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poitition was subseqaently fixed in July by J. Loane^ Master, B,.N,, com-
manding ILM.S. Ilesper, It is only about 30 yards in extent, east and
west, and 8 or 10 yards wide, and when first seen, bearing £• | N., it had
the appearance of a wreck or abandoned vessel with her timbers showing
above water.* It dries from 4 to 6 feet at low water springs, and is
scarcely covered at neaps ; at the highest tides a break or mostly a ripple,
visible in daylight and clear weather, shows its position. The Hesper
pofi.sed its south and south-east sides at the distance of 3 cables, in
12 fathoms water. From the rock the west extreme of Ta-kin bears
N.N. W. \ W. ; the summit of Eao-shan West ; and the highest part of
Ta-chu-san S. by £. Great caution should be used in approaching this
locality at high water.

riakanBAB moefc, lying neai*ly in mid-channel between Toki and Ta-kin
islands, is seldom visible, being only just awash at low water springs.
A ripple generally shows its position during both flood and ebb streams
when the sea is smooth, but when the streams are slack, no signs
of it appear. From the rock, the east extreme of Ta-kin appears just
touching the west extreme of North Hwangching N.N.E.|E. ; Eao-shan
is just seen over the north extreme of Toki, S.W. by W. ; and the western
side of Sha-mo is in line with the centre of Siau-chu-shan, S. by E. \ E.

TX9B8. — It is high water, full and change, in Hope sound, Miau-taa
group, at lOh. 24m., and spiings rise 6 J feet, but the rise is much affected
by strong winds. At Dep6t bay at the south end of Miau tau and at
Ship pointy Chang-shan, it is high water respectively at 1 Ih. 4m. and
llh, 33m. For some distance eastward of Miau-tau strait the flood -tide
sets westward, and the ebb eastward ; but within the strait, a few miles
west of Teng-chau, the flood will be found setting eastward, and the ebb
westwai'd. See current arrows on Admii'alty Chart.

DZRECTZOWS. — When bound through Miau-tau strait from the east-
ward, keep Island head open eastward of Spit point (Chang-shan), bearing
about North until the north point of Miau tau is seen clear of Ship point,
N.N.W. I W. This latter line of bearing clears Chang-shan Tail, when
the course may be altered to the northward for the anchorage on the south
side of Chang-shan. Or should the anchorage in Hope sound be preferred,

• Lieutenant Bullock, commanding 11 .M. Surveying- vessel Dove, 1860, remarks: —
** We were much struck on passing, the day being calm, with the treacherous appearance
of this rock, which looked like a brown floating log, and might easily have been passed
unnoticed."



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CHAP. IX.] NORTH COAST OF YELLOW SEA. 485

Subsequently in 1860, the coast from Liau-ti-shan to the eastward of
after rounding the Tail, steer N.W. by W. | W. until Ellis island is just
seen clear of Club point, about N, by E., then run in on that line and
anchor,, with Cairn hill, the northern summit of Chang-shan N.E. by E., the
temple on Miau tau, E. | S., and the summit of Siau-hi-shan N.W. ^ W.,
or as near to this position as circumstances will aUow. A good spot
to anchor in is southward of the east end of Siau-hi-shan, and as dose in
as the vessel's draught will admit. The bottom, as is generally the case
on this coast, is stiff mud, and therefore holds well.

If intending to pass through the strait without anchoring, after clearing
Chang-shan Tail, .keep on the north side of the strait in 6 or 7 fathoms,
and be careful of getting into 10 and 12 fathoms, as the deepest water
borders the Teng-chau bank, to avoid which, Teng-chau head should not
be brought eastward of S.E. by E. until the west end of Ta-hi-shan bears
eastward of North, when a N.W. by N. course may be steered for Sha-
lui-tien island distant 112 miles«

Vessels bound to the Fehi ho or other ports in the Gulfs of Pe-chili and
Liau-tung^ are recommended to use the Chang-shan channel on the north
side of Changrshan, the course and distance from 2 miles outside of Alceste
island to the middle of which, is W.N.W. 100 miles. The channnel between
Toki and Ta-kin cannot be recommended to a stranger on account of the
Fisherman rock ; but if compelled to take it and intending to pass north*
ward of the rock, do not bring the south end of Ta-kin to the northwai-d
of N.by W., until Kao-shan opens West of Toki. In passing southward
of the rock do not bring the northern point of Toki south of West until its
eastern point bears South.

