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rocky islet. A stream of fresh water flows through the western end of
the beach against the cliffs, but the enti'ance is sometimes closed, and
there are several rocks off it

aans BAT.— The two deep inlets, immediately eastward of Ta-h'en-
whan bay are very shallow at their heads, open to the south-east, and
therefore exposed to the summer ground swell firom that directi<m.



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CJHip.ix.] APPROACHES TO TA-LIEN-WHAN BAT. 493

Kerr bay, the westernmost and larger of the two, Las good sheltered
anchorage in 3 to 5 fathoms. Its entrance is. 4 miles N.W. by W. of
Dangerous reef.



JiaF lies N.E. | E. 9| miles from the south point of
the Sanshan islands at the entrance of Ta-lien-whan bay, S.byE.^E. of
<* 900 feet " peak, and 4 miles off shore. It is a quarter of a mile in extent,
and at high tide is nearly level with the water's edge, the western and
largest rock being 1 1 feet above low water. The soundings are 5 to 7
fathoms on its northern side, deepening rather quickly to 11 and 12
fathoms, which depth is carried to the shore. The Pylades passed 2J
miles southward of the reef, and had soundings of 35 fathoms ; the"
Blonde at 1^ miles, with 20 fathoms.

ROvm zs&AVD, in lat. 38° 40' N., long. 122° 11' E., is small, round
topped, 200 feet high, and is generally sighted when bound to Ta-lien-
whan bay from the southward. The soundings at half a mile from it are
2S fathoms, mud and shells.

BVComrrsR socx, discovered May 1860 by H.M.S. Slaney in
lat. 38° 33' 50" N., long. 121° 40' E., is about 70 yards in length
east and west, has 24 and 2^ fathoms dose to, and seen from the north
or south appears like a patch of small rocks, though in reality but two^
From the eastern or largest rock, which is 1 1 feet above high water, the
Cap bears N.jJ W. ; the summit of Sanshan tau N.N.E. | E. ; Prominent
peak N. by W. | W. ; Sampson peak N. by E. ^ E. ; Liau-ti-shan summit
N.W. by W. J W. ; and Round island E. by N. 2^ miles. For tides at this
rock Bee p. 495.

The soundings about the rock are from 2^ to 29 fathoms mud and
clay ; but noith of it the tide has scoured out a gully 31 to 38 fathoms
in depth. Tide ripples are seen West and N.E. of the rock, the latter
caused by a patch of 21 fathoms water, the former by a ledge of 23 to 24
fathoms lying in that direction for half a mile. The rock is so steep that
the largest vessel might lie alongside any part of it. At night, at high
water it would be very difficult to see.

CAP xsnAJTD, or Tau-za, lies in the approach to Ta-lien-whan bay
from the south-westward, 8 miles from the entrance, 4J miles from the
coast, and E. I N., 20 miles from the south-east part of Lau-ti-shan
promontory. It is about 400 feet high, with its slope to the east ; the
western side is a cliff, vertical from the very summit. On a West or S.W.
bearing it appears round, and much like the Cap in Sunda strait, but in
other directions it resembles a gunner's quoin ; it is steep-to, and has an
islet 2 cables off its south-east side.



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A



494 KOBTH COAST OF YELLOW SEA. [chap. iz.

/

TA*&IBV-WSA« BAT.* — ^This noble bay is an extensive inlet, square
in form, being 6 miles wide and 6 deep, with three smaller inlets, named
Victoria, Junk, and Hand bays, branching from its head ; there is also
a small bight, Odin cove, on its eastern shore. The holding ground is
excdlentit the eastern side of the bay affording the best sheltered oucIiot-
Bfpi ia summer* Its principal ' approach is 5 miles wide^ between the
West Entry point and the two Sanshan islands. There is also a passage
one mile wide between these islands ; and another 2 miles wide between
the northern island and the eastern point of entrance. Both of these
channels, and the nuun entrance, appear to be dear of danger ; but in
passing between the two islands, it would be prudent to steer a mid-
channel W.N.W. course through, so as to clear the 6<^athoms' mud-banks,
one lying S.E. by S. 8 cables from the north island, and the other IBast
8 cables from the north hill of the south island, which have not been well
examined, and on which there may be less water.

