half the year,
particularly in the winter months, but its safety as well as its capacity have
been now fully proved by experience. During the last China war the
French squadron laid between Kung-kung tau and Tower point during a
whole winter and not a ship dragged her anchors. The larger British
men-of-war have usually anchored in 7 fathoms with Sentry rock off Chifu
cape bearing N.N.W. ^ W., Mound islet (at which was formerly the naval

♦ ** Treaty Ports of China and Japan/' page 468.

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store and dep6t) N.E. by N., «nd Chifu lighthouse E. J N * Capt. Henry
Boys, B.N., of H.M.S. Barrosa considered this much the best anchorage
ad the island was sufficiently large for recreation and the climate in summer
delightful, and was also of opinion that these islands would be a fine place
to recruit the crews of ships after a lengthened stay at Shanghai or the
ports of the Yangtse.

Of late years H.M. ships have anchored, with Tower point bearing
between S.W., and W.S.W. about one mile, in whatever depth, according
to the season of the year, was deemed prudent, and the holding ground
has proved, as indeed it is in all parts of the harbour, singularly good.
Smaller vessels anchor in Village bay on the western side of the harbour,
and also in Yentai bay off the settlement, where there is a depth of from
10 to 20 feet^f but the latter is only safe in summer. Another good winter
anchoragej for small craft is off the viDage inside Chifu cape. The north-
westerly gales send in a heavy swell and render the anchorage off Yentai,
in some d^ree insecure, and in the winter months the sea is so heavy in
northerly gales that all loading and unloading are entirely suspended. At
Yentai small piers and cambers have been built, which afford perfect
shelter for safe landing. In the summer it appears to be perfectly safe to
lie off Yentai, for hundreds of junks arrive from the south in the beginning
of the season, and leave at the end of it, remaining at anchor the whole time.

As to the relative merits of this harbour and that of Ta-lien-whan
(page 494) for the assembling of a fleet. Commander Goodenough, RJ^.^
of H.M.S. Renard, who was well acquainted with both places in 1860,
remarks :— " On the whole Chifu is preferable as a station to Ta-lien-whan
bay. In the winter, owing to the prevalence of northerly winds, which
throw a considerable swell into Chifu, and render operations on the beach
somewhat difficult, the anchorage at Ta-lien-whan is preferable for a very
large fleet ; there is, however, abundant shelter at Chifu for 50 sail, and
the Kung-kung islands afford convenient sites for store-houses, &c. The
holding ground in both bays is excellent. Neither afford much fresh water,
but in this respect Ta-lien-whan is superior. All fresh provisions can be
obtained at Chifu, and its climate is superior to that of Ta-lien-whan."

TZBBS. — It is high water, full and change, in Chifu harbour at
lOh. 34m.; springs rise about 8 feet, neaps 6^ feet. For information
concerning the tidal streams see page 460.

* See Sketches on Admiralty plan of Chifu harbour.

t Off the north-west point of Tower head or Yentai hill, with the tower E. by S^ J S.,
is a sunken rock of 7 feet at low water springs. On it stands a beacon, an iron rod
with cage.

X In November 1865, it being necessary to get H.M.S. Manilla alongside H.M.S.
Barrosa to tranship some horses, after steering round the bay, the only place found
where the water was suflBlciently smooth was under Chifu cape, with Sentry rock E.N.E.
«nd a fort North.

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■llBBnilW fir cgnm^— If bound to Ohifb from the eaatward,
ronndliig cqw Cod and Eddy idaad, the ooarse and distanoe to the f an^-
kang islands is West 25 aiiks. The high hill over Knob poial^ S laUm^
eastwwd of YenUi, kepi on a W. by S. ^ 8. bearing, will lead well idsettr
to the eastward of these islands, §»▼% SJ!.islaiid a berth of thiee-qiiaiTters
of a mile. This mark should be followed, in order to dear the East sand
spit, until Stiok-op rock eomes on with the eastern part of Moand islet,
(the second firom the west), bearing N.N.W., when the coarse may be altered
for Mound islet, until Finger rock, which is oonspicuous, comes on with
the west extreme of Kung-kung tau, then haul up about N.E, bj N. or
N.N J5., if wishing to anchor close under Kung-knng tan, where the d^&
will be 4 fathoms, or continue N.N.W., if of light dranght, <Mr N.W« if of
heavy draught, and anchor in 4 to 7 fathoms as convenient. The bottom
is mud, the holding ground is good, and there is sufficient space for a lai^
number of vessels.

