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* See Caution on passing the Pratas shoal, on page 2208, also remarks on m:
Hong Kong on page 31.

• f See Admiralty Chart :^China, from Hong Kong to gulf of Liautung, No. 1
scale, (2= 1'8 inches. Also, Formosa island and strait, No. 1,968 ; scale, d— 6*3 in
J Towards the close of the N.E. monsoon, and still later, it -would seem pref
to cross oyer towards Luzon rather than beat up to Breaker point against fresh
breezes, as the following remarks of Captain David W. Stephens, of the Britisl:
Harkaway, tend to show: — "Ships from Hong Kong, bound through the Bashee <
of the other channels between Formosa and Luzon, from, March to June inclosn
more particularly in March and April, during brisk north-east winds and a i



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CHAP. I.] PASSAGE EAST OF FOBMOSA. 87



south end of Formosa, and work up eastward of that island. By remain-
ing in wii^ the coast of China she will have the advantage of the land
wind at night, of smoother water, and the ebb tide out of the deep bays,
which will generally be under her lee on the starboard tack, and in the
event of its blowing too hard to make way, there are numerous convenient
anchors^es. It will be prudent to keep within ten miles of the coast,
to avoid being swept to the southward by the monsoon drift whOst
standing off the land ; but as this cannot be done at night without risk,
a vessel should, if possible, anchor in the evening, and weigh in the
middle watch, when the wind, generally coming more off the land, will
enable her to make a good board on the off-shore tack. By passing
eastward of Formosa, the heavy short sea of Formosk strait will be
avoided, as well as the constant set to the southward during this monsoon*

After rounding the south end of Formosa, off which there is generally
a troublesome sea, a vessel should make short tacks, if requisite, to keep
within ihe influence of the Kuro siwo or Japan stream (page 20), which
has sometimes _been found running northward at the rate of 30 or 40
miles per day.

This coast is not visited by the fall strength of the N.£. monsoon,
which probably results from the mountainous character of the country
preventing the breeze blowing home. - Sailing vessels^ however, expe-
riencing strong gales at 20 miles to the eastward, might feel cautious in
venturing inshore. Nor is there any necessity to run to leeward ; but
if they should experience the breeze declining in strength, with less sea
on Ihe western board, particularly between 9h. a.m. and 3h. p.m., or up
to sunset, they will find it advantageous to hug the coast as far as may
be deemed prudent ; but caution is requisite, for the coast is mountainous
and flteep-to, and sudden loss of wind accompanied by inconvenient swell
might be attended, if followed by calm, with imminent danger. Stronger
breezes with much rain are met as a -vessel advances eastward during the
N.E, monsoon. .

Others maintain that an off-shore course whilst passing Formosa is the
better, but also admit that it causes much injury to sails and rigging, on
account of the constant succession of bad weather, there being generally a
double-reefed topsail breeze, and a heavy sea to encounter.

westerly current, frequently take a week beating along shore to reach Breaker point
before standing off ; -whereas, if after clearing the Lema channel the vessels had stood
off on a wind, clean full to the south-east, they would soon have got out of the westerly
current, and on nearing Luzon would experience the wind more from the eastward
and sometimes from south-east, enabling them to tack to the N«N.E. with a strong
current in their favour, and thus would probably get to the eastward of Formosa in less
time than it would have taken to reach Breaker point by keeping along the coast of
Chma."



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88 MAKING PASSAGES. [chap.j

«

There are no harbours on the east coast of Formosa, except Sau-o ba
towards the north end of the island, and deep water will be found clog
to the land. The mountains rise almost immediately from the sea, thei
sides in some places being cultivated. H.M. brig Plover anchored o
an uneven bottom in Black Rock bay, the vessel swinging from 13 1
22 fathoms, and rode out a gale from the S.W. ; but it is by no means i
be recommended.

Having weathered the north end. of Formosa, it will be still advisab
to keep to the eastward, and not approach the continent until the parall
of lat. 30^^ N. is gained. Should, however, a vessel be driven to t]
westward, she may always calculate on smooth water, and be able
tide it through the southern part of the Chusan archipelago ; and
disabled and in want of spars she can remain at the southern fide
Duffield pass, and supply herself from the Fu-chow wood junks.