^here is a narrow, deep channel between North and South Hwangching
islands, but at its easl entrance, nearly in the centre, is the rock which
dries 6 feet at low water, and is therefore, nearly always visible.

NORTH COAST OF YELLOW SEA.

The northern coast, of the Yellow sea is fronted in some parts by large
groups of islands ; but as yet it is little known to Europeans. From
Liau-ti-shan head, the south extreme of the province of Liau-tung, it
extends upwards of 200 miles, first in a north-easterly, and then in an
easterly direction, to near the meridian of 125° E., when the coast line
takes a southerly direction and forms a great concavity between Liau*
tung and the western coast of Korea.*

In September 1840, H.M. ships Blonde and Pylades visited this part
of the coast, and determined the position of several points on their route.

♦ The southern coasts of the Korea are described in the China Sea Directory, vol. iv.
page 81.



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486 NOETH COAST OP YEIiLOW SEA. [chap.ix.

Subsequentlj in 1860, the coast firom Lian-ti-shan to the eastward of
Ta-lien-whaoy and the chain of islands as Car as Hai-Tun tan, was
rarvejed by H.M.S. Aetcton and Dove.

TA-liVH XlAWCK— This river separates the province of Shing-king
or Liau-tUDg from the Korea, which bounds it on the east, and of which it
is the most considerable stream, being 200 miles in length. Its estoary
is in about lat 39° 50* N., long. 124° 10' E.,* where the rirer would
appnur to discharge itself into a large bay, having high land on its
we«tem side. A Chinese map also [represents three islands lying in a
W.S.W. direction, some 20 miles from the month of the river, viz. : —
Ta-chang tau, the eastern, Siau-chang tau, and Luh taa,t the western.
Fung-hwang-ttng, the frontier town, lies near the Ya-luh kiang;, and
commands all the trade with Korea, which is obliged to pass through it.

From the Ya-luh kiang the coast trends West, a little southerly, for GO
miles, and in this distance are five rivers, the Lung-tai; the Yang,
where is a large inlet or bay ; the Siau-sha ; the Ying-ma ; and the
Ta-chwang, also represented with a large estuary. The coast appears
to be hilly. Luh .tau island, above mentioned, lies about 10 miles souHiward
of the two first-named of these rivers ; and Ko-li tau, apparently a
smaller island, between the two last-named ; this latter is the northern
ishmd of several large groups, called the Blonde archipelago, which occupy
a triangular space of 40 miles to the south and west.

BomtOHiBB aBOvr, the northern and eastern of these groups, con-
sists of one large island and five smaller ones lying to the north and
north-east of the large one, and off a projecting point of the coast, where
there is a high hill. The southernmost island is barren, with sharp
pointed rocks off its south point like the Needles (Isle of Wight), over
which rises a lofty hill, having two sharp peaks of unequal height,
about 1,000 feet, which are readily recognized at a great distance except
on a N.N.E. bearing, when they are in line. The Blonde passed the
southern point of this group at a mile, in 18 fathoms, and anchored in 12
Cathoms, with the peak bearing S.W. 2\ miles. The island or rock Tsiang-
keun shihj lies to the east or north-east, 10 or 12 miles, bounding the lai^e
groups on the eastward. It was not sighted by the Blonde or Pylades.

BVXABBS SHOA&. — The Pylades anchored for the night north of the
Blonde group, where some patches of sand were found with depths of 15

* Lat. 89'' 56^ long. 124° 18', according to Bev. Alexander WilUameon, who visited
this coast in 1867. Descriptions of Ta-kn-san, a trading port of considerable im-
portance, and of another harbour to the westward, are given in the Appendix, page 580.

\ Great Deer, Little Deer, and Stag islands.