▼letorta bay, (so named by Captain Bourchier, H.M.S. Blonde^ in
1840) affords good anchorage in 5^ to 3 feithoms, mud. In 1860 the chief
portion of the British fleetj and transports anchored in two lines along
its south shore ; the remainder over on the eastern shore, off Odin cove,
which is a snug little anchorage with room for four or five ships if they
moor.

This bay is sheltered from all winds, excepting those from E.N.E. to
E.S.E. An easterly gale would have a clear fetch of 10 miles^ but it is
not quite evident that one has ever occurred in the ^ring and summer
months. The inhabitants on the north side of the bay stated that these
gales were prevalent, and sent in a heavy sea, while on the south side it
was said that they were not known ; and the shores certainly showed no
evidence of ever having been visited by one. The same people who stated
that easterly gales were so prevalent, also added that the bay was full of
sunken rocks, but none as yet have been discovered that are not visible at
low water. It is more probable that in spring and summer the prevailing
winds are south-westerly, southerly and south-easterly, occasionally easterly,
and certainly if the wind from the latter quarter blows with any force a
heavy swell must necessarily set in.

Bana baj-, formed on the east side of a peninsula jutting out at the
head of Ta-lien-whan bay, affords excellent anchorage, quite land-locked

* See Admiralty Flan of Ta-lien-whan bay, Ko. 2,827 ; scale m^l inch.

f The bottom in Victoria Bay is soft mad and the anchors do not readilj hold,
«hips therefore should not anchor with less than 40 fathoms of cable, as ihey are liable
to drag when heavy squalls occur. Remark Bookoi Commander Ed. Lacy, B.K., H.M.S.
Adueniure.

t See remarks on this bay in page 477, as compared with Chifu harbour.



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CHAP. IX.] TA-LIEN-WHAN BAY — TIDES. 495

for small vessels of 10 feet draught, aiid within signal distance of Victoria
bay. North, distant one mile from the east poini of the above peninsula,
is ^e extreme of a reef, 9 cables long, and dry, or nearly so, at low water,
which extends to the westward from the west sidte of the bay.

Supplies. — ^The flait country at the foot of the hills surrounding Ta-lien-
whan, appears to be good arable land well cultivated. Large quantities of
a kind of dwarf Indian corn, millet, and wheat (kaouliang) are grown on
it. Vegetables are scarce, and from the latter grain above mentioned a
spirit is distilled.

The hills afford grazing for sheep and cattle, and hay is preserved for
winter consumption. In exchange for their grain and sheep, the natives
bring cloth, tea, sugar, &c., from Shantung. About the end of February,
a fleet of junks cross over to the Korean coast to catch salmon. Fish, in
general, appear to be scarce in the bay, but shell fish, oysters, and large
mussels, are very plentiful, and from the quantity of shells observed around
the dwellings of these people, appear to form a considerable portion of
their animal food.

Wood is very scarce, the country being entirely destitute of timber.
Water can be obtained with much labour, by digging wells. At Odin
cove, however, it is more readily procurable. Here an unfailing water
course was dammed by the squadron in I860, and a baean carefully lined
with stiff clay, and by this means 100 tons of water were daily collected
and sent off to the transports. About 10 tons a day were procured in the
same way from a little cove half a mile to the north, and 25 tons* at a
beach at the foot of a valley a mile farther north. On the west side of
the bay no water was to be had except after rain.

TIBBS. — ^It is high water, foil and change, in T a-lien-whan bay at
lOh. 47m. ; springs rise lOf feet, neaps about 8 feet.