If wishing to run on for the anchorage in Village bay under Chifu cape,
when the mark for clearing the East sand spit has been reached, Chifb
peak bearing N.W. will readily be distinguished. Steer N.W. f W^ for
the head of the bay, and anchor in 4 to 5 fitthoma^ mud, with the extreme
of the cape bearing about N.N.E. or N.E. by N. H.M.S. AcUeon, in 1860,
anchored here in 8} fathoms at low water, with Chifu peak N.W. by N. ;
Sentry rock N.E. by E. | E.; the lighthouse E. by S. ^ S. ; and Knob
point S.S.E.

If working in for this harbour from the eastward, North rock, Double
and S.E. islands may be safely approached to half a mile on the one side,
and the mainland on the other, until the soundings decrease to 4^
fathoms, the water gradually shoaling as the shore is approached. Between
the islands and Ejiob point is the Kung-knng flat, having in one or two
places 4 fathoms at low water springs, rather near to the island, but a
general depth of 4| and 4| fathoms.

As the East sand spit extending from Kung-kung tau is approached,
remember the bearing of the hill over Knob point, W. by S.^ S., and do
not go northward of that bearing until the clearing mark, Stick«up rock
and the Mound, comes on* When the spit is cleared a longer stretch maj
be made on the port tack, taking care not to approach the Mound nearer
than to bring S.E. island E. | S., when it will be seen over the sandy
flat between the two portions of the island. This line will clear the West
sand spit, the south extreme of which bears from the centre of Mound
S. by E. \ E. nearly three-quarters of a mile, and W. \ N. from the

* Sw Sketohes of these leading marks on Admiralty plan of Chifii or Tentai harbour,
No. 1,260.

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Approaching from the westward Ohi-fo peak, 980 feet high, and the
land of the peninsula will show out conspicuously, appearing from a
distance like an island, the low sandy isthmus connecting it with the
mainland not being visible. Therie' arfe no hidden dangers known in the
vicinity. Three or four detached rocks are dotted along the face of the
peninsula, but tbey are all well within half a mile of it, and above water,
so that a com*se a mile off and parallel to the shore clears everything.
Sentry rock, lying off the cape, may be tounded at 2 cables' dii»tance in
7 fathoms and the anchorage steered for.

If intending to anchor under the Kung-kung islands, after rounding
Sentry rock, steer for Knob point until the clearing mark for the West
sand spit (the lighthouse bearing East) comes on ; then run in southward
of that line and anchor as convenient.

cnxFU B&1OT, 2| miles N.W. by W. fVom Chifu cape, is a pre-
cipitous cliff immediately under the summit of the peninsula. The
western extremity of which is 2J miles farther W.S.W., with a high rock
off it. The sea face of the promontory is extremely bold, and may be
approached within a quarter of a mile in from 9 to 12 fathoms.

Tbe COAST westward of Chifu peninsula falls back southward, form-
ing a sandy bay, terminating at Sloping point, 11 miles N.W. by W. J W .
At 11 miles farther in the same direction is Low point, distinguished by a
conspicuous nipple or small mound upon it, 250 feet high ; and between
the points are two other bays. At 8 miles westward of Low point is
Teng-chau head of about the same height, around which are steep cliffs.
' TBWO-CHAV,* a city of the second class, is commanded on three
sides ; the rising ground of Teng-chau head overlooking it on the west.
A small detached fort, unarmed in 1860, also stands outside the walls to the
west. The city is surrounded by rather a formidable looking wall, but
without guns ; an opening in its sea face forms the entrance to a small
camber, in which a fleet of junks lie closely packed and sheltered from all
winds ; its entrance, only accessible to sanpans or small junks according to
the time of tide, is so shallow that a very moderate sea breaks across it.