{ SMh signifies stone. In the local dialect tau or island is hereabouts pronounced^clo,
thus :-*Hai-yun-do, Cho-do, &c.



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CHAP. IX.] BOUROHIER aEOUP — THOENTON HAVEN. 487

and 17 fathoms on them ; the mainland at this time being 18 to 21 miles
distant. The next day at noon, in lat. 39** 2' N., long. 124° 33' E., the
main land was lost sight of at 21 or 24 miles' distance. There was at this
time a patch of low islands in sight, bearing N. by W. 10 miles, and a
number of high islands, the eastern extreme of which bore S.E.byE. 16 or
18 miles.

After steering S.S.E. from noon, at the rate of 7 knots, at 12h. 50m.
the water suddenly shoaled from 15 to 7 fathoms, rocky bottom. Hauling
off immediately W.S.W., it soon deepened to 22 fathoms ; when the course
was again steered as before, and in a short time it shoaled to 17, 10, 7, 6,
and 4 fathoms, when the ship was hauled off. From the broken water
and the number of birds, it was supposed that there must be much less
than 4 fathoms on this shoal ; it appeared to extend in a N.N.E. and S.S.W.
direction, in lat. 38° 5& N., long. 124° 31' E.

tLAX'Tun TAV, 5 miles in extent north and south, lies isolated at the
south-east part of the Blonde archipelago. The summit of this island is a
gently sloping peak, 1,320 feet high, bounded on the south by a high broken
cliff; and from which a ridge runs to the north, on which are two con-
spicuous rocky peaks; another ridge to the N.N.W. encloses Thornton
haven. The northern point of the island, Gardiner island, 350 feet high,
is a promontory detached at high water. E.N.E. 1| miles from the latter,
is Arch rock, 50 feet high, so named from a natural arch through it, open
in an E. ^ N. direction. There are 25 fathoms between it and Gardiner ;
and the passage also appears clear inside Bessie island lying 1^ miles off
shore, to the south-east of the centre peaks. This small island has three
hills on it; and lies east and west: a rock was seen breaking about a
quarter of a mile south-west of it. Hai-yun tau is more or less bordered by
cliffs.

TBORWTOW HB.vsw*' is an inlet formed by a long spur from the summit^
nearly enclosi^g a concavity in the western side of Hai-yun tau. It is
2 miles in length, but its head or southern part is very shallow. The
entrance is half a mile wide, between Zoe head, a bluff, 395 feet high, on
the north, and a much lower point on the south, having a pinnacle rock
off it, on a projecting ledge, which can be passed at a cable. A small
vessel may find shelter in 3^ to 4 fathoms, land-locked, and although it
is very probable a westerly gale would send in much swell, which the
eastern beaches seemed to indicate, there is not a long fetch from West
or W. by N., the direction to which it is most exposed ; south-west
gales are unknown, and in summer the swell is usually from S.E. or South,
The head of the bay has a stony bottom, covered with long grass.

*See Flan of Thorbton haven ; scale, ot=3 inches, on Admiralty Chart of gal£i of
Pe-chili and Liaa-tang, No. 1,366. .



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488 KOBTH COAST OF YELLOW SEA. [chjlp. ix.

Fresh water was easily procarable in July, at one or two small streams
at high water. There is a small village at the head of the baj, inhabited
by Chinese, who nald the island belonged to Korea, and was called
Ho-i-sban tau.

TIBas. — It is high water, full and ehange, in this haven, at about
9h. 30m., and springs rise 12 feet. The day tide in Joly rose 3 feet
higher than the night tide.

SmppllM. — The inhabitants of Hai-jnn tau are very poor, but were
ready to })art with the few fowls and vegetables they had. In smnmer
these islands are used for pasturage, and cattle are brought over from the
■Mdn-laod to graze.

vjLva TAV, or Wu-ma tau, is the largest island of a group lying
KN.W. i W. 14 miles fromHai-yun tau peak, and 13 miles N.E. of the
Blonde group. It is a conical bill about 600 feet high ; and one or two
miles to the north and north-east of it, are four rocky islands, low and
hummocky. Yang tau signifies Sheep island.

viM a&ovBB OBOvr, or Wai-chang shan,* lying about 45 miles east-
ward of Ta -lien- whan bay, consists of one large island and four smaller
islands north-eastward of it. They are all much the same in character ;
onduUting ridges with deep ravines, bordered with high cliffs or ragged
shores, but destitute of any prominent feature when seen from a distance.