At the Encouiiter rock (p. 493) it is high water at lOh. 44m. ; springs
rise about 11 feet, neaps 8 feet. The tidid streams off this rock are
somewhat rotatory. As observed at full and change, in H.M.$. JDove^
they are as follows : — ^During the first 3 hours of flood, preceding the
moon's transit, the stream set weakly to the eastward, it then turned and
set W.N.W. three^iiiarters of a knot per hour, the whole ebb set W.N. W.
1 to 1^ knots. During the succeeding flood, ft set the 1st and 2nd hour,
KN.E. three-quarters of a knot, the 3rd, 4th, and 5th hours E.N.E. 1^
knots ; it then slackened, and during the 6th hours set W.N.W. ; the
ebb for the 1st and 2nd hours ran W.N.W. weakly ; the remaining 4
hours it set East, weakly, continuing during part of the flood as above
mentioned.

* Commandor K Lacy, B.N., remarks that at either place an engine and good length
of hose are reqtdred.



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496 NOETH COAST OF YELLOW SEA. [chap, xx-

At 3 miles north of Dangerous rode, obsenrations were also made, and
considering that this position was only one mile off shore, and affected by
the contour of the coast, it will be seen that there is considerable identity
between the two seto of obsenrations. The wholeof the ebb set W.byN, 5
its rate for the first 4 hours was a quarter of a knot, and the last 2 h-ours
half a knot The 1st hour flood ran W.N.W. half a knot; the 2nd hour,
slack ; the 3rd to 4^ hours, E.N.E. to N.N.E. half a knot ; the remainder
of flood W,S.W. a quarter of a knot. The first 3 hours of the succeeding
ebb, also W5.W. a quarter of a knot; 4th and 6th hours, N.N.W. ; 6^
hour, N. by E.

Dtmaonows*— To a Vessel making the land in clear weather, mount
Sampson, a solitwy mountain, 2,210 feet high, would be visible, and when
it is brought to bear N. by E., the main entrance to the bay is open. The
San-shan islands are 300 feet high, and may be approached to half a mile.
They lie nearly North and South of each other, and when seen east or
west of the former bearing, appear to consist of three, in consequence of
the southern island being divided into two hilly portions, connected by
a low isthmus of small boulders and shingle about 10 feet above high
water.

In foggy weather, so common in the spring and early summer, there is
danger of mistaking other peaks, which shew out from time to time above the
fogi for mount Sampson ; under such circumstances it cannot be considered
prudent to stand in to the bay unless the land can be properly identified,
or Round island or San-shan tau be previously made. Prominent peak,
II i miles westward of West Entry point, has been frequently noticed to
be the first to show out in foggy or hazy weather.

In strong winds from N.W. to S.W., heavy squalls come off the hills
about West Entry point, requiring sometimes the topsails to be lowered.

Tlie coikST from West Entry point of Ta-lien-whan bay trends about
S.S.W. 2| miles to South Entry point, which is shelving and has off it a
low islet siuTounded by uneven reefs together extending S.W. a quarter of
a mile from the point. The islet does not show very plaiiJy unless rather
near it. About the middle of this coast is a small sandy bay, off which is
Pang tau, a wedge shaped island, sloping to the eastward and bold to.
Breakers have been observed inside the island.

CAHcasrair cova, outside Ta-lien-whan to the south-west, would
appear to be a good temporary anchorage, especially in northerly winds.
Its entrance is three-quarters of a mile wide, between South Entry point on
the east, and two sharp, prominent, rugged hills on the point to the west
The navigable part is 8 cables deep, the soundings decreasing from 17
fathoms close to the reefs on the east side of entrance, to 4 fathoms at a
quai-ter of a mile from the eastern bight at the head of the bay, where



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CHAP. IX.] TA-LIEN-WHAN TO PORT ARTHUR. ^97

there are some reefs, with 3 fathoms inside them. There are two other
bights at the head of the cove to the north-westward separated from each
other by a low tongue of land, but both are dry at low water.