The little camber is a scene of bustling activity in summer, some junks
taking in cargoes of grain. Coal is occasionally imported from Fu-chau.
The shops in the city appeared to have little else for sale than the usual
description of grain and dried peas. No supplies can be obtained here.

mrater. — ^A small stream of water empties itself into the camber at
Teng-chauj but its purity may be doubted, as it seems to run through a
large and populous part of the city.

* See Admiralty Chart of Fe-chili strait, with Miau-tau islands, No. 1,892 } scale,
m = 0-4 of an inch. Teng-chau was the port opened hy the treaty of Tientsin, hut heing
unfitted for trade, Yen-tai, or Chifu, was suhstituted.

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«av»-«BAV SAn^— This dtDgeroas bank, whicli extends in a
W*N. W. direction 7 miles from TengHshsn head, with a general depth of
S to 4 ihthoms on it, is apparentij of sand and rock, with mersl gnudl
knolls and large shelfr of shaUow water. The outer knoll, of 2 Mioms,
lies on the abo?e bearing and distanoe, and just midwaj between ihe coast
and the high blnff on the west part of T^-hi-shan, the western of ^
If iao-tan islands, whidi bears from it North, 6 miles. This knoU and a
3-&thoms patch 1^ miles South of it are the outer dangers Ijing on a 3
to 44-fathoms bank, with 6 fathoms on its edges. A series of slioaler
patches, on which are several knolls of 4 to 6 feet, extend about 5 miles
from Teng-chau head.

aSBBOnowaiir— If intending to anchor off Teng-chan, after rounding
Low point steer W. 4 N., and when Teng-chau head bears W.S.W. stand
in and take up anchorage in 8 to 6 fathoms. But if ronning westward
be careful not to bring the nipple on Low point to the eastward of
E.bjS.|S.,to avoid a dangerous rocky ledge extending nearly aimle
off a low point of the shore, and the extremity of which is 2^ miles
east of Teng-chau head. This reef partiaUy protects the anchorage from
the eastward, as Teng-chau bank does from the westward, but it is
entirely exposed to the northward, and these winds send in a heavj
breaking sea, which renders the anchorage unsafe, and communication
with the shore impossible, tlie Miau-tau group being too distant to afford
any shelter.

Thm XZAV-TAV or Meih-shan islands, in all fifteen, exclusive of
small rocks, extend 35 miles in a northerly direction from Teng-chaa to
within 22 miles of the extremity of the Liau-ti shan promontory on tiie
north side of Pe-chili strait, and they separate the Yellow sea from the
gulf of Pe-chilL The four northern islands form a group, the peak ^
the northernmost being in ]&t. 38° 23' 37" N., long. 120° 55' E. The
southernmost islands form a compact group, 9 miles in extent, enclosing
the anchorage known as Hope sound, where the British fleet under 1
Admiral Sir James Hope, K.C.B., assembled in 1860. The intervening
islands and rocks are isolated and scattered.

There are several passages through the islands. Miau-tau strait

the south part of the group and the mainland, has generally l>een n

vessels bound into the gulf of Pe-chili; but if not intending to anc

♦here ^^
off Teng-chau, or among the southern islands of the group, ^

much better and more direct channels north of Chang-shan island.

The Chang-shan channel, (called by the Chinese Pau-tau inn|i ^

Pagoda gate,) between the north side of Chang-shan and Hon*i is ^

is decidedly the best, and may be taken at night if the islan^^ ^ ^

seen. In fact, with the exception of the Hesper and Fisherman roc

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the north Toki channel, and a reef extending a mile southward from
Sha-ino island, the whole of the entrances northward of Chang-shaa appear
to be remarkably clear of danger.