XOVO XOWO to BMAMOWLMkX in tbe «.a. Monsoon. — ^If bound frc
Hong Kong to Amoy, or the ports between that place and the ri^
Min, a vessel will generally find a difficulty in getting round Breal
point ;* for the tide here is of no use, and all there is to assist is t
likelihood that the wind will draw off the land after midnight, when,
being inshore, a good board can be made, and possibly the cape of Gc
Hope reached. Hai-mun bay cannot be recommended, but still it woi
be better to anchor there than to be carried round the point. In t
case, sl^ould West hill be obscured, if drawing less than 13 feet, run
under the point, lower a boat, and let her find the sanken rock (page \A
and then come in witli good way to windward of Parkyns rock, and sh
up round the boat into Fort bay.

Having reached the cape of Good Hope, the fiood will assist a vessa
round it, and the ebb out of the Han river will be a weather tide. In
latter case, and not intending to go inside Namoa island, endeavour to
along the south side of the island, where there is an eddy tide, and anc
in South bay, should the weather prove too bad to proceed on. the fa
Both tides will be found strong off Three Chimney point, and the same i
be gaid of Jokako point, round which vessels should take the first of
:fiood on the port tack.

Farther northward, about Bees island, the flood tide in strong vr\
causes an uneasy sea, which will distress a vessel much. Red and Ting
l)ays will be found good stopping places ; and the latter should be prefer
though at the loss of 2 or 3 miles, to anchoring in an exposed pos:

* Hee also commencement of last article and note thereon. It must be borne in
that when north of Formosa a good passage can only be made by keeping near the i



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OHAP.i.] HONG KONa TO SHANGHAI IN N.E. MONSOdN. 39

in the entrance to Amoy harbour ; as when the N.E. winds freshen oflT
Jiere on the flood, thej- generally bring a mist in with them, which makes
it difficult to find the entrance, and at the same time a vessel will have
trouble to get out of the harbour against the tide.

To the northward of Amoy are Leeo-lu and Hu-i-tan bays, both of
^vvhicli a£&>rd good shelter. Chimmo bay is not so good, but with plenty
of good ground tackle vessels may ride in it. The current in the
monsoon overcomes the tide here ; ^d advantage must be taken of
every slant of wind, bearing in mind that it is likely to draw off the
land in the middle watch, and in th^ event of anchoring for shelter this
is the time to start, should the wind moderate ; by waiting for daylight
vessels lose their offing, and will have to make an off-shore board at a
loss. The fogs are at times thick, but the lead is not a bad guide,
its the soundings generally change from sand to mud as the shore is
approached. There is also fair anchorage under Pyramid point, but not
80 good as that under the South Yit ; and if the vessel is looking up
north or anything east of it, the ebb out of Meichen sound will be of
^assistance.

From the Lam-yit islands or the south end of Hai-tan strait to the
White Dog islands is beyond doubt the most difficult part of the passage.
For steamers Hai-tan strait affords the best route ; but sailing vessels
should decidedly keep outside, and stretch over to the north-west coast
of Formosa (page 248), where they are likely to get a -slant of wind, and
the advantage of -a weather tide ; and as this portion of the coast has
been surveyed, with attention to the soundings no vessel can come to any
harm.

Xtver miB to Cbnsan Arobtpelaflro. — ^North of the river Min the
obb i6 generally a weather tide (unless the wind is far to the north), and
vessels will get a' good lift out of the rrver, and of Ting-hai and Sam-sah
bays. With the flood, the indraught into the latter will be sensibly felt as
far out as Larne islet, and increases to 2 and 3 knots as the main is closed.
As a general rule, tack for the inshore tide, when the moon is on the
meridian.

Tung-ying island will be found a snug anchorage, and here the coast
should be forsaken (unless the vessel is under 12 feet draught), and the
deep water to the eastward kept in. The tide will afford but little assistance
until the vessel arrives at the Chusan archipelago ; the flood causes an
uneasy sea in the shallow water, while the ebb has too much southing in it,
unless the wind is eastward of E.N.E. Nam-ki and Pih-ki-shan islands
wilt afford good shelter.

On reaching the Chusan archipelago, take the Beak Head channel unless
the tide is nearly done, in which case there is Harbour Rouse and the



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40 MAKING PASSAGES. [chjlp. i

Bonth side of Lnhwang island as anchorages under the lee ; and as thi
first of the ebb runs to the northward through the Foto channels, the tid*
through may be savedi and anchorage gained on the Ketau shore. FroD
hence^ if bound to Ting-hai harbour, contrive to arrive at the west en<
of Tower Hill island about slack water ; otherwise in light winds the vessc
is liable to be caiTied on to Just-in-the-Way, and even through the Black
wall channel.