TA-&XBir-'WBA]r to PORT ARTBITR. — A smooth topped island lies
N.N.E. 2| miles of the Cap {see p. 493), its eastern or highest part being
a round hill about 100 feet high ; low cliffs surround it, and there is a reef
off its north-west part ; a small pinnacle islet also lies half a mile East of it.
Otherwise the island appears steep- to, there being 18 to 19 fathoms, mud,
at 3 to 5 cables round it— N.N.E. and N.E. byN. of this island are two
other islands, about the same height, at half a mile from the shore. There
are 13 and 14 fathoms, mud and shells, in the channel between these and
the smooth-topped island, but in mid-channel, one cast was obtained of
5- fathoms, coral. A reef, which scarcely uncovers, also lies half a mile
N.E. by E. of the eastern of the two islands.

The 2| miles of coast, running west from Cambrian cove and facing
these islands, has a shore of steep hiUs and cliffs, with 16 to 17 fathoms a
cable or two off it. There is a deep valley just north of the islands, from
which the coast, with rocks 3 or 4 cables off it, bends north-westward
2 miles, under a high hill, termmating in the high perpendicular Bithoff
cliff, a conspicuous object at many miles off shore. A small stream
through a plain faced by a sandy beach, falls into the sea close to the west

side of this cliff.

Thence the coast bends round to the south-west 6 miles to a rocky
peninsula, Siau-ping tau or Bluff Bevan, forming a bay, the approaches to
which have not been sounded, but there are 6 to 7 fathoms not far off
shore. This part of the coast has a broken rocky shore of small bays,
points, and reefs, (the latter extending 2 to 3 cables,) under a line of low
hiUs, but at the back is an amphitheatre of high hills, in the centre of
which, and N.W. 8 miles from the Cap, rises Prominent peak, about
1,000 feet in height. This peak was noticed from the Encounter rock to
be the first to show out in hazy weather, and continued visible for several
hours, when all the other land was obscured. The whole range is nearly
as high, its north-eastern part ending in a peak elevated 890 feet, to the
south-east of which is a triple-topped hill, 600 ifeet high, on the plain
and directly over the beach, west of the remarkable Bithoff cUff. The
south part of the range is a high table, the slopes of which break into

the sea. .

Bluff Bevan, a low, narrow, rocky peninsula, bordered by a chff, is
above a mile in length, lying parallel to a low flat shore, to which its
central part is connected by a low isthmus, with a village on it. A group
of five islands, simUar in character to that of the petiinsula, Hes from l^alf
to li miles off its eastern point. The channel between these and tho

II

30251.



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408 KOKTH COAST OP YELLOW SEA. [chap. ix.

pcDinsula has 10 fathoms water. There are bays on both sides the isthmus
with low and sandy shores ; that on the north-east side is called Timg-kac,
the other Si-kao.

This peninsula may be passed at 2 to 3 cables in 20 to 28 fathoms, mud.
Anchorage can be obtained in Tung-kau bay in 3 to 8 fathoms with some
shelter from the islands, there being a clear passage east and north, as well
as that above mentioned west of them. There is a reef in the northern
part of this bay, contracting the inner anchorage to a space of 6 cables.
There is also a reef 3 cables from the northern shore of Si-kau bay, east of
which, and dose to the isthmus, a small vessel may obtain anchorage, well
sheltered except from south-west, in 4 fathoms.

In 1840 the Blonde and I^lades anchored outside Si-kau baj, and
were well sheltered from north-westerly and easterly winds, but exposed
to the southward and south-westward. From their anchorage in 16
&thoms, the west point of the peninsula bore E. by S. | S., centre of the
Tillage N.E. by E. ; the bottom was irregular, but the holding ground
good. Good water was prochred in small quantities, N.W.byN. from
the anchorage. Wood appeared to be scarce ; cattle were seen in con-
siderable numbers.

From Bluff Sevan a steep shore trends West 3^ miles, when three
breaks or valleys occur ; from thence the coast continues its westerly
direction 4^ miles, then bends 2 miles south-west to Swainson point, off
which, at 3 cables, there are 18 fathoms on the steep edge of a small ree£
Between the Bluff and the three valleys the soundings are 17 fathoms at
half a mOe off shore ; they then gradually shoal to 6 fathoms in the bight
4^ miles to the westward.