Sla«piiaii do, the eastern island, lying 12 miles West of Hai-yun tau
is composed of high ridges, the southern part having a peak 600 feet
high. The north-east point is a high bluff bounded by cliffs its whole
height. A narrow descending ridge runs to the north-west of the island,
terminating in a long sharp point, the outer part of which is nearly
detached, and off which is a tide race. On the western side of the island
are two rocky bays j and there is a rock awash 2 cables off its south-west
point, which may be safely passed at 4 cables.

T»-liaii do, the centre island of the group, lies W.S.W. a mile from
Siau-hau do, with a good pasfeage of 17 to 20 fathoms water between.
The island is very steep on all sides, with the exception of its low, sharp
eastern point. Its south point is a bluff 600 feet high, with high clifis ;
and lying half a mile South of it is Pyramid rock, 120 feet high, which is
connected to the point by a ree^ many parts of which dry at low water.
Peaked rock has two pointed sununits, the highest and most northern of
which is 50 feet high and lies E.S.E. If miles from Pyramid rock, and
S.S.W. 1 J miles from Siau-hau do.

Va-lln tau and To-aa tau, the two northern islands, lie close together
east and west. The passage between them has an islet in it and is choked



* Wai ngnifies outer ; Id, inner.



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CHAp.i^.] TIDES — ^BLONDE GROUP. 489

¥rith reefs. Both are much lower than Ta-hau do, off which they lie
north-westerly three-quarters and 1^ miles respectively, the channel
between being deep.

cn&aner-zu do, or Ikartau,* the largest island of the group, lies to the
south-westward of the others, with a passage 3 miles wide between. The
two central hills of the island are about 800 feet high, with a deep valley
between them. The north-eastern shore is somewhat low, and divided
into two bays. The south shore is bold-to and may be passed at 2 cables.

All the passages amongst the Blonde islands, except that between
Ta-lin tau and To-sa tau, seem clear pf danger with 18 to 20 fathoms
water, excepting off the north point of Chang-zu do, from which extends
a large dry reef, off which there is some rocky ground with a rock awash
half a mile from the shore.

SBZ-szikir, is a remarkable rock lying S. by W. 4| miles from the
east point of Chang^zu do. It is about 40 feet high, appears like a junk
under sail, and can be seen 12 or 15 miles off. It stands on a flat rocky
ledge which extends from it about 2 cables. The Pylades passed inside
it, and had no bottom with 30 fathoms.

AJrcBO&ikOB. — Shelter from northerly winds may be obtained in 8 to
12 fathoms, at 2 or 3 cables off the south shore of Ta-lin tau. Also in a
small bay on the west side ofTa^hau do, in 9 or 12 fathoms, but this
is a bad anchorage and affords but little shelter. Probably also in the
bays on the west side of Siau-hau do, but these appear rocky and
uninviting.

The Blonde and PyUtdes anchored off the north-eastern of the two
bays on the north-east side of Chang-zu do, in 17 fathoms, mud, sheltered
from all but northerly and south-east winds. Stock of every description
and vegetables were abundant. The Dove anchored, July 1860, in* the
bay on the west side, where shelter can be obtained, except between
N.N.W. and South, in from 7 to 10 fathoms.

Supplies. — The Dove found it difficult to obtain water in the western
bay, but there are fresh water streams in all the ravines. Fowls, eggs,
pigs, and vegetables were procurable in small quantities, in hct as much
as the inhabitants could spare.

