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the months of January, February, March, and April in running the mails
between the Pei ho, Hope sound, Chifu, and Shanghai, in 1861, and
Mr. James S. Watts, Master R.N., gives the following account of the
weather for that period. " The winds during January, in the Yellow sea
and gulf of Pe-chili, were in general from the North. The gales, four
of which we had in that month, lasted 4 and 5 days each, commencing
from N.E., veering to N.W., and dying away at North ; they were
accompanied by snow, and were searching and bitterly cold. In

* Description of the weather in the year 1860. ,

t Commander J. Bythesea, R.N., 1858.

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Febrnaty the wind had more easting, but was aboat the same in
strength, and gales equally frequent. In March the wind was light and
variable, 14 days from West and N.W., and the remainder of the tiine
from the eastward. In April it was also light and yariable, 14 dajs it
had southing in it, generally South to S.E., and the remainder of the
mooth it was frwn North to N.W. In ^the gulf of Pe-chili tJie westerly
winds were laden with dust, which was very unpleasant, covering the
deck and rigging, and which the night dew converted into mud; it was
also very irritating to nostrils and eyes, and at times obscured the land
at the distance of 4 miles.*'

«'In Hope sound, in January, the gales were accompanied by snow,
but at other times the air was dry, whilst in the Yellow sea and Shanghai
it was wet and gloomy. In February it was also cold, the temp^'ature
ranging fr^m 20P to 41^, but in the Yellow sea and at Shangliid it was
damp, cold, and foggy, though less wet than in January. In the gulf of
Pe-chUi, in March and April, the weather was very fine and the air diy
and bracing.^'

To the above the following fragmentary* observations may be here
added, with the remark that iuller information regarding the weather and {
climate of the principal localities is afforded in their respective places in
the succeeding pages.

In the latter part of February, in Tarlien*whan bay, the wind was
North 9 days ; N.W. 1 day ; N.E. 3 days ; Calms and variable 2 dajs.
There were high winds and snow on 2 days ; fog on 4 days.

March. — On the south coast of the gulf of Pe-chiH the wind was N.W.,
5 days ; North 12 days ; N.E. 3 days ; East, 5 days ; S. and S.E. 2 days;
S.W. 2 days ; calm and variable, 2 days. The southerly winds occurred
only at the end of the month. The winds were chiefly light, and unsteady
except at North. Strong breezes commenced at N.E. and moderated as
they veered to N.W. Snow fell on 6 days, rain 2 days ; and there was
fog on 4 days.

April, May, June, July. — ^From the 14th April to the 10th July 1858,
the period H.M.S. Piqtie remained at the anchorage off the Fei ho, the
weather was fine, but sudden changes of wind were frequent, and as a
breeze from seaward brought in a heavy sea, much caution was necessary
to avoid accidents to loaded boats. From 14th April to 7tb May the
changes of wind were constant, and rarely was it smooth enough for boat
work throughout the whole day. Later the sea was much smoother, and
boat operations were not often interrupted. On the 7th June a very

♦ It is much to be desired that some navigator of experience would supply an
^pitomixed account of the winds and weather of this region and of the Yellow Sea.

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heavy squall came on from the northwai-d, and it blew hard from that
quarter until next day.

East and South winds prevailed off the Pei ho in July 1 860. Occasionally
heavy sudden squalls, dangerous to boats, fromN.E., occurred, accompanied
by large hailstones.

For the first half of April on the south coast of the gulf, the wind was
N.W. 2^ days; North 3 days; N.E. 1 day; East half a day; S.E. hajf
a^ day ; &W. 1^ days ; calm and variable, 1 J days. There was no rain,
nor fog ; one strong wind of short duration from N.W.