KTSum, West 2^ miles from Swainson point, is a large inlet
having a narrow entrance 300 yards wide between the hills. Its eastern
head is 400 feet high ; and . off some cliffs between it and Swainson
point a reef extends at least half a mile, with 19 fathoms at a mile, to
avoid whichi as it is not clearly defined, it would not be prudent to enter
the port on a course other than between N. W. by N. and North, the latter
course avoiding rocks off the western shore.

Having passed between the entrance heads in 5 fJEithoms in mid-channel
on a North course, the soundings Will decrease to 2J fathoms at low
water, but again increase to 7 and 6 fathoms off the point of a long sand
spit running nearly North a third of a mile from the west point of entrance.
The deep water thence runs south-westward with soundings of 5 and 4
fathoms at 3 cables past the end of the spit, decreasing to 2 feithoms at 6
cables west of the spit, the deepest water being closer to the spit than the
northern shore. The inlet runs 2^ miles farther to the south-west, but is



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HAP. IX.] LIATJ-TI-SHAN PROMONTORY. 499

rery shallow. There is a military station on a point on the north-east
ihore of the inlet.

auAV-TX-SBAsr PROBCOWTORT. — From Port Arthur the coast
xends S.W. by S. 5 miles, and then turns W. ^ N. 3 miles along the
jouthern face of the Liau-ti-shan promontory, and again the same distance
io the N.N.W. {see page 545). Liau-ti-shan is the mountain, 1,500 feet
ligh, rising at the south-western extremity of the peninsula of Kwang-
;ang, named by Sir Murray Maxwell in 1816 the Regent's sword, and
nrhich, being separated from the hills to northward by a plain, makes from
I long distance like an island. The mountain slopes gently and evenly
xom its summit, though broken by ravines and edged by cliffs at its base,
the southern face forming a high bold promontory, which may be passed
%t 2 cables in 20 fathoms.

With the south head of the promontory bearing E.S.E. 15 miles the
Py lades anchored in 15 fathoms, mud, the ebb tide setting strong to the
S.E. From this towards the head, the water, deepened to. 20, 26^ and 30
Gathoms, and when the head bore N.W. by W. 6 miles, discoloured water
was seen bearing North, having the appearance of a long dangerous spit
running out from the land to the southward; three boats. were sent to
examine it, but after sounding every part, had nothing less than 30
bthoms, from 3 to 5 miles off shore — the change in the colour of the
water being occasioned, it is supposed, by the muddy bottom or the
meeting of the tides. This coast was well surveyed in 1860.

nrTBBXOR of SBAarTvnro. — ^Information concerning the chief towns
and cities of the coast, and of the interior of the province of Shantung,
also its rivers, productions, trade, &c., not contained in this work, will be
found in "Notes of a Journey through Shantung," by J.Markham, Esq.,
H.M. Consul at Chifti, published (with map) in the Journal of the
Eoyal Geographical Society for 1870, page 2Q7. An exploration of the
old bed of the YeUow river, by Ney Elias, Esq., is contained in the same
volume, page 21.

nrTBltzoR of &XAir-Tinro. — ^Explorations of the interior of the pro-
vince of Liau-tung or Shing-king have been made by the Rev. Alexander
Williams, B A., in 1868, and by the Archimandrite Palladius of theRusso-
Greek church at Peking in 1870 ; both accounts will be found in the Jour-
nals of the Royal Geographical Society, the former in Volume XXXIX.
for 1869, page 1, the latter in Volume XLIL for 1870, page 142.



II 2



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500

CHAPTER X,
GULPS OP PE-CHILI AND LIAU-TUNG.

INCLUDING THE PEI HO, THE YELLOW, AND LIAU EIVERS, AND
THE TREATY PORTS OF TIENTSIN AND NEWCHWANG.

Va^iatiost 8^ 22' Wb8T to 3** 88' West nr 1874.