TZBS8. — ^In the bay on the west side of Chang-2ai do, it is high

water, full and change, at 9h. 30m. ; springs rise about 12 feet, neaps

feet. The tidal stream runs strong between the islands of the Blonde

roup. During the first two hours ebb, it ran to the westward about

\ knots per hour, on the change day. There is a tide race off the north

^ Nearly all these islands appear to have two Dfonesi one Chinese, one Korean.



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490 KOBTH COAST OF TELLOW SEA. [chap. n.

point of CliAiig-so do, and another 3 or 4 miles west of that island, over
17 to 20 fathoms, rocky bottom.

auuoT craurav, or Li-chang-shan, is an irregular chain of inlands
and rocks, 15 miles in extent east and west. The eastern iskmd, Baka taa^
is B^ miles north of Ta-lin tau, with depths between of 17 to 24 iathiHns.
rock and sand, the deepest water being near the former. There is a pateh
of 12 fathoms, rock, N.by E. ^ £. 3 miles from the doable hill of Tarlin tan.
The east point of Baka tau is a cliff at the termination of a range, and lies
east 1^ miles of its sammit, which is about 600 feet high.

Passing east of Ba-ka tau, the Blonde and I^lcuies proceeded to the
northward, towards the coast, shoaling from 15 to 9 fathoms, and tiie
high land being then distant 12 miles, thej hanled to the eastward. There
was observed on the main something like a fort or town at the distance of
15 miles, the coast line trending to the N.E. The flood lide here set
strong to the northward, 3^ knots an hour, and the ebb faintlj to the
eastward.

There are several small islands to the westward of Baka tan, between it
and the largest island of the Elliot group, the southern face of which runs
d| miles south-west to Hill point, a nearly detached head, and then the
same distance north-west. On the south-western side of this large idand
is a deep bay, at the mouth of which is Black rock, a square reck, 70 feet
high, with a rock awash 2 cables N.W. of it. Flat rock, 25 feet high,
lies 1^ miles West of Black roQk, and 6 cables S.S.W. of the west
point of the island. Wooded island, small and 200 or 300 feet high, is
6 miles W. ^ N. fk-om Hill point, and a quarter of a mile off the south
point of an isU&nd which lies south of a great break in the Elliot group,
in the centre of which break, and 3 miles north of the west part of
Wooded island, is a high rugged rock.

Five-rock point, the south-western extreme of the ElHot group, is W. by
N.}N. 4 J miles firom Wooded island. This point is rendered very
conspicuous by an even chain of large rocks running off from it.
Castle rock lies 1^ miles North, and the Twin hilla N. by £. 4^ miles
from it.

mvtawO'IbO tav, 5i miles in extent, N.E. and S.W., lies westward
of the Elliot group. Its South cape, bearing N.W.by W.fW. 18 miles
from Chang-zu do, has a sugar-loaf pe§Jk rising 900 feet precipitously
from the sea, one mile S.S.E, from the higher summit of the island, a
rocky mountain. Th^ remainder of the island is of irregular shape, much
lower, and undul^ttog*

Off its Bouth i^pe^ ft little eastward, is a nine-pin rock, and
i!.byN,JN. half a mile a rock which covers. East of this, on the
south side of the island, is a bay with several rocks off its shores;



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CHAP. IX.] KWANG-LO TAU — ^YBNTOA BAY. 491

and 4^ miles E.bjN.-^N. of the cape is Bound island, 200 feet
high^ lying off the outer point of a narrow rocky island runnisg N.W.
by W. IJ miles,^ and connected with Kwang-lo by a reef. The north-
east point of Kwang-lo is 3 miles N.W. by N. of Round island, and from
it a chain of small islands and rocks extends 5 miles across to Five-rock
point of the Elliot group. There is an archipelago to the northward,
of which not less than twenty-five islands and rocks were seen from the
summit of Kwang-lo..

W.N.W. 1-^ miles from South cape is a Rugged island, its sharp summit
being 150 feet high ; a reef extends off it to the westward, with a pinnacle
rock near its extreme end. The north-west point of Kwang-lo is the
angle of a low plain, which is skirted with reefs, lying along and nearly
parallel to the shore at the distance of 4 to 6 cables, the greater part
of which are covered at high water. Lump island, which is 200 feet highj.
and has a long reef extending from it to the eastward, lies off this low
point, to which it is connected by a sand spit a mile long. This island
is 5^ miles from the mainland on which a few low hills were seen, with
high land far in shore. The west side of Kwang-lo affords anchorage in
6 fathoms.