In working through the north par^ of the Chusan archipelago, as the 8€
of the ebb and flood trends nearly east and west, advantage can always l
taken of the tide, and vessels may count on feeling the influence of the eb
within an hour of the moon's meridian passage. When in the vicinity (
Gutzlafi* island, the first of the flood takes a direction to the. southward (
West, running into Hang-chu bay.

The eddy tide, generally speaking, will carry vessels clear of the lar£
islands ; but when they site approaching detached rocks great attentio
is required to prevent being set in amongst them.



novo XOWO to pKAVfl«Al In tlie 8.1ir. Monsooii. — ^Whenthe S.Y
monsoon is established on the coast of China, there is no difficulty i
making this passage, but north of the Min it is often as late as May <
June before it sets in, and north-east winds may be said to prevail nb
months out of the twelve ; therefore as late as June and as early as Augi
the passage is liable to be found tedious, as the following examples will sha
In May 1859, during a nine days' passage, H.M.S. 2>av6 had the wind N.
five days (fresh and strong breezes with rain) ; East and S.E. two day
and only 30 hours from S. W., veering to the west, with very fair weath<
In the early part of June Commander J. Goodenough, R.N.,* on passa
fix>m Hong Kong to Chusan, experienced a N.E. gale which lasted fl
days. In August 1858, H.M.S. AcitBotiy occasionally towed by the Dt
gunboat, took 14 days to make the passage, having north-easterly win
for six days and south-westerly winds only five days. The S.W. bree:
did not reach the parallel of 27° N., bat the N.E. winds blew fresh as
south as 23° N. Inshore the winds were generally light and the
smooth, but on standing far out from the coast strong N.E; winds w
considerable sea were frequently met, the high swell appearing to indie
a prevalence of those winds. In the offing also, contrary to gene
experience, the current was found usually setting to the S. W., and on •
occasion during a calm, 20 miles outside the Tae islands, its rate was i
3 knots. This current was found by observation to be a surface can
16 feet in depth. It is said that at this season the clippers and i

* H.M.S. Renard, 1860.



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CHAP. I.] SHANaHAI TO HONG KONG. 41

steamers always make the passage along the knd ; the former can then find
anchorage and take advantage of the tides.

In making this passive, therefore, it will be well to remember that
between the parallels of 25° and 30° N., north-easterly winds prevail
throughout the year, but alternate with cahnsy variables, and S.W. winds
during the summer months.

SBAVOBJkZ to Howo xowo In tiie wjk Bioaaooiu— After passing
the Saddles and Video it is recommended to steer a good off-shore course
passing outside the outer islands, giving them a good berth by nighty and
hauling in in the daytime to sight them if no astronomical observations
can be obtained, for a continuance of thick, hazy, or rainy weather may
always be expected, which renders it expedient to identify the land aa
often as possible. The passage is reckoned to take from 3 to 5 days*

UKAVOHJkZ to HOWO XOWO In tbe S.'W. Blonaoon. — ^There wiU not
be the same dif&culty in getting to the southward agunst the southerly
monsoon as there is in going to the northward against the other, as it is
not so peimanent in its direction, and land and sea breezes prevail ; the
current has generally been found running strong to the northward in
Formosa strait, but vessels are not liable to the same detention which they
often experience in the northerly monsoon. Care, however, must be taken
not to overshoot the port when fogs prevail, as they do in the early part of
the season, rendering the navigation at times as harassing as in the N.E.
monsoon ; they, however, generally lift in the vicinity of the land, and a
ship's length from where the bowsprit can hardly be seen will carry her
into sunshine.

Captain Sir Frederick Nicolson, R.N., C.B., H.M.S. Pique, 1858, ob-
serves : — " The chief difficulty to overcome in making the passage between
the gulf of Pe-chUi and Hong Kong during the southerly monsoon is the
strong easterly or north-easterly current. After passing the parallel of the
Yang-tse kiang it will be advisable to keep near the China coast ; for
although a vessel may lie up South or S. by E. on the starboard tack, it
should be remembered that she is making little better than a »S.E. course
in consequence of the easterly set. A stretch to the north-westward,
though apparently a loss of ground, will ultimately prove useful.*^

H.M.S. Pique, in making this passage in July and August, was not
favoured when close inshore by any land and sea breezes, nor had the least
slant, but generally lost the wind. A weather tide was occasionally felt
when near the shore in the Formosa channeL* See also directions, p. 129.