The head of tho Yellow sea branches out into a double headed gulf, one
head extending to the west 150 miles, the other about the same distance
to the north-east, forming a great inland sea, known to the Chinese as the
Peh-hid or North sea. The southern part of this sea has received from
foreigners the name of the gulf of Pe-chili, and the north-eastern part that
of the gulf of Liaa-tung. At its entrance the coasts approach within
55 miles of each other, iand the space between is called Pe-chili strait, the
southern part of which is occupied by the Miau-tau group.

The shores of the gulf of Liau-tung were almost a terra incognita to
Europeans until the year 1793, when H.M. Ships Discovery and Alcette
navigated its southern portion and anchored in Hulu-shan bay. In
August 1855, H.M.S. Bittern sailed along the eastern coast and anchored
in Fu-chu bay and off the port of Newchwang. Subsequently, in July
1859, a survey was made by Commander J. Bythesea, H.M.S. Cruizer,
and Major A. Fisher, Royal Engineers, of part of the western coast from
the Great Wall of China to the Chi ho, 25 miles south of the Pei ho.
The remaining shores were surveyed in the fall of the year 1860 by C<Nn*
mander J. Ward, Lieut. C. Bullock, R.N., and officers of H.M.S. Actceonj
DovCf and Cruizer.

The gulf of Pe-chili borders the north-eastern margin of the Great
plain along the shores of the provinces of Shantung and ChUi, receiving
several rivers, chief amongst which is the Yellow river. At its head is
the entrance of the Pei ho, on which river stands Peking, the capital
of the empire, and also the opulent city and treaty port of Tientsin.
The gulf of liau-tung is the continuation of a great valley of Manchuria,
lying between two mountain chains in the province of Shing-king or
Liau-tung, which encompasses its sides. The Liau ho falls into the head
of this gul^ on which river, at its entrance, stands Yingtze, the treaty
port of Newchwang.

c&mcATa. — ^From Remark books of H.M. ships in 1 860, it appears
that the climate of this region is temperate and agreeable in sununer, and
severe and stormy in winter, but the latter is of only four months



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CHAP.x.] CLIMATE — ^WINDS AND WEATHER. 501

duration. Tbe coasts are then covered with snow, which begins to melt
in March, snow storms occurring as late as tbe end of February, and
showers until the middle of March, w^hen the winter season breaks up.
At the head of the gulf of Liau-tung the ice lasts 4J months, from the
middle of November to the end of March.

A dry season then commences, with scarcely any rain during the summer
months ; light winds, exceedingly variable and of short duration in any
quarter, prevailing. About the autumnal equinox, there are symptoms of
unsettled weather, and westerly winds prevail, with occasional short
gales.*

In October the temperature of the water falls 20°, sharp frosts frequently
occur at night ; at the end of that month snow falls in the northern
part of the gulf of liau-tung, and a month later at the entrance of the
Pel ho, accompanying north and easterly gales, which also bring severe
frosts. Thin layers of ice are now rapidly formed at low tide on the
extensive mud-flats, and are carried by the flood into the rivers, which
become frozen up permanently about the middle of December. The ice
becomes compact for 20 miles from the shore off the Pei ho, filling up the
entire head of the gulf to a line S.S.W. of the Sha-lui-tien banks {see
p. 529). The river opens in March.

The climatef in the gulf of Pe-chili appears generally very good. The
weather, from the 11th of July to the 8th of September, waa exceedingly
fine, and the wind moderate, the thermometer ranging from 72° to 80°,
and the barometer steady at about 29*50 inches. Although the rainy
season is said to be during the months of July and August the rain was
distributed over the earlier summer months,' and very little fell in August
and September. The winter begins at the commencement of November,
and ends early in April, during part of which period the rivers ai*e frozen^
and the sea to a distance of 20 miles from the shore. Snow falls from
2 inches to 2 feet deep, the latter being considered severe.



and "WXATHSR. — H.M.S* Ringdove was employed during