At Ta-lien-whan bay in June, there were calms on 16 days; light winds
on 22 days ; rain on 6 days ; thunder and lightning on 3 days ; fog with
East and S.E. winds 7 days. A moderate gale from S.W. occurred for
a few hours. In July, it was calm part of 10 days; light winds 17 days ;
fog, 4 days ; showers on 3 days. There were no strong winds, and they
were seldom steady even for 4 hours, except between East and South or
at S.W. The weather was beautiful and cool, rather hot at mid-day, and
with S.E. winds prevailing.

August. — Off the Pei ho in 1860 the wind was generally light, with
occasional squalls; never steady at any point but S.E., and not often
then. One fresh breeze from S.W. Kain on 3 days ; thunder and
lightning 1 day.

September. — Off the Pei ho the wind was eastward of North and South
but less so than in August. In the gulf of Liau-tung there were calms
on 17 days; light winds on 21 days. Smart breezes on 7 days from
North to South, but seldom steady for a day. Eain on 3 days.

Towards the end of September and the early part of October the weather
is sometimes very changeable, with strong winds from N.W., which lower
the water in the gulf 1^ feet.

October, — Off the Pei ho light winds prevailed west of North and
South. Calm many days. In the gulf of Liau-tung there were calms on
9 days; light winds on 16 days ; three gales of short duration from N.W.
and W., force 7 to 8. Rain on 5 days, with N.W. and South winds.
Snow for 24 hours, at head of the gulf, on the 29th October. Wind
rarely steady for a day.

November. — Off the Pei ho the winds were westward of North and
South, with a very small proportion of North and East ; the wind
rarely steady a whole day. Calms on 5 days ; light winds on 11 days;
fresh breezes 10 days. There were also four gales ; S.W., force 7,
veering to West and N.W. ; N.W., force 10 ; N.E. force 8, veeiring East
and S.E. ; and N.W. force 9. Snow at the end of month.

Another account states that in this month, N.E. gales, veering from
E. to N.W., had set in at the Pei ho, blowing for two or three days together.

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December set in with 8 days of calm mild weather, and a thaw
occorring, the Pei ho, then nearly impassable, opened again for navigar
tion until the middle of the month. On the south coast of the gulf the
wmd was seldom steady for a whole day. At Hope sound, a moderate
gale from North to N.W. succeeded the fine weather.

TmmnaULTumM^ — ^At Ta-lien-whan bay and at Chi-fii in Eebmaryy
the barometer ranged from 29*78 to 3041 ; constant and rapid changes in
the mercury, falling to southerly winds and snow. Temperature of the
air as low as 22° Fahr. ; of sea water (surface) 33^ The heads of the
small bays filled with ice.

March.— Bar. 801 to 80-5. Sea water SSP to 35°. Air 27° to 60°.

ApriL — ^Bar. 29-7 to 80-5. Falling to southerly winds, rain, or fog.
Sea water 37° to 46°, gradual increase. Air 89° to 73°.

May.— Bar. 29-8 to 30-6. Sea water 46° to SG".

June.- Bar. 30-0 ; ther. 75°. ^ Sea water 56°, increaang to 68°.

July.— Bar. 30-8 ; iher. 78°. 'Sea water 68' to 82^

August— Bar. 30-2 ; iher. 75°. Sea water, 84° to 78°.

September. — ^Bar. 30*7; ther. 104° to 65° in 24 hours. Sea water,
78° to 68°.

October. — ^Bar. 30*5 ; ther. 76° to 32° at the end of the month. Sea
water, 68° to 48°.

November.— Bar. 30-4 ; ther. 40° to 13°, generally at 30°. Sea water,
48° to 36°.

December. — Sea water 40^ at the Pei ho, 44° at Hope sound, 50^ at
Shantung promontory, and 53° to 56° in the Yellow Sea.

ninaATiow of loa in wiHTmit. — ^The Fei ho becomes frozen up
finally, after one or two previous warnings, about the middle of December.
Early in January the sea, in its locality, is frozen out about 5 miles, and
by the end of the month the ice-field has extended 20 to 30 miles off-shore,
where it is 2 to 3 feet thick, whilst floating ice is met with 75 miles from
the river's mouth. At Sha-lui-tien island the strength of the tidal streams
do not allow the ice to set fast. The western bight of the gulf of Pe-chili
has also an ice-bound coast, although not to the same extent. See also
page 522.