In the eastern part of the deep narrow passage between North and
South Hwangching islands, a small rock dries 6 feet at low water in mid-
channel and there is another of the same height at three-quarters of a mile
from the north-east shore of North Hwangching. A reef, also with a flat
rock on it, extends a quarter of a mile from the north-west point of South

The passage south of Toki, the central island, and north of Sha-mo is
called the Chin chu mun or Pearl gate. The Liau-ti-shan channel, north
of all the islands, and which is 22 miles wide, is supposed to be clear of aD
hidden danger.

Supplies. — On the first appearance of the surveying squadron in the
southern part of the Miau-tau group in June 1860, all the cattle in Chang-
shan and the islands in the immediate neighbourhood were concealed, and
eventually, during the stay of the vessels, removed either to the mainland
or the northern islands. A few pigs were procured ; also a small quantity
of poultry. H.M.S. Renardy during her stay in Hope sound, obtained
a good supply of vegetables, and frequently sheep were brought from the
mainland. The cabbage is excellent either as a salad or cooked.

Toki, which lies nearly in the middle of the chain, although not the
largest island, appears to be the most productive. At the anchorage on
its south side, H.M.S. Wellesley in 1840 obtained about 50 bullocks,
and a supply of eggs, poultry, and vegetables. The Cruizevj in 1859, was
supplied with 11 bullocks, and some vegetables, principally cucumbers.

The villages on the south part of the Miau-tau group appear to have a
better supply of water than is usually found along the coast of the main-
, land. The village on the north part of Miau-tau has four wells. At Toki
the fVeilesley^ in August 1840, procured 30 tons of water in one day from
the wells of the village on the south side of the island. In April 1860
it was with great difficulty that the Actceon obtained 5 tons with two
pinnaces in one day. A better supply may probably be found at a later
season of the year.

HOPE somrp.* — There are two or three anchorages among the islands
forming the southern part of the Miau-tau group. The best is in Hope
sound, which is formed on the west and northern side of Miau-tau or
Temple island, and is sheltered on the east by that island and Chang-
shan, on the north by Chang-shan and Siau-hi-shan and some rocks

* See Plan of Hope sound on Admiralty Chart of gulfs of Pe-chlli and Liau-tung,
Ko. 1,256 ; scale m=z 0*9 olf an inch. Also Admiralty Chart of Fe-chili strait and
Miau-tau islands, No. 1,892.

30251. ^ H H

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between them, and on the west and south-west bj Ta-hi-shan and a reef
extending from it to the south-east. Having several entrances^ even
sailing vesHols under all circumstances of wind and tide may freely run in
or out.

Hope sound, however, can only be considered as a sununer anchorage,
at which season ships of any draught and in ahnost any number may
lie quite sheltered, so that even boat work would be seldom interrupted;
but it is a thoroughly bad anchorage* in winter when northerly winds are
prevalent The only secure part then is a small harbour formed in tiie
north-east part of the sound by the north end of Chang-shan and a small
island adjoining. Here there is space for two frigates and 10 or 12 gun
boats, but all the rest of the sound at this season is shoal where well
protected, and ill protected where it is deep. Another disadvantage is,
that the eastern stream not having space to pass to .the eastward throag^h
the narrow part of Miau-tau strait, finds its way to the northward through
the sound, and in northerly winds causes vessels to lie broadside to the
swelL According to another accountf Hope sound is a wild and dreary
place in winter, and although sheltered sufficiently for security, such a
heavy sea sets in with northerly gales that when riding with the swell on
the beam (caused by the strong north-western tidal stream) the rolling is
so great as to endanger masts and boats, and cause serious wear and tear.
In one gale H.M.S. Urgent rolled her quarter boats under water and lost
them, and at the same time one gunboat and three junks were driven
ashore. Snow storms occur with the wind from North blowing with a
force of 10 to 11; barometer 30*60 and the thermometer 16^ and the
cold piercing. The inhabitants have always proved friendly and willing
to afford supplies.

otb«r AnoiiorarM- — ^In Chief bay, on the south side of Toki, there is
anchorage in 6 to 9 fathoms, well protected from the northward and west-
ward, but quite open to the southward.