*Now called Pescadores channel. In the old charts and sailing directions, the
channel next Formosa was called the Formosa channel, and that between China and the
Pescadores, Pescadores channel, now changed to Formosa sttait.



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42 MAKIKG PASSAGES. [chip.

Although the conftant adverse current makes this a tedious passag
against the monsoon, there is nothing to prevent a vessel of moderat
sailing qualities making the passage at this season. The Pique ha
seldom more than single-reefed topsails, and the sea was generall
smooth ; she made the passage from the gulf of Pe-chili to Hong Eong i
31 days.

VAsaMWS MMWi roxiiOSA STmAix. — If bound across Formoi
strait from Amoy or Fuchau to the ports of Formosa, T^au, Tamsui, ai
Eelung, or making the return voyage, sailing vessels will find considerab
difficulty in making the passage at all times of the year; and the greate
care will be requisite even in steam vessels, for the course is direct
across strong variable and sometimes opposite currents. The greatc
difficulty will be experienced at the change of the monsoon, when it is ]
uncommon thing for a vessel to be set 30 or 40 miles northward or sout
ward * during the night, and sometimes, though a less distance, to win
ward against a strong breeze ; and should calms or alternating wii
occur, as is frequent at the same season in the neighbourhood of i
Pescadores, a vessel will be in sotne danger of being drifted amongst the
When, however, the monsoon has fairly set in, an allowance of two kn
an hour to leeward may be made, which will enable the navigator to k<
a pretty accurate reckoning. But this rule would rather apply to
southern and western parts of the strait ; for on the west coast of- Form
the tidal streams are generally regular, at least at springs, and north-ei
ward of the Pescadores the influence of the Japan stream is aln
constant {see pages 20 and 248). It must also be borne in mind that nc
of Formosa strait N.E. winds prevail during the greater part of the y
and the accompanying drift current is liable to be met with even duj
the summer months.

Xn the W.B. Monaoon. — If boundf from Amoy to Takau a coi
should be steered for the Rover channel, making an allowance of
knots an hour for current and leeway. In the Rover channel conoiparati
smooth water will be found. If the same current be experienced on
eastern side of the Pescadores, a good luff must be kept until
Zealandia be made, or Ape hill, which is visible upwards of 30 mile
clear weather, when the coafit may be run down in smooth water,
thick weather the lead will give good warning.

If bound from Takau to Amoy, work up the Formosa coast so as
able to stand through the Rover channel, hugging the shore on its i

* The directions for making these passages are chiefly from the Remark Bo
Nav. Sub-Lieut. B. W. Middleton, B.N., H.M.S. Cockchafer, 1869.
t Ibid.



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CHAP.iO FASSAaES AOBOSS FOBJCOSA STEAIT. 43

side, from wliich a moderatelj good sailing vessel will be able to fetch
Amoy easily.

zn tue 8^'W. Monsoon. — If bound from Amoy to Takau, it is strongly
recommended to make ail the southing on the China coast by beating down
30 nules as far as Knob rock, or farther if the wind be light, which may
easily be accomplished by a vessel of not very heavy draught tiding it close
inshore. Then, standing off with a good luff will insure fetching Takau,
and as the sea in the strait will be tolerably smooth, no damage need be
apprehended from the heavy swell on the Formosa banks.

Vessels which on clearing the harbour have headed up S. by E. and
S.S.E.^ and stood across at once, have only succeeded in fetching the
Rover channel, after passing which it has taken from 10 to 14 days to
beat down to Takau against the strong current which sweeps up the
Formosa coast, at a short distance from the shore. Under such
circumstances it will be better to keep as close in as possible, so as to
take advantage of the tides.

If bound from Takau to Amoy, and the wind be light, a course about
W, by N. should be steered until clear of the Pescadores, as calms
are very prevalent about that group, and a ship is liable to be drifted
amongst the islands and endangered, or otherwise compelled to anchor
in deep water, for eastward of the group the northern stream, accelerated
hy the Japan stream, runs sometimes at the rate of 4 knots an hour.