The Liau ho is frozen up for nearly 4^ months, or from the middle of
November to the end of March.

At Tientsin, during the winter of 1860-61,* the highest temperature
during the day was from 25° to 28° ; the lowest at night 4° to 6°, except
during the severest period from the 8th to the 14th of February, when it
fell to 6° degrees below zero. From this time the weather grew gradually
warmer, and on the 20th of Mai'ch it was 65° in the shade.

* H. V. Russell. Act Sec. Master of HJI.S. Slaney,

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On the 11th of March the ice parted with a great rush, and owing to
a continuous ebb tide for 48 hours, had nearly all disappeared on the 13th«
During its breaking up the ice was impotent to hurt a vessel riding at
anchor in the stream. This winter was considered hj the Chinese to be
unusually severe, and the season a late one.

The prevailing winds up the river during the winter were N.W, and
S.W., the former being very sti'ong and raising the fine dust to a great
height, when it is sometimes so thick as to obscure the sun.

The barometer gave no warning whatever; sometimes rising to a
northerly, and sometimes to an easterly gale with snow, and on the
contrary, sometimes falling to both. There was no rain and very little

OAauBS. — Storms appear to be unknown in these gulfs. There are
sometimes gales during the summer, but they are more of the character
of very strong breezes, and rarely last 12 hours, during which time they
veer considerably. Those from S.W. are steady; those from N.W.
usually commence with a light easterly wind. On the approach of winter,
October and November, they are more frequent, often continuing two or
three days, with a force of 8 to 10. There are also veering gales, usually
commencing at E.N.E., blowing strongest from the N.W. quarter, and
moderating at W.N.W. The steady north-westers do not seem to blow
beyond the Shantung promontory.*

Squalls, sometimes very sudden, and thunderstorms are not unfrequent
in summer, and are often accompanied by hail. In April 1860, a whirl-
wind was seen, which carried up the sand of a valley in a column several
hundred feet in height. Both squalls and gales, and sometimes rain and
fog, are preceded by a rapid fall of the barometer. Commander Good-
enough of H,M.S. Renard states that an easterly breeze accompanied
by a fell of the barometer was sure to be succeeded by a severe gale
from North, veering to N.W. followed by a rapid rise. There was one
instance in which the gale followed the rise of the barometer after fall.

svpp&ZBS. — Cattle, sheep, vegetables, and breadstufis may be obtained
without much difficulty at all places of resort in the gulfs of Pe-chili
and Liau-tung, but at the ports, or where there are markets, they are
abundant and cheap, as are also game and fruit. Water is not generally
obtained with ease, but where junks frequent, regular watering boats
supply the shipping, the water, which is excellent, being carried in large
tubs. The water of thfi rivers is said to be wholesome, and may easily

♦ A gale from N.E., force 8, lasting only 4 hours, is recorded at Chi-fu on August
25th ; also a gale off Wei-hai-wei on April 5th, from N.N.W., force 9, commencing at
East with 3 or 4 hours rain and veering by North to N.N.W.

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506 GULF 03? PB-CHILI. [chap.x.

be cle«red bj alom. Lime and alom can be purchased at Peh-tang and
Taka. Fiah is plentiful ; April and May is the herring and cod season
al Chi*fu and Wei-hiu*wei. Wood is scarce both for fuel and building
purposeft, and is imported from Ta-ku-san, a place in the Korea, eastward
of Ta-lien-whan, unknown to foreigners until 1868. Soft pine and fine
white elm are obtained there ; and this place supplies all the coasts o£ the
gulfs with wood. See page 579.