Snppues. — ^Fresh water streams abound on Kwang-lo tau, but no
watering place is known. Herds of cattle were seen grazing.

TZDBS. — On the west side of Kwang-lo tau it is high water, full and
change, at 9h. 56m* ; springs rise about 12 feet, neaps 8 feet.

TmroA. 8AT, is formed by the coast north- westward of Kwang-lo*.
It has many islets and reefs in it ; and at its head, at the back of a high '
promontory, is the mouth of a river or the opening to a lagoon, named
Wu-hu-mun.

Aaoiioraffe may be found on the west side of Kwang-lo tau in
6 fathoms; or in Yen-toa bay at 5 miles to the north-westward in 5 to 9
fathoms, but this bay not being surveyed, great caution should ^be used in
standing into it, seeing the character of its shores, and that there are
indications of uneven pocky ground, where sounded over.

TMUXKorASB VMAi> (? Ma-ya shan of the Chinese chart) is the eastern
point of the hiHy country, stretching 20 miles north-eastward of Ta-lien-
whan. It is a bluff 600 feet high, with cliffs extending along its southern
face of half a mile, off which there is usually a tide race. It is connected
with the main by a narrow sandy isthmus, which separates it from the
eastern of three ranges of lofty hills, the western of which is a condpicuou&
peak, 1,000 feet high, rising from a plain. At the foot of these hills, for
about 6 miles W.S.W. from the head, is a low, indented, rocky shore
fringed with reefs and islets.



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192 NOKTE COAST OF YELLOW SEA. [chaf. n.

The coast north of Terminal head runs W.N.W. and at the distance of
3 miles is tlic Wu-ha man entrance^ between a low conical head at the
foot of a long spur of the hills and a low sandy point half a mfle io the
eastward. At 14 miles to the north-west is Kwan-tung pealt, a high
hunch-shaped moantain, 1,680 feet high, which is a conspicuous object in
dear weather.

At one mileN.E.by E. of Terminal head is Triple island with three
hills on it, about 200 feet high. A sand spit extends off the west hill,
with a reef at its extreme end, at a cable from the shore.

Aaeborave. — ^The Dove anchored N.E. of Terminal head in 4 fathoms.
There is good protection about here in all but south-east winds.

maar woxmr {? Hi-tau), 7 miles S.W. of Terminal head, is the south-
eastern point of a rocky peninsula, the greatest elevation of which Ib 150
feet A reef dries 5 feet at half a mile south of the point which
should not be passed within a mile, nor the reef within 6 cables. East, 4
cables from the point, is Bock islet, 40 feet high, and N.N.E. 4 to 6 cables
of the islet is a chain of rocks, just covered at high water. The bay
northward of reef point is very shallow at its head, and open to the
south-east, from which direction there is usually A swell in sununer time,
even in fine weather.

ymaJLSD msBr, lying 2^ miles S.W. of Reef point, has several small
pointed rocks on it of a yellowish colour, of which the largest is 15 feet
high. The rocks extend 2 cables. There were seen patches of discoloured
water one mile N.E. by E.^ £• and 6 cables S.W. of it, but it is possible,
they were only caused by the current.

To avoid the two patches of discoloured water, these rocks should be
passed outside on a S.W. course, at half a mile in 14 to 16 fathoms, soft
mud, or on the north side on an East course at the same distance, in 16
to 10 fathoms.

BTBmiklc BAT« — ^There is a conspicuous peak, 900 feet high, on a
range rising 5 or 6 miles westward of Reef point, with a high hill fronting
it to the south-east The range runs down to a bold wooded point,
between which and reef pmnt, is Stream bay, both shores of which, under
the hills, are rather low and exceedingly rocky. The head of the bay is
« sandy beach, on the border of a plain, off the centre of which is a square