. ITAVOTSS XZJLVO to WJLaABAXX. — Steam vessels, or sailing vessels
having a fair wind, should steer, from the entrance of the Yangtse, a
<iourse to pass between the Meac sima (or Ass's Ears) and Pallas rock.
The direct course from the Amherst rocks to Nagasaki is E. by N. easterly
390 miles, which leads midway between Pallas rocks and the Goto islands,
but it is not considered a prudent course to steer, on account of the vessel
having to pass across the branch of the Japan stream which sets through
Korea strait, from which cause vessels have been carried over to, and even
to the northward of, the south end of the Goto islands. During the season
of the S.W. monsoon this current has generally been observed between the
meridians o£ 125° and 127° E., and has sometimes extended to 129° E.,
but its velocity has never been recorded as exceeding one knot per hour
and sometimes, especially in the winter season, it has not been observed
at all.*

There is no difficulty in making this passage, except when baffling winds
and thick, rwny, and squally weather are met in the vicinity of the Meac

* See also page 21, and China Sea Directory, vol. iv., pp. 27 and 30.



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M MBTBOEOLOGY— NAVIGATION. [ohap.l

ftim^ the Pallas rock, or the Goto islands, or when the two former hare to
be passed on dark nights. When, therefore, the vessel's position is
nnoertain, and the nights are not tolerably fine, it will be better to pass these
islands or endeayour to make them in the daytime. '

Should the wind be to the eastward of North, when leaving the Tangtse,
as is frequently the case in the season of the N.E. monsoon, it is advisable
to make northing at once, for which purpose advantage may be taken of the
tides (page 352). As the ship advances northward, the wind will usually
draw round in that direction towai*ds N.W., which is the prevailing
quarter of the wind in the Yellow sea ; allowance must also be made for
the south-easterly set from the Yellow sea and Korea strait.

During the periodic easterly and south-easterly winds which prevail
from March to June, every opportunity must be made to make easting or
southing, even when a fair wind occurs, for it is sure to be of short
duration, and the tendency of the prevailing wind being to keep a vessel
on the starboard tack, there is always a probability, especially in May and
June, when the current will be running north-eastward, of being saddled
over towards the Korean archipelago.

EASTERN ROUTES TO CHINA.*

During the N.E. or adverse moasoon, sailing vessels bound to China,
instead of proceeding by the Palawan passage, sometimes take one of the
eastern routes through the Moluccas, the Philipines, or the Pacific ocean,
thus saving much wear and tear. There are two main routes. The fir%t
ecLstern route is through Macassar strait and the Celebes and Sulu seas
into the China sea, with an alternative route into the Pacific, south of
Mindanao, instead of the Sulu sea. The second eastern route is east of
Celebes, and by Pitt's passage and either Dampier or Gillolo strait into the
Pacific.

These routes are generally therefore adopted by vessels which reach the
meridian of St. Paul island, in the Indian ocean, between the middle of
September and the beginning of December.

It may be here mentioned that the N.E. monsoon of the China sea,
which prevails from October to March, corresponds with the N.W. or
Westerly monsoon eastward and north-eastward of Java, and with a
Northerly monsoon in the Molucca passages. Also, that the S.W. mon-
soon of the China sea corresponds with a S.E. or East monsoon in the
former regions, and with a Southerly monsoon in the latter.f Further

* From Becher's Sailing Directions, pages 187 to 199. There is another passage to
China, called the great eastern routes which, though rarely used, is described at the close
of this section, page 50.

t See Wind charts of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceanf. 1872.



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CHAP. I.] EASTERN EOUTES TO CHINA. 45

particniars of the winds of the eastern passages are given in the Appendix^
page 564.

OCTOBBS, WOVBBIBBB^ — ^nnt BMteni Bonte« — ^These are the two
most feiYonrable months in which to pass the strait of Macassar quickly*
In the other months it is more adyantageous to take Pitt's passage,
especially from December to February.

On arriving at the eastern straits in the hitter part of January or
February that of Lombok * is generally taken, crossing the chaxmel east of
Pandita island, and. afterwards keeping the eastern side of the strait. The
channel west of the island may be taken, but it is very narrow. From
this ships pass to the eastward of Hastings island and little Pulo Laut, and
the coast of Borneo, into Macassar strait.

From Alias strait a course should be steered to pass eastward of
Hastings island, as if coming from Lombok. From Sapie strait, if in
September and October, a ship would, according to the prevailing winds,
pass east or west of the Postillions, and proceed to the north between
Tana Keke and the Tonyn islands ; then pass at a good distance the isles
and banks o£ Spermonde, which are north-west of Macassar bay ; and enter
the strait, keeping on the Celebes coast whilst passing through.

Should Baly strait be chosen, ships after leaving it must steer to the
northward and pass through Sapoedie strait east of Madura; then stand
to the north-eastward at a good distance from the islands and banks of