MMwmOT or 00ASV< — From Miau-tau strait (page 480) the southern
coast of the gulf of Pe-chili trends in a south-westerly direction for 60 miles
to Lai-chau. The coast is low, lying under a mountain range, the crests
of which are from 10 to 15 mUes inland. Low spurs break through the
otherwise even coast-line and, projecting at some points far from the shore,
oonstitnte dangers, which should be approached with extreme caution in
bad or thick weather, more particularly in northerly or north-westerly
gales, when at night the reckoning may be in error on account of the

East of Lai-chan the mountains turn abruptly to the Bouih the coast
bending westward round a large shallow bight, 30 miles across. Thence
it continues in a north-west direction for 120 mUes to within 30 miles of
the Pei ho. This part of the coast, the margin of the Great Plain, is low,
sandy, and ahnost a desert. Scantily populated, its inhabitants live in
small wretched hamlets, in mud hovels built on banks elevated a few feet
above the plain, and in a state of extreme poverty.

BAVBWFORT POnrT,a low rocky head, 6^ miles W.S.W. of Teng-chau
head, has a large village on it marked by a conspicuous tree on an earth-
work. At the back of the village is a low hill on which is a large artificial
mound. The point is bordered by reefs covered at high water, their
outer part being N,W. 6 cables from the point. Inland, S.S.E. J E.,
3 miles from the point, is a dark bluff, 600 feet high, the most conspicuous
hill seen from the westward.

The coast from Teng-chau head is a sandy strip at the foot of a range
of hills, on one of which is a stone cairn. The bay, inside Teng-chau
bank (p. 480), appears to be quite clear of danger. A mile west of
Davenport point is the mouth of a small stream, Lwan-kia-kau, where a
few junks are generally seen at anchor. The low coast here commences.

The Yeh-shan and Keuh-shan peaks, of 2,065 and 2,515 feet elevatioD^
are the two highest points of a mountain range to the south-west ; a ridge
runs to the north-west from the latter^ terminating in a steep, sharp peak,
1,420 feet high, 5 miles from the sea.

* See Admiralty Chart of Pe-chili and Liau tung Gulfs, No. 1,256 ; scale d = 5-1
inches, on which are five plans.

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TAJJ, a low island, the highest part of which is elevated 30 feet,
lies Si^ miles west of Davenport point, and 1 J miles north of Hwang point,
an elbow of the low sandy shore, on which is a small sand hill. The
island is about one mile across, and has a village and temple on its south-
eastern point, also a tree which is seen when the island has dipped. It
is surrounded by ragged reefs, the points of which dry out 2 or 3 cables,
with uneven ground outside them. A detached reef lies 7 cables S.E. by
E. of its north-east point, between which and the reef are not more than
3 fathoms. A large reef, on which is a sandy islet, lies also half a mile
N.W. of the island, with shoal water and very uneven gi-ound, extending
1 to 1^ miles N.E. and N.W. of it. In passing outside this islet at
6 cables irregular soundings of 3| to 8 fathoms were obtained ; it should
therefore be approached with great caution.

Knob hill, 120 feet high, is 3 miles E.S.E. of Hwang point, and near
it is the town of Hwang-hien or Hwang-ho-ying, not visible from the sea.
The passage inside Sang-tau has been only partially examined ; the deepest
-water is 6 fathoms at one third from the shore, but west from 1 to 3 miles
from Hwang point is a bank of rock, gravel and sand, and it is not known
whether this is connected with Sang-tau or not, from which it lies S.W.
1^ to 2^ miles.

CBZ-MA-TAU PSOMOVTOST, or Pau-mu-tau, 1 1 miles S. W. by W.^W.
of Sang-tau, is a small range of hills at the extremity of a low isthmus of
sand, 4^ miles long, stretching West from the mainland. The promontory
is 350 feet high, with cliffs on its sea faces. Off its western point is a
semicircular reef, the heads of which uncover, with 10 and 11 fathoms
close to. Its south point is low, where there is a village at the base of
the hills. The north side of the isthmus is a steep beach, but there are
some straggling rocks, lying off the commencement of the cliffs.