H.M.S. Wellesley in 1840 anchored in 12 fathoms under Kao-shan or
Quoin island during a strong northerly wind, with the island bearing from
North to N.N.E. \ E. about a mile distant.

TA^>CKir-8KAW, or Great Bamboo island, the easternmost o£ the Miau-
tau group, is 480 feet high, and visible in clear weather 30 mUes.
Although of a barren appearance there is a village on its south-eastern
side, and cattle were observed on the sides of the hills. The island is
bordered by a white shingly beach, and appears bold-to. The spit on its
south side should not be approached closely at night, for at certain times
of tide an eddy is formed there which sets towards the island.

♦ Commander J. G. Goodenough, H,M.S. Menard, January 1861.
t James S. Wattfc Eeq., Master K.N., H.M.S. Bingdooe,

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OH^.ix.] MIAU-TAU GROUP. 483

CBiLVO-9HA.w, or Long island, the largest of the Miau-tau islands, is
7 miles in extent N.N.W. and S.S.E., and divided into two parts by a
narrow isthmus of shingle nearly a mile in length. Its east and north
sides, bold and cliffy, are steep-to, and Cairn hill, the highest on the
northern part, rises to 570 feet. The southern part of Chang-shan is als"
billy, its south and centre hills being each 490 feet high.

Chang-shan Tail, a sandy spit, extends South upwards of half a' mile
i&om Spit point, its south extreme, with irregular soundings of 4^ and 2
fathoms to the southward, the latter depth being nearly 1^ miles from the
point. The Tail shows at low water ; a tidal overfall is very perceptible
on it, and continues so for a considerable distance across the strait, like
breakers, far to the southward of real danger. H.M.S. FuriouSj April
1858, grounded at IJ miles from Spit point, with the east extreme of
Chang-shan just shutting in with the south extreme, bearing N. \ E. and
the western end of Ta-hi-shan N. W. by W. ; the vessel appeared to have
grounded on its southern limit, having 2\ fathoms at her bows and amid-
ships, and 5 £iithoms under her stem.

A small round hill, with a heap of stones on it, forming the extreme of
the land to the north-eastward of the village on Miau-tau, kept open of
Ship point (a low bluff of & reddish colour forming the west extreme of the
south part of Chang-shan), N.N.W. | W., leads in 5 fathoms water to the
south-west of the spit. The above hill is low, and to the north-east of
the village is a higher hill^ having also a heap of stones on its summit.

TA-HZ-SHAir and szAV-HZ-SBAir, or Great and Little Black islands,
are to the westward of Chang-shan, and between them is the small island
Miau tau or Temple island, 310 feet high, on the north-west side of which
is Hope sound, which as before stated, is the best and most sheltered
anchorage among the Miau-tau group. The western point of Ta-hi-shan
is a stupendous bluff, with cliffs 600 feet high;

Toxz' TAM^ about 10 miles northward of Chang-shan, and readily dis-
tinguished by its peak, 613 feet high, is in the form of a right angled
triangle, the shortest sides of which face the south and west. There are
four villages on its southern side, and one or two on the north-east side.
It is well cultivated, and fresh provisions and water may be procuf ed.

The whole of the southern part of Toki appears dear of danger. The
small rock off its south-eastern point, and Mochang-shi islet off its south-
west end may be passed at a cable.

Houxz and MJLO'STELAXn — ^Eiio-shau or Quoin island, 650 feet high,
lying nearly 5 miles W.S.W. of Toki, is a remarkable little island, in form
like a gunner's- quoin, with its highest part on the south. Houki island
4 miles to the south wai*d, and 310 feet high, has a reef extending some

H H 2

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little distance from its northern side^ and another off its eastern end. lAght
proposed on Houki.

SMp«r M«k was discovered by H.M.S. Nimrod^ June 1859, and its