Kmr-XAV BAT. — At 4 miles E.S.E. of the south point of Chi-ma-tau
on the south sid^ of the sandy neck which forms a large bay, a small
stream disembogues, and on its banks by the sea shore is the village of
Lun-kau. Several junks were at anchor off the entrance, which is
approached from the S.W. by W. by a narrow channel through the banks
outside carrying 9 feet water, decreasing to 6 feet at 2 cables off the
river entrance. On the north shore of the bay, the banks off the isthmus
dry out from 1 to 1^ miles, and a somewhat less distance to the south of
the river.

SAJr-BAir BADD&zs. — ^Three hills (or more correctly San-shan), 195
feet high, is a double-topped hill, but a sharp-topped shoulder on the east
gives it the appearance of three hills. It rises at a projecting point of
the sandy plain, 20^ miles S.W. J S. of Chi-ma-tau, the coast between
forming a large open bay. Its north point is a cliff, which tapers away

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608 OVLF or PB-CHILL [cHAP.x.

to the 8outh*wedt for a mile, to a rocky point and island round which is
tho outlet of two small streams ; a village of considerable size stands here
at the base of tho hilL

Three miles south-westward of San-san a small, remarkable hill, 100
foct high, rises abruptly from the plain. To the southward, inland, are
several isoUted hills, the twin-topped hill nearest the sea (4^ miles),
being a conspicuous mark. The lofty range of mount Elias is 20 miles
southward of the Saddle, from the northern summit of which, elevated
2,190 feet, a long ridge runs N.N.W. 13 miles. Farther to the south is
a sharp peak 2,430 feet high, 15 miles from the coast and S. ^ E. 25 miles
from the Saddle. There are several lower ranges in front, all of which
are said to be covered with an impenetrable jungle.

Two points, with small reefs off them lie 3^ and 7^ miles respectively
E.N.E. of San-san ; on the former is a sand hiU and a shrine.

The soundings off the coast are even and gradual^ bottom sandy near the
shore. There is, however, a rock with 2 fieithoms on it, laid down on an old
chart, equidistant between Chi-ma-tau and San-san Saddle, about 5^ miles
off shore, in Ut. 3r 32^' N., long. 120° 4' E. A 15-feet flat also nms
from the shore of the small bay next east of the Saddle, its outer extreme
being N.E. } N. 2^ miles from the Saddle.

•«9PllM<— The large village at the base of the Saddle has a fishing
population. Its well built houses of stone show a marked contrast to
those of the miserable villages called pus* scattered along the sea coast
which borders the Great Plain to the westward.

r»T POIWT.— S.W. by W. J W. 5^ miles from the Saddle is a
sandy point beyond tho red temple Hai-miau, which latter is a conspicuous
object on the summit of a small hill, 100 feet high. This point is very
shelving, and dries out in spits and patches for 2 miles. There appeared
to be the entrance of a small river dose round the point, but at low water
it is only approachable from the southward in 7 to 8 feet. Junks were
seen at anchor off it. There is a small village there, north of a large
sand hill, and abreast them a dry sand bank, south of the entrance and
4 cables off shore.

TAU or Quoin island, bearing S.S.W. | W., 3 miles from
Sandy point, is 200 fee| high, and in shape resembles a gunner's quoin.
Jl small rock, that does not quite cover, lies 4 cables to the west of it.
There are only 7 feet water between Quoin and the shore to the south*
east. Quoin and the Saddle, and the small rocky hill south-west of the
Saddle, are the only conspicuous objects on this part of the coast.

* Pu means a sea shop. Thej are small clusters of huts on the sea' shore.

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Tlie &AZ-CBAV BAirx, a strip of hard sand, very shoal, and having
several dry patches, extends from Sandy point 8J miles to the north-west-
ward. It is nearly 4 miles broad at its base, and from 1 to Ij^ miles at
its outer part, very steep on its western side, and also at its northern
extremity, which branches into two points ; at other parts it is shelving.
Exceedingly dangerous from its great extent, it is rendered still more
so by the tide setting directly across it. The Saddle bearing S.E. by E.
leads in 7 to 8 fathoms close to the north-eastward of its north extreme :
and the high sharp peak of mount Eliaa open westward of Fnyung Quoin
S.S.E. i E. leads to the westward. The bight on the east of the bank
is called Tai-ping-wan, Great Peace bay ; the bottom is soft mud.

KAZ-CBAV BIOBT, about 45 miles across, is the southern head of the
gulf of Pe-chili. Its western part is extremely shallow, there being only
one fathom water at 5 miles from the low shore, which is not visible from
navigable water. To the eastward near Quoin, it is deeper, and 3^ fathoms
may be obtained south-west of that island, at 4 miles from the coast. Two
rivers, the Sin ho or New river, and the Tan ho or Bapid river, discharge
into the western part of the bight ; their position is not accurately known,
nor are they approachable except by the smallest craft at high water.
The departmental city Lai-chau fu, or Edible-plant city, a place of no
importance, and having a small coasting trade, is said to be in lat. 37^ 13'N.,
long. 119° 50' E., and to stand near the eastern point of the mouth of
the Kiai ho. There is a fort and high craggy cliffs a little to the eastward.
This city was neither visible with a glass from the summits of Quoin
island nor the Saddle, although its position was pointed out by the Chinese.
The Tigers head cliff, Hu-tau-yai, probably that mentioned above, is about
8 or 9 miles south of Quoin.

*^ Passing along the coast, the next point of communication with the
sea eastward of San-san is the mouth of the river Wei. Here no steamers
could possibly get nearer the coast than three or four miles, according to
the Admiralty chart of 1860, as the soundings at that distance from shore
show only one fathom. The river Wei itself is only navigable for northern
boats and all the cargo that goes by junks to Wei-hyen passes by the
small river Shai-Yui.

<< From all the most reliable information that can be gathered, no com-
munication by steamboat between Chifu and Wei-hyen is possible. The
city of Wei-hyen contains 150,000 inhabitants. It is a very considerable
dep6t for foreign trade, and certainly ranks next in importance to Tsi-nan-
fu the capital of Shantung."*

From Lai-chau to the Li-tsin ho or Yellow river, a distance of 60 miles,
the coast is extremely low and skirted, by sand-banks. H.M.S* I^ave

* Shanghai paper.

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piin^i^d along the «hore at about three miles' distance in a depth of 6 feet,
but nhips of 24 feet di-aught would not be able to approach within 10 or 20
iniU*s Houthward of that river.

TUm TMrTWWff^^ SO •» &i«Tanr HOf the present outlet of the TeQow
river, has its entrance in lat. 37° 52' N., long. 118° 35' E. The source
of Uio river is said to be in lat. 36° 20' N., long. 117° 40^ E. It rises on
the fclopes of the Tai-shan, one of the highest mountains in Chma, and
runs weutward 70 or 80 miles, then turns north-westward a few miles to
where is situated the town of Yu-shan, within five miles of the Grand
canal, where it makes a sharp bend to the north-east, in which general
direction it continues to the sea about 200 miles distant by the windings
of the river. Tsi-nan fu, the capital of Shantung, stands four miles south
of the river at about 135 miles from the sea and 75 from the canal, but
there is little known concerning it.

Ta-tsing ho signifies Great Pure (or clear) river. Its waters are now
laden with yellow mud or clay, caused by the irruption of the Yellow river
into its bed, and that torrent now fairly occupies its channel, having
established the Ta-tsing as its outlet since 1851.

The entrance* of the river is known to the junkmen as li-tsin kau ;
they also term the river Li-tsin ho, after a town of that name (Profitable
ferry) about 35 miles from the entrance. On the northern point of
entrance, round which the river takes a very acute bend, is the village of
Miau-shin-pu or Lau-ye-miau, consisting of a few mud hovels but the only

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